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Richard Green Parker.

Exercises in rhetorical reading : with a series of introductory lessons, particularly designed to familiarize readers with the pauses and other marks in general use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of the voice online

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INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 117

far bourn of utmost Siituri], wheeling wide his round of thirty
years^ to Mercury, whose disk can scarce he caught hy philo-
sophic eye, lost in the near effulgence of thy blaze.

709. And thus, in silent icaiting, stood the piles of stone
and piles of wood ; TILL DEATH, who, in his vast affairs,
ne'er puts things off — as men in theirs — and thus, if J the
truth must tell, does his work finally and well, WINKED
at our hero as he passed, ** Your house is finished, sir, at
last; a narrower house — a house of clay — your palace
for another day."

710. The smoothness of flattery cannot now avail —
cannot SAVE us in this rugged and awficl crisis.

711. What PROFIT hath a man of all his labor, which
he taketh under the sun ?

712. IS there any thing whereof it may be said, ** See, this
is new ? " The thing which HAS been, it is that which shall
be, and that which IS done, is that which SHALL be done,
and there is no NEW thing ujider the sun.

713. THOU, glorious mirror, tvhere the Almighty's form
glasses itself in tempests, in ALL time, calm or convulsed, in
breeze, or gale, or storm, icing the pole, or in the torrid
clime dark heaving, BOUNDLESS, ENDLESS, and SUB-
LIME — the image of Eternity — the throne of the Invisi-
ble; even from out thy slime, the monstirs of the deep are
made; each zone obeys thee — thou goest forth, DREAD,
FATHOMLESS, ALONE.

714. CENTRE of light and energy! thy way is
through the unknown void ; thou hast thy throne, morning
and evening, and at noon of day, far in the blue, unteiided
and alone: Ere the first wakened airs of earth had blown,
ON didst thou march, triumphant in thy light. Then didst
thou send thy glance, tchich still hathfiown wide through the
never-ending worlds of night ; and yet thy full orb burns with
flash unquenched and bright.

715. In thee, FIRST LIGHT, the bounding ocean smiles,
when the quick winds uprear it in a swell, that rolls in glit-
tering green around the isles, where ever-springing fruits and
blossoms dicell.

716. THINE are the MOUNTAINS, — i^^/urc they
purely lift snows that have never wasted, in a sky tchich
hath no stain ; below the storm may drift its darkness, and
the thunder-gust roar by; — ALOFT, in thy eternal smile,
they lie, DAZZLING, but COLD; — thy farewell glance



118 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

looks there, and when below thy hues of beauty die, girt
round them as a rosi/ belt, they bear into the high, dark
vauh, a brow that still is fair.

717. May THE LIKE SERENITY, in such dreadful
circumstances, and a DEATH EaUALLY GLORIOUS,
be the lot of all whom TYRANNY, of whatever denomina-
tion or description, SHALL, in any age, or in any country,
CALL to expiate their virtues on the scaffold.

718. Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all
sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a MOMENT, in the
TWIxNKLING of an EYE, AT the LAST TRUMP; /or
the trumpet shall sound, and the dead be raised incorruptible,
and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on
INCORRUPTION, and this mortal must put on immortality.
So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and
this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be
brought to pass the saying that is written, DEATH is

SWALLOWED UP IN VICTORY.

719. O WINTER ! ruler of the inverted year !
thy scattered hair with sleet-like ashes jiiled, thy breath
congealed upon thy lips, thy cheeks fringed with a beard
made white with other snoios than those of age, thy forehead
wrapped in clouds, a leafless branch thy sceptre, and thy throne
a sliding car, indebted to no wheels, but urged by storms
along its slippery way, I LOVE THEE, all UNLOVELY
as thou seem'st, and DREADED as thou ART.

720. Lo 1 the unlettered hind, ivho never knew to raise
his mind excursive to the heights of abstract contemplation,
as he sits on the green hillock by the hedge-row side, what
time the insect swarms are murmuring, and marks, in silent
thought, the broken clouds, that fringe with loveliest hues
the evening sky, feels in his soul the hand of nature rouse
the thrill of gratitude to him who formed the goodly
prospect ; he beholds the god throned in the west ; and
his reposing ear hears sounds angelic in the fitful breeze, that
floats through neighboring copse or fairy brake, or lingers,
playful, on the haunted stream.

