Richard Henry Spencer.

Genealogical and memorial encyclopedia of the state of Maryland, a record of the achievements of her people in the making of a commonwealth and the founding of a nation; (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryRichard Henry SpencerGenealogical and memorial encyclopedia of the state of Maryland, a record of the achievements of her people in the making of a commonwealth and the founding of a nation; (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 25)
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A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making
of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation

Under the Editorial Supervision of


Corresponding Secretary of The Maryland Historical Society; Author of

"Carlyle Family" ; "Thomas Family of Talbot County,

Maryland, and Allied Families," etc., etc.





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* r '^R. LENOX AND


"C^ACH State should have, if possible, its own distinctive

Genealogical and Memorial Encyclopedia, which should
include the names of prominent citizens of the State, both liv-
ing and dead, embracing genealogical and biographical
sketches, not only of those well known in the church, at the
bar, and other professions, but also of those who have been
foremost in contributing to the commercial and industrial
progress and welfare of the State. It is with this view that
the Genealogical and Memorial Encyclopedia of Maryland
has been undertaken.

It is almost impossible not to have a laudable desire to
know something of the departed, and curiosity about our pro-
genitors seems quite natural. If they were honored in any
way above their fellows, it was because they were entitled to
some distinction for having led honorable and useful lives,
and had left their impress upon the history of their times.

There is inspiration in a rounded, well-spent life, there-
fore their lives are more interesting and instructive to us
because they had accomplished something in the drama of

An able writer has well said: "To gather up the Mem-
orials of those who have gone before us, to reconstruct their
living portraits from historical fragments so widely scattered,
is a work of time, of patience and unremitting toil; but, once
completed, the ancestral line, reaching down the vista of the
past, will stand out clearly before us, the images of our fathers
will tenderly live in our minds, and we shall reverently cherish
their memories, as will likewise the generations to come."
For as Edmund Burke emphatically exclaimed, "Those who
do not treasure up the memory of their ancestors do not de-
serve to be remembered by posterity." By a higher authority


we are commanded to honor our forefathers, that our days
may be long.

The cultivation of family history, therefore, is one of the
essentials to the welfare of society. The history of a State is
best told in a record of the lives of its people.

The genealogical and biographical sketches, it is hoped,
will prove of interest and value, not only to members of the
various families, but to the general reader as well. The aim
of the work has been to give the genealogies of the subjects,
so far as they could be obtained, their births, marriages and
deaths, and full and accurate information as to their lives,
from original sources or from the immediate family, whose
family name represented either direct descent from the early
settlers of Maryland, from Revolutionary ancestors, or marked
success through intelligent and honest labor for the benefit of
his State, whose influence and example are worthy of the
greatest emulation. The story of their lives might perish, if
not preserved by some method of research, as has been adopted
by the publishers of this work. No similar work of this scope,
concerning Maryland families, has ever been published. It
contains ancestral lines never before printed, and a faithful
chronicle of people who have made Maryland in part what
it is. It gives, in a lucid and dignified manner, all the im-
portant facts regarding the ancestry, personal careers and
matrimonial alliances of those who, in each succeeding genera-
tion, have been accorded leading positions in the social, pro-
fessional and business life of the State.

"Than Maryland, no other State or region offers so pe-
culiarly interesting a field for such research. Its sons, 'native
here and to the manner born,' and of splendid ancestry, have
attained distinction in every field of human endeavor."

The early settlers of the Province of Maryland brought
with them some of the best traits and traditions of those who


were accustomed to English country life, many of them being
of ancient lineage, scions of the Landed Gentry, and some
even of Knightly Families, and now, after a lapse of two
hundred and fifty years, not a few of the landed estates are in
the possession of the descendants of the original proprietors.

Much valuable information has been obtained from orig-
inal sources; and, in the case of recent lives, important aid
has been given by the friends and relatives of the subjects.

As portraiture is the demand of the times and contributes
so much to the interest of biography, it has been made a feature
of the work to have every sketch, as far as possible, embellished
with a portrait.

