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I



THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

DAVIS





RAT-SNAKE AND COBRAS



THE



NEW
ATURAL HISTORY



By

RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S.



and

R. BOWDLER SHARPE, H. A. MAcPHERSON, F. O. PICKARD-CAM-
BRIDGE, W. R. OGILVIE GRANT, C. J. GAHAN, F. A. BATHER.
EDGAR A. SMITH, R. I. POCOCK, M. BERNARD,
H. BERNARD AND R. KIRKPATRICK.



With Preface by

JOEL A. ALLEN

CURATOR OF AMERICAN MUSEUM OH NATURAL HISTORY



Illustrated with
SEVENTY-TWO COLOURED PLATES AND SIXTEEN HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS



VOLUME V.



NEW YORK
MERRILL & BAKER

PUBLISHERS



LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA




CONTENTS



REPTILES



CHAPTER I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OP THE CLASS EEPTILIA.

FFERKNCES BETWEEN REPTILES AND OTHER VERTEBRATES Diversity of Form and

Structure Skeleton Teetli Vertebra) Classification and Distribution,

CHAPTER II. CROCODILES, DINOSAURS, AND FLYING DRAGONS, Orders Crocodilia,
JJinosauria, and Ornithosauria.

ic.t eristics of Crocodiles Their Habits Existing Crocodiles (Crocodilidce) Caimans
(Caiman) Alligators (A lliyator) Double-Tusked Alligators (Diplocynodon) Stumpy
Crocodile (Osteolcemus) True Crocodiles (Crocodilus) Indian Crocodile Estuarine
Crocodile Nile Crocodile Siaiu Crocodile Sharp - Nosed Crocodile Orinoco
Crocodile Long-Nosed Crocodile Schlegel's Garial (Rhynchosuchus) GarSal (Garialis)
Extinct Garial The Earlier Crocodiles The Extinct Dinosaurs (Dinosauria)
Flying Dragons, or Pterodactyles (Ornithosauria), .....

CHAPTER III. TORTOISES, TURTLES, AND PLESIOSAURS, Orders Chelonia

and Sauropterygia.

Characteristics of Tortoises and Turtles (Chelonia) Their Habits and Distribution The
Land-Tortoises and Terrapins (Teztudinidce) Land-Tortoises (Testudo) Florida Tor-
toise Brazilian Tortoise Burmese Brown Tortoise Elegant Tortoise Giant Tor-
toises Aldabra Tortoise Mascarene Tortoises Galapagos Tortoises Grecian
Tortoise Other Species Angulated Tortoise Areolated Tortoise (Homopus) Hinged
Tortoises (Cinixys) Spider-Tortoise (Pyxis) Spinose Land-Terrapin (Geoemyda)
Chaibassa Terrapin (Nicoria) Hinged Terrapins (Cyclemys) Box-Tortoises (Ci*tn<l,>)
Pond-Tortoises (Emyx) Terra])ins Sculptured Terrapin (Clemmys) Thick-Necked
Terrapin (Bellia) Hamilton's Terrapin (T)amonia) Soft-Water Terrapin (Malaco-
demmys) Painted Terrapin (C7in/.se/?/s) Eyed and Chinese Terrapins (Morenia)
VOL. v



10



vi CONTENTS

Batagun (Gachuya, etc.) Big-Headed Tortoise (Platysternidic) Mud-Terrapins and
their Allies (Cinosternidfe and Dermatemydida') Maw's Terrapin (Dermatemys) The
Snappers and Alligator - Terrapins (Chelydridce) Alligator - Terrapin (Chelydnt)
Tcmminck's Snapper (Macroclemmys) The Turtles (Chelonid(c) Green and Hawks-
bill Turtles (Chelone) Loggerhead Turtle (Thalassochelys) Habits of Turtles Tor-
toise-Shell Extinct Turtles Leathery Turtles (Dermochelyidce) The Side-Necked
Tortoises (Ghelyidce and Pelomedusidce) Matainata Tortoise (Chelys) Snake-Necked
Tortoises (Hydromedusa) Australian Long-Necked Tortoises (Chelodinct) Other
Genera Greaved Tortoises (Podocnemis) Allied Genera Fly River Turtle (C'arettn-
chelyidce) Australian Horned Tortoises (Miolaniidce) Extinct European Genera
Generalised Chelonians (Pleurosternum, etc.) The Soft-Tortoi.ses (Trionychidat)
Typical Genus (Trionyx) Granulated Soft-Tortoises (Emyda, etc.) Hal)its of tin-
Group The Plesiosaurs, or Long-Necked Marine Lizards (Order Sauropterygia),

CHAPTER IV. SCALED REPTILES LIZARDS AND CHAMELEONS, Order Squamata ;
Suborders, Lacertilia and Ehiptoglossa.