721. They shall hear of my vengeance, that would
scorn to listen to the story of my wrongs. The miserable
Highland drover, bankrupt, barefooted, stripped of all,
dishonored, and hunted down, because the avarice of others
grasped at more than that poor all could pay, shall burst on
them in an awful change.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 119

LESSON XXXV.

MEASURE OF SPEECH.*



In Lesson 10th, pacre IGtli, the pupil was informed that a pause is
Boiuetimes made in reading, where there is no pause in the book. The
pause to which allusion is there made, is rendered necessary to allow
the reader to take breath. This lesson is designed to explain to the
pupil another sort of pause, or rather interruption of the voice, caused
by the peculiar operation of the organs of speech.

Dr. Rush, in his work "On the Human Voice," has remarked, with
regard to the manner in which children learn to read, that " the close
attention whicli their ignorance requires, and their slowness of utter-
ance, lead them to lay an equal stress upon every syllable, or at least
upon every word. This habit continues a long time after the eye has
acquired a facility in following up discourse, and in some cases infects
pronunciation throughout subsequent life."

The object of this lesson, which is entitled " Measure of Speech,'' is
twofold : 1st. To teach the pupil so to manage his voice, in conformity
with the natural operation of the organs of speech, as to break up the
monotonous, or "eywaZ" manner of reading above mentioned, and to
introduce such an agreeable variety, as will cause peculiar melody of
utterance ; and, 2dly. To enable him to read in such a manner that he
will not be " out of breathy" and consequently to exercise his voice
witliout fatigue.

A Measure of Speech consists of an accented and an
unaccented portion of sound, produced by one effort of the
voice.

In pronouncing an accented syllable, the voice makes an effort,
which must be repeated, if the next syllable is also an accented syl-
lable. But if the next syllable or syllables be unaccented, the voice
can pronounce them all with a single effort. Thus the words spirt,
spirit^ spiritual, or spirituallij, may each be pronounced with a single
effort or pulsation of the voice.



* The teacher who would thoroughly understand the subject treated iu this
lesson, and who aims at excellence in the art of reading, is referred to the
very valuable and scientific work of Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia, entitled the
" Philosophy of the Human Voice," or to Dr. Barber's Grammar of Elocution,
a work founded on the principles advanced by Dr. Rush. Dr. Barber, whose
opinion on the subject has great weight, says, " In Dr. Rush's work, the reader
may repair to a fountain at once deep and full." In another place, Dr. Barber
assures " every public speaker, and every philosophical actor, that he will fail
in his duty to himself, if lie neglects a diligent perusal of Dr. Rush's Philosophy
of the Voice." The same may also be said iu relation to Dr. Barber's own
work. From the works of both these gendemen, the author has derived as-
sistance in the preparation of these Exercises.



120 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

It may here be remarked, that it is not material whether the syl-
lables belong to the same word. The voice may utter, with a single
effort, several syllables, even when they constitute different words.
Thus each of the following lines may be pronounced by a single effort
or pulsation of the voice : —

Came to the —
When he was in —
'Twas at the —
Does to the —
Oft did the —
Utterable, &c.

But when two accented syllables follow one another, there must be a
distinct effort or pulsation of the voice to pronounce each. Thus the
words fate^ katc, both being accented, require a distinct effort or pulsa-
tion of the voice for the pronunciation of each ; and a pause must be
made between each, long enough to pronounce an unaccented syllable.
It will thus be seen, that the two syllables fatal, or hating, can be pro-
nounced by the same effort that is required to pronounce the syllables
fate and hate. And here it may be remarked that, while an accented
syllable requires a distinct effort or pulsation of the voice in pro-
nouncing it, an unaccented syllable is uttered without such effort.
This distinction of the voice, in pronouncing accented and unaccented
syllables, is called by Dr. Barber, in his Grammar of Elocution, the
pulsative and the remiss action of the voice.

An accented syllable^ therefore, is uttered by the pulsative *
action of the voice.

An unaccented syllable is uttered by the remiss * action of
the voice.

A perfect measure of speech consists of one syllabic, or any
number of syllables, (not exceeding five,) uttered during one
pulsation and remission of the voice.

