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Richard Green Parker.

Exercises in rhetorical reading : with a series of introductory lessons, particularly designed to familiarize readers with the pauses and other marks in general use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of the voice online

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Online LibraryRichard Green ParkerExercises in rhetorical reading : with a series of introductory lessons, particularly designed to familiarize readers with the pauses and other marks in general use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of the voice → online text (page 9 of 38)
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der enslaves the world. But I am called a robber, because I
have only one small vessel ; and he is styled a conqueror,
because he commands great fleets and armies."



-fi INTRODUCTORy LESSONS.

LESSON XXVIII.

TRANSITION.

[It is important that the pupil practise a change or transi-
tion of the voice from loud and forcible utterance to a softer
and lower tone ; and from rapid to slow pronunciation. In
this lesson he is presented with a few examples in which
such a change of manner is required.]

591. \_Softly and slotcly.'] An hour passed on. The
Turk awoke. That bright dream was his last. [3Iore
loudly.'] He woke — to hear the sentry's shriek, [Very loud
and rapid.] " To arms ! they come ! the Greek ! the Greek ! "
[Slowly and softly.] He woke to die midst flame and smoke,
and shout and groan, and sabre stroke, and [Faster and
louder.] death shots falling thick and fast, as lightnings from
the mountain cloud ; [Still louder.] and heard, with voice
as trumpet loud, Bozzaris cheer his band ; [ Very loud, rap-
idly, and with much animation.] Strike — till the last armed
foe expires — Strike — for your altars and your fires — Strike —
for the green graves of your sires, God — and your native land.

[In a softer and sloioer manner.] They fought — like brave
men, long and well, — they piled that ground with Moslem
slain, — they conquered — [Very slowly, and in a mournful
manner.] but Bozzaris fell, bleeding at every vein.

592. [In a gentle manner and loio tone.] When, doffed
his casque, he felt free air, around 'gan * Marmion wildly
stare : — [Much louder, and in a wild and somewhat angry
manner.] "Where's Harry Blount? Fitz Eustace, where?
Linger ye here, ye hearts of hare? Redeem my pennon, —
charge again! Cry — 'Marmion to the rescue.' — [Very
slowly, and almost in a tohisper.] Vain! Last of my race,
on battle plain that shout shall ne'er be heard again ! [In-
creasing in loudness.] Yet my last thought is England's : —
[Louder, and with more earnestness.] fly — Fitz Eustace, to
Lord Surrey hie. [More rapidly.] Tunstall lies dead upon
the field ; his life-blood stains the spotless shield : Edmund
is down, — my life is reft, — the Admiral alone is left.

* A «ontraction for began. See Apostrophe, Lesson 20, page 64.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 97

[H^^A much earnestness of manner.'] Let Stanley charge
with spur of fire, with Chester charge and Lancashire, fuJi
upon Scotland's central host, [Slowly.] or victory and Eng-
land's lost. [Angrily.'] Must I bid twice? — hence, varlets !
fly ! Leave Marmion here alone — to die."

593. [Distinctly^ slowly, and in a moderate tone,] Yet
still Lord Marni ion's falcon flew with wavering flight, while
fiercer grew around the battle yell. [Loudly and quickly.]
*' A Home ! a Gordon ! " was the cry.

594. [Slowly and iG it h feeling.] Oh, what a fall was there,
my countrymen ! Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
[Loudly and loith emphasis.] while bloody treason flourished
over us.

595. [Softly and slowly.] Oh, now you weep ; and I per-
ceive you feel the dint of pity : — these are gracious drops.
Kind souls! [Quickly, louder, and with strong emphasis.]
What, weep you when you but behold our Cajsar's VES-
TURE wounded? [Very loudly and earnestly.] Look ye
here ! — here is HIMSELF — marred as you see by traitors.

596. [Very sloioly and sorroiofully .] Oh, I could play
the woman with mine eyes, and braggart with my tongue ! —
[With earnestness^ louder, and rapidly.] But, gentle heaven,
cut short all intermission ; front to front, bring thou this
fiend of Scotland and myself; [Still more forcibly , hut with
a lotoer tone.] within my sword's length set him ; if he
escape, heaven forgive him too.

597. [Proudly, and with a loud and angry manner.] But
here I stand and scoflf you; — here I fling hatred and defi-
ance in your face. [In a much milder manner, slowly, and in
derision.] Your consul's* merciful — For this — all thanks
[Very loud, and in a threatening manner. See Number
550.] He dares not touch a hair of Catiline.