It has been the aim and desire of the Editor and Pub-
lishers to render the Encyclopedia a comprehensive and
authentic historical memorial.

Richard Henry Spencer.

Publisher's Note. This work is paged continuously through the
volumes, and the Index will be found at the close of Volume II.

The narratives contained herein have been submitted to the persons in
interest, for verification and revision.


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TyyiTH the passing of Charles Carroll Fulton, a life of
rare fullness and activity closed and journalism was
bereft of one of its most shining lights. His life began in
1816, but two years after the roar of British and American
cannon fired with deadly intent had ceased to echo across
the harbor of the city he grew to love so well, and the smoke
from those guns had barely cleared away, revealing the fact
that the "star spangled banner in triumph did wave." It
closed in 1883, his dying vision resting on a nation great and
prosperous, hardly yet done with recounting the glories of
the greatest of national or international expositions which
celebrated its one hundredth birthday, held in the city which
gave him birth. Those two cities, Philadelphia and Balti-
more, witnessed the beginning and the ending of the life and
illustrious career of one of the remarkable men of a remark-
able period in the nation's history, and of one of the com-
manding figures in American journalism, Charles Carroll
Fulton, a printer and newspaper man from boyhood, and
editor of the "Baltimore American," from 1853 until his
death in 1883.

And what a wonderful period in American history he
lived in, and aided to make glorious! His active life wit-
nessed Texas achieving independence from Mexican rule,
and he followed with anxious breath the fortunes of an elder
brother, George Washington Fulton, who fought with the
Texans. And he saw Texas after achieving that independence
voluntarily surrender it to enter the sisterhood of states and
merge her "Lone Star" with the galaxy of stars which form
the starry emblem. He saw the war with Mexico and the
great territorial expansion which followed it; the discovery
of gold in California, the invention of the telegraph and its


application to the gathering of news from all parts of the
world. He saw the death of the old Whig party and the
blasting of the ambitions of his chief, Henry Clay; the birth
of the Republican party and the rise of the great Lincoln,
whom he also followed. He saw the North and the South
locked for four years in deadly armed conflict, and he saw
them again united in bonds which shall never be broken ; and
in all these historical events he bore a part, not a passive,
but an active part. He saw his adopted city expand to com-
mercial greatness and in that, too, he bore his part. As news
editor of the "Baltimore Sun" (1842-1853) he won his first
enduring fame as journalist, and as half owner, then as sole
owner and editor of the "Baltimore American," he added to
the lustre of that name which shall never fade in journalism.

Yet, though he lived for so many years at the head of
a great journal and although his name was familiar to
hundreds of thousands, his circle of intimate and personal
friends was not large. His journalistic and domestic life
absorbed his time and his thoughts, he cared but little for
social or political honors, and thus was seen but little in
public. Yet in all parts of Maryland and the neighboring
States, lifelong readers of the "American" came to regard
him with almost affectionate reverence as a guide and a friend.
With tall, erect form, determined, pale, thoughtful counte-
nance, full, white beard and firm set brow betokening the
energy and force of his character, his was a figure that might
well arrest attention; yet comparatively few of those who
leaned upon his advice knew his person. But the glance
of his eye was very kindly and genial, his smile most win-
ning. All who came in contact with him respected him; all
who knew him loved him.

Mr. Fulton was of Scotch ancestry paternally, his
father, George Fulton, coming from the banks of the River


Tweed, to settle in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He obtained
a position in Bioren's book store, then a Philadelphia literary
center, but later he became a dry goods merchant. He
married Ann' Ware, of the well-known Ware family of the
State of Delaware, who was early orphaned. She became a
ward of the famous Benjamin Chew, whose Germantown resi-
dence figured so prominently during the battle fought Octo-
ber 4, 1777. She became a very warm friend of her guar-
dian's daughter, Harriet Chew, who, in 1779, married
Charles Carroll, "of Carrollton." When the third son of
George and Ann (Ware) Fulton was born, the mother, in
memory of her younger days, chose for her son the name of
the husband of her girlhood friend, thus the name, Charles
Carroll Fulton.