It may here be remarked, that a single syllable may constitute a
measure ; for if it be extended in so«nd, the first part of that sound
may be accented or heavy, and the latter unaccented or light. But a
short syllable will not constitute a measure.

More than one syllable cannot be uttered during the pulsative effort
of the voice ; while one, two, three, and even four, can be uttered
during the remiss action; as in the word spiritually, in which the
first syllable, spir, is pronounced by the pulsative, and the syllables
itually by the remiss action of the voice.



* As a proper understanding' of these terms is deemed essential to a clear
comprehension of the principle on which tliis lesson is founded, the teacher
who wishes a fuller development of the subject, is referred to Dr. Barber's
Grammar of Elocution — or to Dr. Rush's work, already mentioned, on the
Philosophy of the Human Voice, Section 4-9th, entitled "the Rhythmus of
Speech."



mTRODUCTOEY LESSONS.



121



An imperfect measure of speech consists of a single sylla-
ble on tcliich the acute accent is placed, — or of a syllable or
syllables which are unaccented.

In the following examples for reading, the lines are di-
vided into several parts, which are separated by a mark like
this I called a bar, and the parts divided by the bars are all

PERFECT or IMPERFECT MEASURES OF SPEECH.

The accented syllables, or those which require the pulsa-
tive effort of the voice, are noted by a star * under them,
and the unaccented syllables, or those which require the re-
miss action of the voice, have hyphens - under them.

The time occupied in reading each portion between the
bars must be equal, whether the bar includes a perfect or
imperfect measure of speech. A bar may contain an imper-
fect measure; the accented or the unaccented portions of the
measure being omitted. In that case, a mark like this ^^ is
inserted, to indicate a rest or stop long enough to pronounce
the portion which is omitted.*

[In reading the follotoing passages, the pupil will recollect
that all the syllables which have a star under them are ac'
ccnted — that all which have the hyphen under them are
unaccented — and that all the marks like this ^ indicate that
a pause is to be made long enough to pronounce an unaccented
syllable'^

722.



^ In the



second



century



era

_



^ the



empire of I Rome



^ of the



compre-



Christian



hended the



fairest



part of the



earth-



^ and the



most ^



civil-



ized portion of man- kind.

» _ _ _



* Dr. Rush, in the very valuable work already mentioned, has ihe following
remarks in relation to the method of marking and dividing sentences here in-
troc'uced : —

" This notation will not, intleed, inform us what syllables are to be emphatic,
nor where the pauses are to be placed ; but it will «'nable a master, who knows
how to order all these things in speech, to furnish that which most men require
for every thinsf ihey do — a copy. If a boy is taught bv this method, he ac-
quires the habit of alteniion to the subjects of acceoluatloa and pause, which
may be readily applied in ordinary discourse."



122



mTRODUCTORY LESSONS.





723.






Twas at the royal
* - - * _


feast ^


^ for


Persia

*



won.

* _



HOHENUNDEN.*















724.














^ On


Linden

*


7:^


when the

*


sun was low

* - * -




^ All

*


bloodless
* -


:}^


lay the un-

* - -


trodden

*


snow

*


T\


T And


dark as

*


winter
*


^ was the


flow
* -




^ Of


Iser

* _


rolling

* -


rapidly.


11


11




725.


^ But


Linden

* -


T\


saw an-

*


other


sight


When the

*


drum

*


bea

*


t ^at


dead of

*


light
* -




^ Com-


manding
*


fires of

*


death

* -


yo


light




^The


darkness ^ of her

* - * _ -


scenery.


1-


T\




726.


;^By


torch and

*


trumpet


T\


fast ar-

*


rayed

* -




Each
* -


horseman

*


drew his

*


1

battle

*


blade

*


11





* Although there are mcuiy poetical extracts in the preceding' parts of tliis
book, this is the first extract in which the lines are distingnished. All the pre-
ceding' extracts have been presented in sentences like prose, to prevent that
" sing smig " manner of reading into which children are apt to fall. It is
thought that the introductory remarks in this lesson are adapted to prepare
the pupil to read verse, without the danger of " favoring the poetry,'^ as tJiis
sing-song is sometimes called. The usual punctuation is omitted, in this lesson
as the system of notation adopted fully supplies its place.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.