598. [In a loio tone, very softly.] His words do take pos-
session of my bosom, — [Louder, and with earnestness.]
Read here, young Arthur. [ Very softly.] How now, fool-
ish rheum ! turning despiteous torture out the door ! I must
be brief, lest resolution drop out at my eyes in tender,
womanish tears. — [Louder, and as if striving to hide his
tears.] Can you not read it ? Is it not fair writ 1

* Tlie pupil will notice that there arc many abbreviations of this kind made
m this book in pieces which apf)car to be prose. All the sentences which are
poetical have been printed in the form of prose, to prevent the " siriff song"
maimer of reading. But it must be understood and recollected, that although
abb reinut ions arc allowable in poetry, they are not admitted in prose.

9



98 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

599. [Sloivli/, and in a very sad manner.'] Too fairly,
Hubert, for so foul effect. \ln an entreating manner.]
Must you with hot irons burn out both mine eyes?

^In a stern manner.] Young boy, I must.
In a very sorrowful and supplicating manner.] And
will you ?

[Sternly, and in an apparently determined manner.] And
I will.

600. [PFz7/i a very earnest, sorrowful, and entreating
manner.] Will you put out mine eyes? These eyes that
never did, nor never shall, so much as frown on you?

601. [In a rough manner, but still struggling to conceal
his pity.] I have sworn to do it ; and with hot irons must 1
burn them out.

602. [In a very pathetic manner.] If an angel should
have come to me, and told me, Hubert should put out mine
eyes, I would not have believed no tongue but Hubert's.*

603. [In a kind, relenting, and very feeling manner.]
Well — see to live; I will not touch thine eyes, for all the

treasure that thy uncle owes. [In a slow, solemn, and

decided manner.] Yet I am sworn, and I did purpose, boy,
with this same very iron to burn them out.

604. [In a joyful and grateful manner.] O, now you
look like Hubert! all this while you were disguised.

605. [In an animated manner.] The combat deepens —
[ Very loud, rapidly, and with much energy.] On, ye brave,
who rush to glory, or the grave! Wave, Munich, all thy
banners wave ; and charge with all thy chivalry.

606. [In a slow, solemn, and mournful manner.] Ah, few
shall part where many meet! The snow shall be their
winding-sheet, and every turf beneath their feet shall be a
soldier's sepulchre.

* This expression, " I ivould not have believed no tongiie but HuberVs" is a
g^rainmalical error, hardly sanctioned even by the great name of Shakspeare,
fiom whom it was taken. The poets frequently have CTeat liberties allowed
them under the name of poetic license ; and the nameof Sliakspeare " lienors this
corruption.'^ Were it known to a certainty that he was a classical scholar,
the expression above quoted might be pardoned as an idiotism, or imitation of
the Greek construction, in which, double negatives are frequently used to
strengthen the negation. — See Parker and Fox's G^rammar, Part IT. page
47, rio. 106, and Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, page 303,
§ 325, No. 6, edition of 1836. — Shakspeare and Cowper both use the expres-
sions, •' I had as lief not be," and " I had much rather be ; " thus joining the
auxiliary of the pluperfect tense with the present. — See Parker and Fox's
Grammar, Part II. page 54.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 99

LESSON XXIX.

ELLIPTICAL SENTENCES.

An Ellipsis * means an omission ; and when any thing is
omitted, or purposely left out, it is said that there is an ellip-
sis in the sentence, and the sentence is called an elliptical
sentence.

Elliptical sentences occur very frequently; and it is
necessary, in reading such sentences, to supply, in our
minds, all that is omitted, in order to give the proper tone,
accent, emphasis, and expression. Tlius in the following
questions, — ** What went ye out into the wilderness to see?
A reed shaken by the wind 1 " — there is an ellipsis or omis-
sion of the words " did you go out to see ; " and ichcn these
words are supplied, the questions will he, "What went ye
out into the wilderness to see? Did you go out to see a
reed shaken by the wind ?

Elliptical sentences must always he read in the same
manner, with the same emphasis, tone, accent, and expression,
that they would be if the ellipses were supplied.

In every elliptical sentence, a pause should he made at
every ellipsis long enough to pronounce, or rather to think
over, the words lohich are omitted.

In the following sentences, the ellipsis is supplifd in Italic
letters, in the form of a parenthesis. The pupil will first
read them as they stand, and then read them with the omis-
sion of those parts which are in Italic letters.

607. What sought they thus afar? (Did they seek)
Bright jewels of the mine? (Did they seek) The wealth
of seas? (or) the spoils of war? (No, they did not seek
either of these, but) They sought a faith's pure shrine.

608. What, then, would it be reasonable to expect from
the fimciful tribe, from the musicians and poets of such a
region ? ( Would it be reasonable to expect) Strains ex-
pressive of joy, tranquillity, or the softer passions ? No ;

* See Lesson 19, page 6-2.