Both George and Ann (Ware) Fulton died in 1826,
leaving five sons: George Washington, William Ware,
Charles Carroll, Edington and Alexander, the eldest four-
teen and the youngest six years of age. The family fortunes
had gone awry during the last years of George Fulton's life,
and the sole inheritance of those boys was energy and brains.
Their early lives were closely bound together, all being taken
into the home of their nearest relative, their mother's sister,
Mrs. Eliza Freeman, who taught a private school. Under
her kindly care and tuition the boys acquired the good foun-
dation of an English education, but the time soon came when
they must go out into the world and build their own for-
tunes. The eldest, George Washington, went to Texas, then
a province of Mexico, took part with the Texans in achieving
their independence, later settling and becoming one of the
cattle barons of the State. He married a daughter of Henry
Smith, provisional governor of Texas in 1835, while the
struggle with Mexico was in progress.

The other four boys all chose the printer's trade and


became apprentices in the office of the "Philadelphia
Gazette," later the "North American." The "Gazette" was
then published by William Fry; the editor, Robert Walsh, a
Baltimorean by birth, one of the most prominent editors of
his day and a shining literary light. The "Gazette" offices
were located on Second street, below Chestnut, and there the
four brothers learned their trades, and although a hard school,
it was a good one, and they acquired complete knowledge
of the printing business from its very foundation. Their
lives flowed in this similar channel for several years, when
they separated, each going his own way.

Charles Carroll Fulton was born in Philadelphia, Penn-
sylvania, September 20, 18 16, died in the city of Baltimore,
Maryland, June 7, 1883. His parents died when he was ten
years of age, and from that age until nearing his majority,
his experiences were those of his brothers, as outlined in the
foregoing paragraphs. He absorbed all the printer's lore
the Fry offices in Philadelphia could afford him, then in 1836
started out on an independent career as an expert journeyman
printer. His first venture was in New York City, where,
for a few months, he was employed in a printing office. In
the same year, 1836, he came to Baltimore, was soon after-
ward married, and began working as a journeyman printer
in the offices of John Toy, then the leading printer of the
city. He continued with Mr. Toy for several years, care-
fully husbanding his resources and providing for the time
he was determined should come when he would own his own
printing establishment.

His next move was to the National Capital, where he
was employed on that famous newspaper of the period, "The
Washington Intelligencer," then the foremost journalistic
agency in the country for moulding and directing political
thought. The office of the paper was a headquarters for the


politicians of that era, the proprietors, Messrs. Gates and
Seaton, enjoying confidential relations with Clay, Webster,
Benton, Calhoun and other statesmen whose genius illum-
inated the struggle in Congress which was the forerunner
of the Civil War. In such an atmosphere Mr. Fulton could
not avoid the study of men and manners; it was favorable to
the cultivation of thought upon the serious issues then begin-'
ning to divide the nation, and amid such surroundings his
political views were developed and confirmed with regard
to the value of the Union, the sacrifices that should be made
to perpetuate it, the moral wrong and economic blunder
embraced in slavery and slave-labor. Inclined to the tenets
of the Whig party in his budding manhood, his convictions
were fixed in the midst of his Washington associations.

There then came to him the chance for independent pub-
lishing for which he had so long been waiting and preparing.
"The Advocate," a paper published at Georgetown, D. C,
was offered for sale, and the price being within the means at
his command he purchased it, and for five years was its
editor and proprietor, bringing it up to a respectable standing
and carrying its circulation into Washington and the adjacent
country. The National Capital being so near at hand, his
political connections remained unbroken, and in his columns
he was a sturdy champion of the Whig cause, being thor-
oughly imbued with the teachings of Henry Clay and having
the highest admiration for that eminent man. For five years
he edited and published the "Georgetown Advocate," devel-
oping with the years and really "finding himself." With the
consciousness of intellectual power, the heritage of his Scotch
father and American mother, and with the experiences that
convinced him journalism was his true sphere, came the con-
viction that he must seek a wider field of action. With that
conviction quickly came decision, the "Advocate" was sold
and Baltimore determined upon as his new location.


