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Grand Jury on such occasions being composed entirely,
or mainly, of magistrates. Quarter Sessions, on the other
hand, are held four times a year at Hertford for the
eastern, and at the Court House, St Albans, for the


western division of the county ; these courts being consti-
tuted by the magistrates for the county and the mayors
of the boroughs and city. Petty Sessions are held weekly,
fortnightly, or monthly at a number of the towns and larger
villages. In most cases the county magistrates in the
immediate neighbourhood preside at these sessions ; but
the city of St Albans and the two boroughs have magis-
trates of their own, who also hold petty sessions for trying
cases which occur within the area of their jurisdiction.

St Albans is the centre of an episcopal diocese, which
includes most of that portion of London situated within
the county of Essex. Arrangements are, however, now
in progress for relieving the Bishop of St Albans of the
care of that part of the diocese commonly known as
"London Over the Border."

The diocese, so far as Hertfordshire is concerned, is
divided into archdeaconries, rural deaneries, and parishes.
The latter are very numerous, although somewhat less
so than the civil parishes, for the purposes of which, as
already mentioned, the ecclesiastical parishes are frequently
split into an urban and a rural section. There are 170
ecclesiastical parishes situated wholly or partly within the
old county, of which 164 are included in the diocese
of St Albans ; while three belong to Ely, two to Oxford,
and part of one (Northwood) to London.

The larger towns, the city, and the two boroughs
have Education Committees of their own ; but for the
rest of the county a Committee of this nature is appointed
by the County Council.

Hertfordshire has four parliamentary divisions, namely,


Hertford, Hitchin, St Albans, and Watford, each of which
returns one member to the House of Commons. The
county is thus represented only by four members, as
against fifteen for Kent.

21. The Roll of Honour of the County.

Hertfordshire cannot hope to rival such counties as
Norfolk or Kent in its roll of distinguished names, but it
can show a fairly long list of persons connected with the
county who have been famous.

Since reference has already been made in several of
the foregoing sections to the visits of English sovereigns
to the county, or to their residence within its borders,
very brief mention of the connection between royalty
and the county will suffice in this place. Neither here
nor elsewhere in these pages is any attempt made to
give a complete list of such visits.

The names of Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, and of
Offa, king of Mercia, who had his palace at Offley, dying
there in 796, will always be specially connected with
Hertfordshire. In a somewhat less degree the same may
be said of William the Conqueror, to whom, as already
mentioned, the crown of this realm was offered at
Berkhampstead. Edward II and Edward III frequently
resided at Langley Palace, where Edmund de Langley,
the founder of the White Rose faction, was born in
1341 ; and the same residence was also used by Richard II.
Henry I and his consort Matilda were present at the


dedication of St Albans' Abbey on its completion by
Abbot Paul ; and Henry VI was at the first battle of
St Albans, where he was wounded. Henry VIII, as
mentioned on page 82, was still more intimately con-
nected with Hertfordshire, and the manor of Hitchin
was conferred by him in turn on Anne Boleyn and her
successors. Reference has already been made to the
residence of Queen Mary, in her youth, at Ashridge,
and of Queen Elizabeth (before her ascent to the throne)
both there and at Hatfield ; while, as sovereign, Elizabeth
also visited St Albans on two or three occasions as the
guest of Sir Nicholas Bacon at Gorhambury, and also
went to other great houses in the county. James I, as
mentioned on the same page, spent much time at Royston,
and died at Theobalds. The Rye House plot, so called
from the meeting-place of the conspirators at Broxbourne,
as stated in an earlier section, was devised for the purpose
of assassinating Charles II while on his way through the

In connection with personages of royal blood, mention
may be made of Humphry, Duke of Gloucester, whose
name is so intimately associated with St Albans' Abbey,
to the monastery of which he was admitted a member
in 1423 ; and also of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough,
who was born at Sandridge in the eighteenth century,
and built and endowed the almshouses bearing her name
in St Albans.