123



^ And



furious



T\



every

# _ _



^ To I join the



dreadful



revelry.

*



charger



neighed

*



Then shook the hills

• - *

Then rushed the

^^ And

Far flashed | ^ the



teeds



louder than the

» _ - .



727.
^ with

Tto



thunder



battle

» _



riven

» .

driven



bolts of I heaven | ^^



red

» -



^ar-



tillery.
*



T\



T\



728.



^ And
^ On
"1 And



"^ Of Iser rolling rapidly. ^^ ^^



redder


yet

# _


:


those


fires shall

#


^i


ow




Linden's

-


hills of

*


blood-stained

*


snow
*


T\


darker

«


yet


:


shall


be the


flc


>w









T 'Tis
^ Can
T Where



morn ^^
pierce the

furious

«



729.

^ but



scarce



yon

# _



lurid

_



sun

*



war clouds

#



rolling



dun



T\



Frank



^ and



fiery



Hun



T\


Shout in their


sulphurous

*


canopy

* _ _




n


n


^ The


combat


1

deepens

#




*


1


On

*


Tye


brave

#


T W


ho


rush to


glo


ry -


1


-1

*


or


th


e




av


e


T


11



124

Wave



"T,



Munich

*



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

all thy



^ And I charge
- I #



with



all I ^ thy
* - * -



banners
chivalry



wave



^,



Few

* -



few shall



part



730.
where



many



MThe

*^, And

# -

^ Shall I be a



snow

» -

every

* - -



•^ shall be their I winding
* - _ _ * >



meet

* -

sheet

* -



turf I ^ be-
* - #



neath their ! feet



soldier's | sepulchre. I ^ I *tH



^



CATHARINA.



1

*


She


*


And


«


The


#


And





came ^ I '^, she is
* - » -



731.

gone

*



^ we have

* _



meet perhaps



sun of



that^



seems to have



never a-

* - -

moment

risen in

* -



gam

* -

^, is



set ^



vam. ^



met^













732.






Tl


Catha-


rina


^has


fled like a


dream




*


# _


*


» - -


* -


So


vanishes


pleasure


^. a- 1 las ^ i


^T^i




# -


* - -


*


-


*


- 1* - 1







But has

*


left^
*


*^, a re-
* - -


gret ^,


^and

* _


es-


teem

* .


^ That

* -


will no
* -


t so


sud

*


denly


P


ass. ^







INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

733.



125



;^in


yonder

«


grave


:)i


Druid

*


lies ^




^ Wh


eie


slowly


winds the


steal ing


wave


1



^ The



T To



years

#

deck

# _



best



^ its



sweets shall



duteous



^i;



rise T I

* - 1



Poet's



sylvan



grave.



[The pupil will observe that prose as well as poetry is
made up of similar measures of speech. The only differ-
ence in sound, between poetry and prose, is, that poetry or
verse consists of a regular succession of similar measures,
which produce a harmonious impression on the ear ; while
in prose, the different kinds of measure occur promiscuously,
without any regular succession. The following example
affords an instance of prose divided off into measures.]



And I be-

» _ _



ny



angels

# _



held

*

round a-



734.

^ and I



heard the



ma-

«



bout the



throne



beasts



^ and the



elders



T\



^ and the



voice of



^ and the
number of



^ was



them
sand
with a

was I slain "^



ten ^



thousand



times

m



^ and

loud

_



thousands of



thousands



ten ^



thou-
Saying



voice



11



Worthy is the



Lamb that

*



^ to re-



^ and



ceive

*



power

# _



"i and I riches

_ _



wisdom



T and



and I glory



strength



^ and



honor

* _



^ and



blessing.



126 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

[In the following extracts, the marks of the accented and
unaccented syllables are omitted, but the bars and rests are
retained. The usual punctuation is also restored.]

735.

PART OP THE NINTH CHAPTER OF ST. JOHN.