On arriving in Baltimore he sought employment in the
composing room of the "Baltimore Sun," a successful news-
paper founded in 1837 by Swan, Abell & Simmons, Mr.
Abell being in charge of the paper. Mr. Fulton was not long
allowed to remain in the composing room, however, his ex-
perience and demonstrated capacity for a higher department
causing Mr. Abell to press him into service as a reporter.
This was altogether to Mr. Fulton's liking, and although the
reporter's art or profession was then in its infancy, the "local
column" of the "Sun" soon took shape and substance. In
this, and as one of the earliest legitimate reporters, he found
congenial occupation, his ready pen, tireless energy in the
collection of news, and his perseverance marking him in the
eyes of his chief for further promotion. After further demon-
stration of his readiness to avail himself of opportunities to
embrace new features not hitherto considered within the scope
of a reporter's duty and his perfect adaptability to newspaper
work, Mr. Abell in 1842 promoted him to the desk of news
editor. He administrated the affairs of this responsible desk
for nearly eleven years, 1842- 1853, a period which in the
interest it possesses for the historian is surpassed by no decade
lying between the last war with Great Britain and the civil
conflict. Within this time occurred the war with Mexico
and the annexation of Texas, the invention of the electric
telegraph, the struggle for and against the extension of slavery
into the territories and new states, the decline of the Whig
party and the rise of the Republican party, the short-lived
predominence of the Know-Nothing party, the discovery of
gold in California, a comparatively vast extension of the rail-
road system, and improvement of steam transportation upon
the ocean and inland waters. There was also the Seminole
War in Florida, and the contest over the tariff, which was
settled in 1842 by the passage of a protective act. It was a


time when the nation was growing like a lusty young giant.

While the slavery question kept the political temper at
fever heat, a spirit of adventure was prompting the people
to enterprise. The newspapers kept pace with, or rather led
the popular movement. It was Mr. Fulton's duty to co-ope-
rate with his employers in maintaining for the "Sun" that
place in the front rank which it had already won. In 1838,
Mr. Abell had achieved some notable victories in procuring
news by employing horsemen to carry intelligence between
breaks in railway communication, and later the plan was
further elaborated. In this way the "Sun" was the first paper
in the country, outside of Washington, to print the messages
of Presidents Van Buren and Harrison on the days they were
delivered, and from this there came the famous "pony
express." Although the system was to some extent in use
prior to Mr. Fulton's administration of the "Sun," it re-
mained for him to have a part in its enlargement into that
comprehensiveness which made it forever memorable in the
chronicles of journalism. Mr. Fulton was one of the first
to recognize that the telegraph was to be the prime auxiliary
of the newspaper, and he helped to bring it into requisition
as frequently and to the full extent that circumstance would
permit. He suggested its use for bringing reports of the
proceedings of Congress, this first being done during the
session of 1844- 1845.

Henry J. Rogers, the able assistant of Professor Morse
and superintendent of the Baltimore office, had facilitated
the work by the invention of a cipher code, and with the
economy of time this secured, it was possible to obtain a
fair account of congressional debate and action. Mr. Fulton
was the interpreter of the cipher as it was received at the
Baltimore end of the wire and made up the reports for the
printers. On May 24, 1846, the message of President Polk


was transmitted to Baltimore and published in full the next
day. While continuing to hold the position of news editor
of the "Sun," Mr. Fulton gave part of his time and effort
to the organization of telegraph reporting, generally his plans
being so acceptable that he gradually enlisted into the organ-
ization all the leading papers of the cities reached by the
wires. The telegraph and newspaper offices became news
exchanges, and the next step, a natural consequence of what
had so far been accomplished, was that journalistic combina-
tion which, under the name of the Associated Press, has
reached every source of information in all continents and
subjected them to its ends. Mr. Fulton Was the first agent
of the Associated Press in Baltimore, handling its interests,
at the same time that he was Mr. Abell's chief sub-
odinate in the "Sun" office. But the double work became
too arduous for him, and he brought into the agency of the
Associated Press his youngest brother, Alexander Fulton.
This arrangement lasted until 1853, in which year he severed
his connection with the "Sun," and purchased an interest in
"The American," a step which to him was the consummation
of his most sanguine hopes.