100 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

their style must have been better suited to their circum-
stances.

609. Art thou the Thracian robber, of whose exploits I
have heard so much?

{No! I am not a Thracian robber ^ but) I am a Thra-
cian, and a soldier.

[Do you call yourself) A soldier? (J consider you as
nothing better than) a thief, a plunderer, an assassin !
{who is) the pest of the country.

610. No deep and deadly quarrel was between these
brothers, and neither of them could distinctly tell the cause
of this unnatural estrangement. Perhaps dim jealousies
of their father's favor (was the cause of this unnatural
estrangement — perhaps) selfish thoughts that will some-
times force themselves into poor men's hearts respect-
ing temporal expectations [loas the cause of this unnatural
estrangement — perhaps) unaccommodating manners on both
sides {we7'e the cause of this unnatural estrangement — per-
haps) taunting words that mean little when uttered, but
which rankle and fester in remembrance, or imagined op-
position of interests, that, duly considered, would have been
found one and the same, (we?'e the causes of this unnatural
estrangement) — these and many other causes, slight when
single, but strong when rising up together in one baneful
band, had gradually, but fatally infected their hearts, till at
last they who in youth had been seldom separate, and truly
attached, now met at market, and, miserable to say, {not
only at market, but even also) at church, with dark and
averted faces, like different clansmen during a feud.

611. What shall we call them? {Shall we call them)
Piles of crystal light? — {Shall we call them) A glorious
company of golden streams — {Shall we call them) Lamps
of celestial ether burning bright — {or) suns lighting sys-
tems with their joyous beams ? But thou to these art as the
noon to night.

612. Hail to your lordship ! I am glad to see you well.
{It is) Horatio {loho speaks to ??ie,) or I do forget myself

613. {It is) The same, my lord, and (J am) your poor
servant ever.

614. Sir, {you are) my good friend. Til change that
name with you.

615. Ah, whither now are fled those dreams of greatness?
{Whither now are fed) Those unsated hopes of happi-
ness ? ( Whither now are fed) Those busy, bustling days ^



INTRODUCTORY LESSoI^S^



101



{Whither now are Jled*) Those gay-spent, festive nights,
(and) those veering thoughts, lost between good and ill, that
shared thy life 1

616. Almighty! trembling like a timid child, I hear thy

awful voice {and when I hear it I nin) alarmed —

(and) afraid. I see the flashes of thy lightning wild, and in
the very grave would hide my head.

617. Sourceless and endless God! compared with thee,
life is a shadowy, {and not only a shadowy, but also a) mo-
mentary dream ; and {even) time, when viewed through thy
eternity, {is) less than the mote of morning's golden beam.

618. What excuse can the Englishman plead? {Will he
plead) the custom of duelling? An excuse, this {is) that in
these regions cannot avail.

The spirit that made him draw his sword in the combat
against his friend, is not the spirit of honor ; it is the spirit
of the furies, {it is the spirit) of Alecto herself {^who was
the chief of the furies.) To her he must go, for she has
long dwelt in his merciless bosom.

619. Curse these cowardly covenanters — what {shall we
do) if they tumble down upon our heads pieces of rock from
their hiding places? {Shall we) advance? Or {shall we)
retreat?

620. To save a bishop, may I name a dean? {May you
name) a dean, sir? No; his fortune is not made; you hurt
a man that's rising in the trade. If {I may) not {name) the
tradesman who set up to-day, much less {tnay I name) the
apprentice who to-morrow may {set up.)

621. And what are things eternal? Powers depart, {and
therefore they arc not things eternal,) possessions vanish,
{and therefore they are not things eternal,) and opinions
change, {and therefore they are not things eternal,) and pas-
sions hold a fluctuating seat, {and therefore they are not
things eternal;) but, by the storms of circumstance unshaken,
and subject neither to eclipse nor wane, duty exists — im-
mutably survives! What {is there) more that may not
perish?

622. So goes the world ; if {you arc) wealthy, you may

* The e!li|)<ils is supiplicd at each of these inquiries, to show that the falling
innpciion of the voice is roqnirod at each of the questions; [see Lesson iSth^
and it will he noliecd throii<rhoiit (his lesson that the ellipsis is supplied in
parentheses in many sentences where it may appear to be superfluous 5 hut
the author's design in so doing is to lead more directly to the proper intonation
of the voice. As a particular instance of this kind, see No. 615, 616,
and 618.