And as | Jesus | passed | by, ^ | "^ he | saw a | man which
was I blind from his [ birth. | ^"1 m | And his dis- | ci-
ples I asked him, | saying, | Master, | who did | sin, "^ |
"^ this I man | ^ or his | parents, | that he was | born "^ |
blind? I "n I IT I Jesus | answered, | Neither hath this j
man | sinned | nor his | parents : | ^^ | but that the |
works of I God | ^ should be | made ^ | manifest in | him.
TT I TT I ^ "™"^^ I ^^^^ *^^ I works of I him that | sent
me, I while it is | day : | ^^ | ^ the | night | cometh |
T when I no T I man I can ^ | work. "1 HT m H As |
long I T as I I am in the | world, ^ | I | am the | light |
T of the I world. I TT I TT I When he had | thus ^ |
spoken, | ^ he | spat on the | ground, ^ | "^ and | made |
clay I T of the | spittle, | and he a- | nointed the | eyes "^ |
T of the I blind | man | ^ with the | clay, ^ | "^ and | said
unto him, | Go, ^ \ wash in the | pool of | Siloam, | ^^ |
(which is, by in- | terpre- | tation, | Sent.) | "1^ | ^T |
T He I went his | way, | therefore, | ^ and | washed, |
T and I came | seeing. | Tl m |

T The I neighbors | therefore, | ^ and | they which be- |
fore had | seen him, | that he was | blind, | ^^ | said, ^^ |
Is not I this T I he that | sat and | begged? M'l ^ |
Some I said, ^ | This | is | he; ^ | others | said, ^ | He
is I like him : H^ ^ but | he | said, n I | am | he. [^^ |
TT I Therefore | said they unto him, | "^"^ | How | were
thine | eyes | opened ? | "^^ | ^^ | ^ He | answered and |
said, I T A I man | ^ that is | called | Jesus, | made | clay, |
^ and a- | nointed mine | eyes, | ^ and | said unto me, |
Go to the I pool of | Siloam, | ^ and | wash : ^ m |
T and I I went and | washed, | ^ and I re- ] ceived | sight. |



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS 127

^ m I Then | said they unto him, | ^^ | Where | is
he? H'-l n I He I said, T H | I know not. m m |

^ They | brought to the | Pharisees | him that a- 1 fore
time I ^ was I blind. ] ^^ | And it was the | Sabbath |
day ^ I ^ when | Jesus | made the | clay, | ^ and | opened
his I eyes. | ^^ | Then a- 1 gain the | Pharisees | also |
asked him | how he had re- | ceived his [ sight. | ^^ ]
^ He I said unto | them,* | ^ He | put ^ ( clay ^ | ^ upon
mine | eyes, | ^ and I | washed | and do | see. | ^^ | '^j^ |
Therefore said | some of the | Pharisees, | ^ This | man
is I not of I God, | "^ be- | cause | ^ he | keepeth not the |
Sabbath | day. | ^^ \ Others | said, ^ | How can a | man
that is a | sinner, | do such | miracles? | '^^ | And there
was I ^ a di- | vision a- | mong them. | ^^ MT | ^ ^^^^^y
say I unto the | blind | man a- | gain, ^ | "^^ | What |
sayest | thou of him? | that he hath | opened thine | eyes? |
^'-l n He said, T I He is a I prophet, m m |

736.

PSALM CXXXIX.

O I Lord, "^ I thou hast | searched me, | ^ and | known
™®- MT I ^T M Thou 1 knowest my | down | sitting |
^ and mine | up "^ | rising; | '^ thou | under- | standest
my I thoughts I T a- I far I off. ^ | ^T Ml | Thou |
compassest my | path, ^ | ^ and my | lying | down, "^ | and
art ac- | quainted with | all my | ways. | ^^ | For there is |
not a I word in my [ tongue, | ^ but | lo, ^ | O ^ | Lord, |
thou ^ I knowest it | alto- | gether. | ^^ | T1 | Thou hast
be- I set me I T be- I hind and be- | fore, ^ | ^ and | laid
thine | hand up- | on me. | ^"^ \ "^^ [ Such ^ | knowledge
is I too I wonderful for | me : | ^^ | it is | high, "^ | ^ I |
cannot at- | tain unto it. | 1^ | IT | Whither shall I |
go ^ I ^ from thy | spirit? | ^^ | ^ or | whither shall I |
Hee from thy | presence? | ^^ | ^^ | If I as- | cend ^ |

* See Number 695, page 115.