The old firm of Dobbin, Murphy & Bose, which had
for half a century published the "Baltimore American," was
dissolved on the 30th of June, 1853, Mr. Dobbin purchasing
the interest of Mr. Murphy, and Mr. Fulton that of Mr.
Bose. For the following eleven years the "American" was
owned and published by Messrs. Dobbin and Fulton. With
the infusion of new blood in the management of the "Amer-
ican," a commendable spirit of enterprise was adopted in
the gathering of news from distant points, in giving a faith-
ful record of local events, and in bold and fearless editorials
during the most exciting times. The political agitation that
sought to sever the Union in 1861 did not cause the "Amer-


ican" to swerve from its love for the old flag. It circulated
among the commercial classes, who had the largest interests
at stake, and the most to lose by the disruption of the Union.
The public sentiment was at times opposed to its teaching,
and through the whole of the revolutionary period the "Amer-
ican" was able to give a calm, steadfast and effectual support
to the Union and the National government. Many of its
old friends dropped away and powerful interests were arrayed
against its editor, but the paper was too deeply rooted in
the great commercial heart of the Monumental City to be
seriously crippled. Charles Carroll Fulton was, in those
troublous times, the pilot who kept the "American" out of
the current of public opinion when it set too strongly toward
the breakers of disunion. Mr. Robert A. Dobbin died in
September, 1862, leaving his interests in the "American" to
his son, Joseph Dobbin, from whom Mr. Fulton purchased
it. By that time social order had resumed its sway in the
city, and the turbulent elements had been subdued. The
"American" had become a power in the State, and a widely-
read journal throughout the section that remained faithful to
the flag. It became the recognized leader of the loyal public
opinion of Maryland. Its "special correspondence" during
the war was extensivelv copied, and the signature of "C. C. F."
was a warranty that the writer gave expression to what he
knew, and described what he saw.

Mr. Fulton was with the Army of the Potomac during
two of its most important campaigns, and the readers of the
"American" got the benefit of his candor, his accurate habits
of observation, and his indomitable enterprise in gathering
news and dispatching his letter while the incidents were fresh,
so that they were frequently far in advance of all his com-
petitors. His dispatches very often distanced the official
reports of the War Department, and gave the first tidings


of vital events to the government. Mr. Fulton accompanied
the first iron-clad expedition against Fort Sumter and was on
board the United States steamer "Bibb" when the attack was
made. His controversy with the commander of the expedi-
tion and the Navy Department is part of the history of the
war. His opinions regarding the premature withdrawal of
the fleet were subsequently confirmed from southern sources.
Mr. Fulton, amid all the excitement of that period, was
remarkably successful in raising funds for the purpose of
sending supplies of every kind to the Union prisoners at
Richmond, who were reported to be starving and suffering
from the want of clothing and other necessaries. The fol-
lowing resolution passed by the Maryland House of Delegates
is evidence that his efforts were appreciated:

By the House of Delegates

Resolved, That the thanks of the House be, and are hereby-
tendered to Charles Carroll Fulton of the City of Baltimore for his exertions
for the relief of the soldiers of the Union now held by the so-called Con-
federate authorities; and especially for the aid afforded by him to the officers
and enlisted men of the regiments of this State in Libby Prison, and Belle
Isle, Richmond.

Thomas H. Kern,
Speaker of the House of Delegates.
Albert V. R. Cole,
Chief Clerk of the House of Delegates.

Mr. Fulton did not confine his efforts to alleviating the
miseries of the boys in blue in southern prisons, but in many
cases the sons of Baltimoreans, who had donned the gray, were

Online LibraryRichard Henry SpencerGenealogical and memorial encyclopedia of the state of Maryland, a record of the achievements of her people in the making of a commonwealth and the founding of a nation; (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 25)