Among great statesmen connected with the county
a prominent place must be assigned to Queen Elizabeth's
councillors and favourites, Lord Burleigh and the Earl of



Essex. To her reign likewise belongs Sir Nicholas Bacon,
Keeper of the Great Seal, and owner of Gorhambury,
where he died in 1578. Nearly a century later (1652),
Gorhambury came into the possession of Sir Harbottle

The Salisbury Statue, Hatfield

Grimston, well known as Speaker of the House of

Passing on to the Victorian age, we have two great
statesmen, namely, Lord Melbourne and Lord Palmerston,
both of whom lived at Brocket, where the former died ;



and, subsequently, the late Marquis of Salisbury, owner
of stately Hatfield. The late Viscount Peel, sometime
Speaker of the House of Commons, was also a Hertfordshire
man, with his residence at Kimpton Hoo. Cecil Rhodes,

Cecil Rhodes's Birth-place, Bishop's Stortford

the South African premier and "Empire-builder," likewise
claims a place in the roll of honour of the county, having
been born at Bishop's Stortford rectory, and Commodore
Anson, the great circumnavigator, though not a native,
lived at Moor Park, where he died in 1762.

Dame Juliana Berners, imaginary prioress of Sopwell


nunnery, who was supposed to have written the immortal
Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle^ the first work on
angling ever published in England, has been shown to
be a myth. Among names famous in literature and
science the greatest connected with the county is
perhaps that of the great philosopher Sir Francis Bacon,
afterwards Lord Verulam and Viscount St Albans, who,

Ruins of Verulam House, the Residence
of Francis, Viscount St Albans

during his father's residence at Gorhambury, lived in
Verulam House, at the Pondyards. On the death of his
father Sir Nicholas Bacon he succeeded to Gorhambury.
By a curious error he is frequently called Lord Bacon,
although no such title was ever in existence. John
Bunyan claims a place among Hertfordshire literary
worthies as he was connected with a chapel at Hitchin.
L. H. 10



Two of the greatest literary names connected with
the county are those of William Cowper the poet, and
Charles Lamb, author of the Essays of Elia y unsurpassed
as a master ot delicately humorous prose, whether as
essayist or letter-writer. The former was born at

Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans

Berkhampstead rectory in the year 1731 ; but Lamb was
chiefly a visitor to the county, though, as he tells us in
the Essays, he was once a Hertfordshire landowner, and
his cottage at West Hill Green, about i\ miles from


Puckeridge, still exists. Mackery End Farm was the
residence of the Brutons, who were his relatives, and
it was to their house that his visits were made ; so that
the neighbourhood is essentially Lamb's country. It is
a question whether the Lyttons or the beauties of
Knebworth, their home, are the more famous. The
great novelist, author of The Last Days of Pompeii, The
Caxtons, and innumerable other tales, as well as such
successful plays as The Lady of Lyons and Money, was best
known to readers in the middle of the last century as
Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, though he began life as
Mr Bulwer and died Lord Lytton. His son, poet,
Ambassador, and Viceroy, who wrote under the name of
"Owen Meredith," was scarcely less distinguished, and
received an Earldom in 1880. Here, too, mention may
be made of Mrs Thrale, the friend of Dr Johnson, who
was often at Offley Place, where her husband, whose
family was long connected with St Albans, was born.
Offley Place was at this time a fine old Elizabethan
mansion, although it has since been rebuilt. Gadebridge
Park, Hemel Hempstead, was the residence of the great
surgeon Sir Astley Paston Cooper. But a greater distinc-
tion attaches to the name of Rothamsted, near Harpenden,
as being the residence of the late Sir John Bennet Lawes,
Bart., who, with his scientific colleague Sir Henry Gilbert,
conducted the experiments which made their names famous
throughout the agricultural world. Sir John Lawes first
obtained the idea of using fossilised phosphates for manure
from Professor Henslow, the great Cambridge botanist


(himself sometime a resident at Hall Place, St Albans),
who sent him specimens obtained from the Essex " Crag,"
with a suggestion that they might be used as a source of
phosphoric acid. Yarrell, the naturalist, lies buried in

Charles Lamb" 1

Bayford churchyard, with many members of his family.
Last in the scientific and literary list, we have the name
of Sir John Evans, the great antiquarian and numismatist
of Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, who died so recently


as 1908. To Evans, in conjunction with the late Sir
Joseph Prestwich, is mainly due the credit of definitely
establishing the fact that the so-called flint "celts" are
really the work of prehistoric man. His most important
and best work is Ancient Stone Implements.