128 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

up into I heaven, | ^^ | thou art | there : | ^^ | if I |
make my | bed in | hell, [^ be- | hold, ^ | thou art | there. |
^T I ^T I If I I take the | wings of the | morning H and |
dwell in the | uttermost | parts of the | sea: | ^'^ \ Even |
there | ^ shall thy | hand "^ | lead me, | ^ and thy j
right ^ I hand shall | hold me. j^^ ^ | If I ] say, | Surely
the I darkness shall | cover me : | ^"^ | even the | night ^ |
^ shall be I light a- | bout me : | ^^ | Yea, | ^ the dark-
ness I hideth not from | thee ; | ^^ | but the | night | shineth
as the I day : | ^^ | ^ the | darkness | and the | light ^ |
T are | both a- | like H to | thee, m m |

737.

MARCO BOZZARIS.

[He fell in an attack upon the Turkish camp at Lapsi, the site of
ancient Platsea, August 20, 1823, and expired in tlie moment of
victory.]

^ At I midnight, | ^'^ | in his | guarded | tent, ^ |
T The I Turk | ^ was | dreaming | ^ of the | hoUr, |

^ When I Greece, | ^ her | knee in | suppliance | bent, ^ |
^ Should I tremble | ^ at his | power; |

^^ I ^ In I dreams, | ^ through | camp and | court, "^ |
^ he I bore ^ |

^ The I trophies | "^ of a | conqueror. |

In I dreams, | ^ his | song of | triumph | heard ; | ^"^ |

Then ^ \ wore his | monarch's | signet | ring, — | "^"^ |
Then ^ | press'd that | monarch's | throne, — 1 ^"1 | ^ a

I King; 1 m I
"^ As I wild his [ thoughts, "^ | ^ and | gay of | wing, '^ |
^ As 1 Eden's | garden | bird. ^ M^ Ml |

738.

^ At I midnight, | ^ in the | forest | shades, | ^"^ |
^ Boz- I zaris | ranged his | Suliote | band, | ^^ |

True I ^ as the | steel | ^ of their | tried | blades, |
Heroes | ^ in | heart and | hand; | "1^ | ^^ I



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 129

There had the | Persian's | thousands | stood, ^ |
There | ^ had the | glad ^ | earth ^ | drunk their | blood ^ |

"^ I On I old Pla- I taea's | day : |
^ And I now, ^ | "^ there | breathed that | haunted | air ^ |
The I sons | ^ of | sires who | conquered | there, "^ |
^ With I arm to | strike ^ | ^ and | soul to | dare, |

-] As I quick,-! I 11 Has I far as | they. 1 mm|

739.
^ An I hour passM | on— ^ ^ ^ the | Turk a- | woke :

mi

That T I bright ^ | dream | ^ was his | last; ^ m |
^ He I woke — ^ | ^ to | hear his | sentry's | shriek, |
^ " To I arms ! [ ^ they | come ! H the | Greek, "^ | ^ the

I Greek." ^ |
^ He I woke — to | die | ^ midst | flame and | smoke, "^ |
^ And I shout, and | groan, and | sabre stroke, ^ |
^^ I ^ And I death-shots | falling | thick and | fast ^ |
^ As I lightnings | ^ from the | mountain | cloud ; ^ | ^"^ |
"^ And I heard, ^ | ^ with | voice as | thunder | loud, ^ |

^ Boz- I zaris | cheer his | band ; |
^"^ I " Strike — 1 H till the | last | armed | foe ex- | pires,

1 m I

Strike | H | 1 ^^^^ y^""* I ^^^^^^ I 1 ^"^ y^"'' I ^^^^y T I

n I
Strike | ^ for the | green | graves of your | sires, | "^^ |

God— T I T and your | native | land ! " T MT m |

740.
They | fought, ^ \ ^ like | brave | men, ^ | long and | well

1 m I

^ They | piled that | ground | ^ with | Moslem | slain, ^ |
T They | conquered— | ^^ | but Boz- | zaris | fell, ^ |



Online LibraryRichard Green ParkerExercises in rhetorical reading : with a series of introductory lessons, particularly designed to familiarize readers with the pauses and other marks in general use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of the voice → online text (page 11 of 38)