9#



U)2



INTR0BT7CTORY LESSONS.



call this {man your) friend, that {man your) brother; —
friends and brothers all {men loill be to you) {or you may call
all men your friends and brothers.)

623. I once saw a poor fellow {who was both) keen and
clever, witty and wise; — he paid a man a visit, and no one
noticed him, and no one ever gave him a welcome. {It is)
Strange, cried I ; whence is it {that this man is so much neg-
lected?) He walked on this side {of the room,) and then on
that {side of the room ; *) he tried to introduce a social chat ;
now here, now there, in vain he tried {to introduce a social
chat.) Some {persons, lohen he spoke to them) formally and
freezingly replied {to him;) and some {persons made him no
proper ansioer, but) said by their silence, {you would) better
stay at home {than come here, lohcrc you are not wanted.)

624. A rich man burst the door. {A man who was)
As CrcEsus rich. I'm sure he could not pride himself upon
his wit ; and as to wisdom, he had none of it. He had
what's better ; he had wealth. What a confusion {there was
when he entered the room!) All {who are in the room) stand
up erect — These t {persons in this part of the room) crowd
around to ask him of his health ; {and) these {persons in
another part of the room) arrange a sofa or a chair, and
these {persons) conduct him there. {Some said to him,)
Allow me, sir, the honor {of handing you a chair, or of
conducting you to it.) Then {they each made) a bow down
to the earth. Is't possible to show meet gratitude for such
kind condescension?!



* This example shows very cleajly how the proper intonation of the voice is
iiitimaied by supplying the elhpses, although the sense is sufficiently clear as
the sentence is expressed.

t It may here be observed, that a pause should be made in every elliptical
sentence long enough to pronounce, or rather to think over, the words which
are omitted. The extract above affords a cleaj illustration of this remark.
See the directions, at the beginning of this lesson.

X It may perhaps be thought that some ellipses are unnecessarily supplied
In the preceding sentences 5 but the practical teacher will readily allow that a
Correct analysis is indispensable to the correct reading of a sentence, and that
the facilities afforded to a child in \\\^ first attempts, cannot be too great. It
will be borne in mind that this book is designed for very young, as well as for
more advanced pupils.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS. 103

LESSON XXX.

ANTITHESIS.

The word Antithesis means opposition or contrast. In all
sentences in which an emphatic word occurs, there is an an-
tithesis expressed or understood ; and it is necessary to be able
to distinguish the words which form the antithesis, or which
are contrasted, in order to ascertain which word should be
emp/uisized. Thus, in the sentence given in the introduction
to the 23c? lesson — ^^ Shall you ride to-town to-day V^ —
if the answer be, " No, I shall walk,^^ there is an antithesis, or
contrast, in the words ride and walk, which shows that ride
is the emphatic word. Again, if the answer be, '* No, I shall
ride into the country," the antithesis is in the words town and
country, which shows that the word town is the emphatic
word. Once more, if the answer be, *' No, but I shall go
to-morrow," the antithesis is in the loords to-day and to-mor-
row, which shows that the word to-day is to be emphasized.

[It is thus seen, tliat it is necessary that the pupil should study out
the meaning of a sentence, and be able to form the antithesis upon
which the emphatic words depend, in order to read it correctly and
expressively. This exercise will often require a degree of judgment
and discrimination not to be expected in a child, until the assistance of
the teacher comes to his aid. Indeed, it is this very thing which con-
stitutes the whole art of reading, and which often renders it a subject
of deep study even to matured minds. It is, however, a subject of
such paran)ount importance, that it must not be overlooked or neg-
lected even in the lessons of very young pupils. The assistance af-
forded the pupil in this lesson, will lead his mind, it is thought, to a
correct understanding of the subject, and enable him to apply his
powers successfully to the analysis of other sentences, in which no
aid IS furnished for him.*]

* The great importance of a correct understanding' of this principle will be
seen in the following passages from holy writ, which are frequently read from
the sacred desk as follows : —

" As much as lieth in 3'ou, live peaceably with all MEN." Now, if the em-
phasis be thus placed on the word men, it would seem as if the apostle would
nnply that it is a duty to live peaceably with men only, but that with women
and "children we may live in a different manner. But by placing the emphasis
on the word cdl, the inconsistency is removed ; thus,

" As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with ALL men."

Again, in the fourth commandment, if tiie eni^hjuiis be put on the word day
ns many read it, thus, " Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath DAY,"
it would seem that tlie niglU might be differendy occupied. The commajid-



104 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

In this lesson the emphatic words lohich form the antithesis
are printed in capitals, and the member of the antithesis
which is understood is supplied in Italic letters between
crotchets. The pupil loill first read the loholc passage, and
then read it with the omission of the part in crotchets.