William Cowper

Among great ecclesiastics mention must be made of
Nicholas Breakspear, born near Abbot's Langley towards
the close of the eleventh century, who subsequently
became Pope as Adrian IV ; being the only Englishman


who has occupied the papal chair. Reference may also
be made to Cardinal Wolsey, who spent a considerable
portion of his time at Delamere House. Nor must we
omit Young, the author of the Night Thoughts and Rector
of Welwyn, or that great maker of hymns, Dr Watts,
who as the 36-year guest of Sir Thomas Abney resided at
Theobalds, where he died. Among distinguished lawyers,
the most prominent name is that of Lord Grimthorpe
(formerly Sir Edmund Beckett), who was, however, con-
nected with the county, not in his professional capacity,
but as the restorer of St Albans' Abbey and other churches
in the neighbourhood. Much criticism has been expended
on Lord Grimthorpe's modes of "restoration," which
were certainly of a drastic character. It must, however,
be remembered that when he undertook the restoration
of St Albans' Abbey it was in a dangerous condition, and
sufficient money was not forthcoming to make it secure.
The result is that the abbey, although in many ways
unlike its former self, will stand for centuries. Lord
Grimthorpe, who was a Yorkshireman, built himself a
residence at Batchwood, near St Albans.

As another well-known lawyer and also a judge,
mention may be made of Lord Brampton (Sir Henry
Hawkins), who came of a family long connected with
Hitchin, at which town he was born.

Sir Henry Chauncy, the antiquary and historian of
the county, to whom reference has so often been made in
this book, lived, and died in 1700, at Yardley; and Balfe,
the composer, made his home at Rowney Abbey, close
by, till his death in 1870.


(The figures in brackets after each name give the population in
1901, and those at the end of the sections give the references
to the text.)

Abbot's Langley (3342), a village situated on the Gade,
with a station on the North-Western Railway; it was bestowed
in the time of Edward the Confessor upon the then abbot of
St Albans, whence its name. Hunton Mill, on the Gade, was
granted to Sir Richard Lee in 1544, and both this and Nash
Mills were farmed from the abbot of St Albans between 1349
and 1396. The present church, dedicated to St Lawrence, cannot
be traced farther back than the close of the twelfth century. A
west tower was added about 1200. (pp. 72, 90, 105, 149.)

Aldenham (2437), a village and manor lying to the north-
east of Watford. It has a grammar school; and near by is
Aldenham Abbey, the seat of Lord Aldenham. In 1898 two
Roman kilns were discovered in the parish. The church, which
has been restored, contains one small twelfth-century window; no
trace of the chancel remains.

The Am wells Great Am well (1421), and Little
Amwell (930) small villages not far from the Rye House.
Amwell is associated with the name of the Quaker poet, John
Scott, who lived there for some time after 1740. Near by is
Haileybury, formerly the training college for the officials of the
East India Company, but now a public school, (p. 135.)


Ashridge, a domain in Little Gaddesden parish, situated on
the Buckinghamshire border of the county, and celebrated for its
splendid beech woods. It was formerly the property of the
Dukes of Bridgewater, being acquired by the Egertons in 1604,
but it is now owned by Earl Brownlow. A building, formerly the
porter's lodge, includes some remains of an old monastic college.
The present house, which stands partly in Buckinghamshire, was
built by the eighth Earl of Bridgewater. (pp. 115, 142.)

Ashwell (1281), a village on the Cambridgeshire border of
the county, with a station some distance away on the Royston and
Cambridge branch of the Great Northern Railway. Ashwell,
which was formerly a town, had a fair and a market in the time
of William the Conqueror. It was severely visited by the plague.
Its church-tower is the only one in the county built wholly of
stone, (pp. 92, 113.)

Baldock (2057) is a market-town on the Icknield Way, to
the north-west of Hitchin, with a station on the above-mentioned
branch of the Great Northern Railway. It dates from Norman
times, when it was known as Baudok. During the Crusades,
Baldock, like St Albans, Berkhampstead, and Hoddesdon, had a
lazar-house for lepers, who were at that time numerous all over
England. The list of Rectors is complete from the days of the
Knights Hospitallers in 1317. The church contains much
Decorated and Perpendicular work. (pp. 90, 94, 128.)

Barkway (66 1), originally Berkway, is a small town and
manor situated a few miles to the north-east of Buntingford.
(p. 96.)

Barnet, or Chipping Barnet, originally Chipping Bernet
(7876), a large and important market-town near the Middlesex
border of the county, with a station (High Barnet) on a branch of
the Great Northern Railway. Near by are New Barnet and East
Barnet, with a station on the main line, and having a population
of 10,024. The name Barnet is a corruption of the Saxon


Bergnet, signifying a little hill ; the site of the town then forming
a small rising in the midst of the great forest; the prefix Chipping
=market is a word of Scandinavian origin, represented in the
Swedish Jonkoping and the Danish Kj^benhavn = (Copenhagen).
Barnet has a castle and was the scene of a battle in 1471, when
the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians, killing their leader,
Warwick the king-maker. The market was famous for its cattle ;
and in addition to this there is an annual horse-fair, which
formerly attracted dealers from all parts of the country, (pp. 9,
53, 54, 82, 99, I2 8.)

East Barnet (2867), known as La Barnette in the thirteenth
century, and Low Barnet in the fifteenth century, is situated on
the stream known as Pymmes' Brook, on the western side of the
valley of which stands the almost deserted old parish church.

Bayford (330), a village nearly midway between Hatfield and
Hoddesdon. In the churchyard is buried William Yarrell the
naturalist. Bayfordbury is celebrated for its collection of portraits
of members of the Kitcat Club painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
(p. 147.)

BengCO (3063), formerly Bengehoo, a village in the valley
of the Beane one mile north of Hertford. The old church, now
little used, is one of the oldest in the county, dating apparently
from the early Norman period. Together with Great Wymondley
church, it is peculiar, so far as Hertfordshire is concerned, in
having an apsidal chancel. In place of a tower, it has a wooden
bell-cote. Panshanger, formerly the property of the late Lord
Cowper, is near by.

Bennington (522), a market-town and manor, situated on
the Beane, from which it takes its name; it was an important
place in the ninth century, when it was the residence of the kings
of Mercia. The church is fourteenth century, (pp. 53, 54, 56,
78, in.)


Berkhampstead, or Berkhampstead Magna (5140),
an important market-town on the London and North-Western
Railway and Grand Junction Canal, and one of the oldest in the
county, the castle dating from Norman times, and being possibly
on the site of an earlier Saxon edifice. It was here that the crown
of England was offered to William the Conqueror. The manor
and castle were granted first to Piers Gaveston and subsequently
to Edward the Black Prince, but were afterwards annexed to the
Duchy of Cornwall. Berkhampstead, which is now a petty-
sessions town, and has an ancient grammar school, formerly
returned burgesses to Parliament. Its almshouses were built in
1684. Cowper was born here. Berkhampstead Parva and
Berkhampstead St Mary's the latter now generally known as
Northchurch are villages in the neighbourhood. The church
dates from the thirteenth century; it contains the beautiful
Torrington tomb. (pp. 2, 7, 63, 80, 81, 82, 91, 92, 109, in,
131, 132, 141.)

Bishop's Stortford (7143) is the most important town on
the Essex border of the county, and has a station on the main
line of the Great Eastern Railway, and a bridge over the Stort.
The town, which has a market, possessed a considerable trade in
Saxon times, and was the property of the Bishop of London, and
to protect this, and for the purpose of consolidating his own
rights, William the Conqueror built a small castle here. Bishop's
Stortford has a grammar school, and formerly returned members
to Parliament. The church, which dates from the tenth century,
is an imposing Perpendicular edifice, and stands on the site of an
earlier building, (pp. 23, 24, 79, 92, 112, 132, 144.)

Boxmoor (1127), a small town on the Grand Junction
Canal and North Western Railway. A Roman villa was dis-
covered here some years ago. (pp. 132, 133.)

Braughing (930), a village to the north-west of Stortford,
on the Cambridge road, with a station on the Great Eastern


Railway, situated in the valley of the Quin. It dates from Saxon
times, when it was known as Brooking ; and it was granted a
market by Stephen. A Roman sarcophagus and many Roman
coins have been discovered in the parish, (pp. 22, 113, 136.)

Broxbourne (748) is also a village on the Great Eastern
Railway, to the south of Hoddesdon: it contains an almshouse for
poor widows founded in the year 1728. The village is intimately
connected with the Rye House Plot. (pp. 128, 142.)

Bishop's Stortford, and the River Stort

Buntingford (1272) is a market-town, with almshouses, on
a branch of the Great Eastern Railway running northwards from
Stortford. It was granted a market by Edward III. (pp. 54, 1 2 8.)

Bushey (2838), a parish in the south of the county, separated
from Watford about 1166. The village is now the site of the
Herkomer Art School. The church was "restored" in 1871,
when a late Gothic window was removed.


Bygrave (148), a small market-town a short distance north-
east of Baldock.