625. Mercury, Charon's boat is on the other side of the
water, [and as there will be time enough before he gets over to
THIS side) allow me, before it returns, to have some conver-
sation with the North American savage, whom you brought
hither at the same time that you conducted me to the shades.

626. Why judge you then so hardly of the dead?

(I judge so hardly of the dead, not for any thing that
he has done, but) For what he left undone.

627. This man of half a million [was not destitute of
them, but he) had all these public virtues that you praise.

628. The darts of anguish [may strike, but they) fix
not where the seat of suffering hath been thoroughly fortified
by acquiescence in the will supreme, [not only for a short
PERIOD, but) for time and for eternity.

629. Hereditary bondmen ! Know ye not, who would
be free [must not depend upon the assistance of others, but)
themselves must strike the blow? By their right arm,
[not by the right arm of others) the conquest must be
wrought.

630. Where'er we tread [it is not a common spot, but)
'tis haunted, holy ground.

631. Authors of modern date are {not so poor as they
formerly were, but they are) wealthy fellows. [It is not
for the benefit of his assistance) 'Tis but to snip his locks
they follow now the golden-haired Apollo.

ment undoubtedly should be read, '' Remember that thou keep holy the SAB-
BATH day.

The following' passaofe was read from the sacred desk by one of the most
correct readers of the day, in the hearing of the author of this volume, three
times, with a false emphasis on the word men ; thus,

'' O that MEN would therefore praise the Lord for his goodness, and de-
clare the wonders that he doeth for the children of men."

This reading' gives rise to the question whether women and children, and
even angels, &-c., should not praise the Lord for his goodness. The emphasis
undoubtedly should be placed on the word praise; thus, "O that men would
therefore PRAISE the Lord for his goodness, and declare the WONDERS
that he doeth for the children of men."

This principle of antithesis must be carefully studied by all "who aim at cor-
rect reading. The difference in style which characterizes the most eminent
speakers and readers is much affected by their peculiar understanding of the
meaning of an author, and of consequence the manner in which they men-
tally supply the ellipsis forming the antithesis.



INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.



105



632. Yet none but you by name the guilty lasn ; {others
lash them in a different manner.)

633. It is often said by inconsiderate men, that time {not
inclination) is wanted for the duties of religion.

634. My friends ! {do not be hasty, but) be cautious
how ye treat the subject upon which we meet.

635. Misses ! the tale that I relate {is not intended for
your DIVERSION alone^ but it) seems to carry this lesson :
Clioose not alone a proper mate, but proper time to marry.

636. As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all
MEN, {but not with all women.)

637. You did not read that last sentence correctly ; for
by emphasizing the word men, you made it appear as if the
apostle meant that you might quarrel with women and chil-
dren, {if you would live peaceably with men.) Now, his
meaning is, that you should live peaceably with all men,
{not icith your friends alone, but with all mankind.)

Therefore you should read it thus: As much as lieth in
you, live peaceably with ALL men.

[^Sometimes both the words which constitute the antithesis
arc expressed, as in the following sentence. '\

638. It is from untamed passions, not from wild beasts,
that the greatest evils arise to human society.

639. By wisdom, by art, by the united strength of a civil
community, men have been enabled to subdue {not only one
SINGLE lion, bear, or serpentybut) the whole race of lions,
bears, and serpents.



LESSON XXXI

ENUMERATION.



WJien a number of particulars are mentioned in a sentence^
it is called an Enumeration.

In many senttmces of this kind, it is proper to use the fall-
ing inflection of the voice at each of the subjects of the enu-
mcration, except the last but one, which should be read icith
the rising inflection. The following sentences are of this



106 INTRODUCTORY LESSONS.

kind. In order to assist the pupil, the aciite arid grave ac-
cents are used to designate the injiections of the voice, accord-
ing to the principles stated in Lesson 22, page 70.

640. But who the melodies of morn can tell 1 — The wild
brook babbling down the mountain's side ; the lowing herd ;
the sheepfold's simple bell ; the pipe of early shepherd, dim
descried in the lone valley ; echoing far and wide, the clam-
orous horn along the cliffs above ; the hollow murmur of
the ocean tide; the hum of bees; the linnet's lay of love;
and the full choir * that wakes the universal grove.

641. Oh, how canst thou renounce the boundless store of
charms that Nature to her votary yields ! The warbling
woodland, the resounding shore, the pomp of groves, the



Online LibraryRichard Green ParkerExercises in rhetorical reading : with a series of introductory lessons, particularly designed to familiarize readers with the pauses and other marks in general use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of the voice → online text (page 9 of 38)