Cassiobury, a park and mansion at the north-west of
Watford which has for many generations been the residence of
the Earls of Essex. The present house is modern, (pp. 20, 21,
45, 84, 85, 136.)

Cheshunt (12,292) is a large market-town in the south-
eastern corner of the county, nearly north-west of Waltham
Abbey, with a station on the Great Eastern and some distance
from the town itself. It is celebrated for its nursery gardens,
roses being especially cultivated. Within Cheshunt parish is
situated Theobald's Park, at one time a royal residence. Ches-
hunt Park is on the opposite, or north side of the town; and
near by are the remains of an old nunnery, (pp. 43, 99, 100, 128.)

Codicote (1145), a small village to the north-west of
Welwyn. The church was an ancient one, but a drastic "restora-
tion" in 1853 destroyed much of the evidence of the age of its
constituent portions, (pp. 43, 128, 130.)

Elstree (1323), a village on the southern border of the
county lying a little west of the Midland Railway, on which it
has a station. It is rapidly becoming a suburb of London.
(PP- 7, JI 5 2 > I2 6, 132.)

Flamstead (1039), a village near the Watling Street to the
north of Redbourn. The name is supposed to be a corruption of
Verlampstead, the Ver flowing in the valley below the village.
The Thomas Saunders almshouses were built in 1669. Beechwood,
the seat of the Sebright family is in the parish.

Great Gaddesden (746), a village in Dacorum Hundred
to the north of Hemel Hempstead. Gaddesden Place, which was
burnt down in 1905 and rebuilt, is the seat of the Halsey family,
who possessed the neighbouring " Golden Parsonage " so long ago


as 1544. The church probably dates from the twelfth century.
(PP- 19. 35. 42-)

The Hadhams Much Hadham (1199), Little Hadham
(655) two villages lying respectively to the south-west and
north-west of Bishop Stortford, and known to have been in
existence in the time of the Conqueror. The manor of Hadham

The College Chapel, Haileybury

Hall was granted by the crown to the Bishops of London at the
time when the survey recorded in Domesday books was made,
(pp. 12, 117.)

Harpenden (4725), a large village or small town on the
Midland Railway, almost exactly half-way between St Albans
and Luton. During the last twenty years Harpenden ("the


valley of nightingales") has nearly doubled in size, and is rapidly
increasing. Within the parish is the agricultural experiment-
station of Rothamsted; the laboratory being situated on the
borders of the village itself. About a mile to the north is Shire-
Mere, a small green partly in Hertfordshire and partly in
Bedfordshire, and in consequence a favourite site for prize-fights
in the old days. Harpenden has branch-lines connected with the
Great Northern and the North-Western Railways. With the
exception of the more modern tower, the church, which was
largely Norman, was pulled down and rebuilt in the sixties.
A Norman arch remains in the tower, (pp. 7, 36, 37, 38, 43,45,
47, 66, 67, 75, 96, 117, 130, 132.)

Hatfield, or King's Hatfield (4330), is a small town on
the main line of the Great Northern Railway, chiefly noteworthy
on account of its connection with Hatfield House, the seat of the
Cecils, Marquises of Salisbury. As mentioned above, Hatfield was
at one time a royal palace; but the original building is now used as
a stable and riding-school, the present house being of Jacobean
date. The residence at Hatfield of Queen Elizabeth is connected
with the old palace. Among the features of Hatfield House are
the marble hall, its oak-panelled walls hung with tapestry, and its
panelled ceiling painted; the grand staircase, hung with portraits;
the long gallery, with its armour and pictures; King James's
drawing-room, a magnificently decorated apartment; the great
dining-room, with a bust of Lord Burleigh; the armoury; and
the beautiful chapel, with its exquisite Flemish window and a
marble altar-piece. Hatfield is an important railway centre for
the county, the Great Northern having branches to Hertford,
St Albans, and Harpenden and Luton. Petty sessions are held in
the town. In the church are the monuments of the Cecil family,
and a statue of the late Lord Salisbury, erected by county sub-
scription, stands at the park entrance, (pp. 20, 23, 31, 34, 43,
83, 115, 116, 128, 132, 142.)


Kernel Hempstead (11,264) > s an ancient borough and
market-town on the western side of the county connected with the
main line of the North-Western Railway at Boxmoor, and also
served by a branch joining the main line of the Midland at
Harpenden. In addition to a mayor, Hempstead has a borough
official known as the high bailiff. The town, which is situated
in the Gade valley, and formerly returned members of its own to

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