Characteristics of the Order Skull Ribs and Vertebrae Other Characters Special Charac-
ters of Lizards (Suborder Lacertilia) Numbers and Distribution Habits The Geckos
(Geckonidce) Lobe-Footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus) Turkish Gecko (Hemidadylu*)
Fringed Gecko Wall-Gecko Habits of the Group Eyelid Geckos The Scale-Footed
Lizards (Pygopodidce) The Agamoid Lizards (Ayamidce) Flying- Lizards (Dracu)
Oriental Tree-Lizards (Calotes) Ceylon Horned Lizards (Ceratophora) Typical Group
(Agama) Armed Agama Spinose Agama Rough-Tailed Agama Australian Frilled
Lizard (Chlamydosaurus) Sail-Tailed Lizard (Lophurus) Thorny-Tailed Lizards
( Uromastix) Habits East African Thorny-Tailed Lizards (Aporoscelis)- -Moloch Lizard
(Moloch) The Iguanoid Lizards (Iguanidce) Anolis Lizards (Anolis) Allied Genera
Basilisks (Basiliscus) Ridge-Headed Lizards (Corythophanes) Stilted Lizards ( Uranis-
codon) The Sea-Lizard (Amblyrhynchus) Galapagos Land-Lizard (Conolophus) True
Iguanas (Iguana) Ring- Tailed Iguana (Cyclura) Extinct Iguanas Horned Lizards
(Phrynosoma) The Girdled Lizards (Zonuridce) Girdle-Tailed Lizard (Zonurus) The
Snake-Like Lizards {Anguidce) Scheltopusiks (Ophisaurus) Blind-Worm (Anguis)
The Poisonous Lizards (Helodermatidce) The Monitors (Varanidce) Their Habits
The Greaved Lizards (Teiidce) The Teju (Tupinambis) The Ameivas (Ameiva) The
Amphisb?enas(^4 mphisbcenidce) Handed Amphisbaena (Chirotes) Typical Amphisl >; i -nas
(Amphisbcena) The True Lizards (Lacertidce) Pearly Lizard (Lacerta) Green Lizard
Sand-Lizard Viviparous Lizard Wall-Lizard Keeled Lizards (Algiroides) Fringi -
Toed Lizards (Acanthodactylus) The Skink Tribe (Scincidce) Stump-Tailed Lizard
(Trachysaurus) Snake-Eyed Lizards (Ablepharus) True Skinks (Scincus) Bronze
Lizards (Clialcides) Other Families (Anelytropidw and Dibamida;) The Chama-h-ons
(Suborder Rhiptoglossa) Their Hal)its, .......

CHAPTER V. SCALED REPTILES, continued. THE SNAKES Suborder Ophidia.

Distinctive Characters and Structure Teeth Harmless and Poisonous Snakes Distribution
Habits The Blind Snakes (Typhlopodidw and Glauconiidw) The Pythons and Boas
(Boidce) True Pythons (Python) Their Distribution and Habits TbeVariouaSpecias
Allied Genera (Loxocemus, Nardoa, etc.) Tree-Boas (Epicrates) Dog-Headed Tree-
Boa (Corallus) Keeled Tree-Boas (Enygrus) Anaconda (Euneces) True Boas (Boa)
Keel-Scaled Boa (Casarea) Sand-Snakes (Eryx) Allied Genera (Lii'luninrii, etc.)
Extinct Python-Like Snakes (Palceophis) The Cylinder-Snakes (Ilysiidcp) Coral
Cylinder-Snake (Ib/sia) Red Snake (CyUndrophis)^}^ Shield-Tails (t/n'/.rft /</") -
The Colubrine Snakes (Colubridcr,) Wart-Snakes (Acrochordus) Water- Snaki-s
(Tropidonotus) Ringed Snake Tesselated and Viperine Snakes Oblique-Eyed Snakes
(JfeMrops) Pigmy Snakes (Calamaria) Sling-Snakes .(Coronella) Fierce Snakes
(Zamenix) Horseshoe Snake Rat-Snake Running Snakes (I'ti/as) Climbing Snakes



CONTENTS



vn



(Coluber) Black- Marked Snake Wood-Snakes (Herpetodryas) Tree-Snakes (Dend-
rophis and Dendrelaphis] Egg-Eating Snake (Dasypeltis) Moon-Snakes (Scytale) Cat-
Snake (Tarbophis) Nocturnal Tree -Snakes (Dipsas) Back-Fanged Tree -Snakes
(Philodryas and Dryophis) Sharp - Nosed Snakes (Oxybelis) Oriental Fresh-Water
Snakes (Homalopsince) Coral-Snake (Elaps) Resplendent Adders (Callophis) Long-
Glanded Snakes (Adeniophis) Craits (Bunyarus) Cobras (Naici) Their Habits
Death -Adders (Pseudec/iis) Sea -Snakes (Hydrophiince) Broad-Tailed Sea -Snakes
(Plat urns) Parti-Coloured Sea-Snake (Hydrus) Black- Banded Sea-Snake (Distira)
The Vipers ( Viperidce) True Vipers ( Viperince) Common Viper ( Vipera) Southern
Viper Long-Nosed Viper Russell's Viper Puff- Adder Horned Vipers (Cerastes)
Desi-rt Saw- Vipers (Echis) -Rattle-Snakes (Crotalince) Common Rattle-Snake (Cro-
toZtt*) Diamond Rattle-Snake South American Rattle-Snakes Habits of Rattle-
Snakes The Bushmaster (Lachesis) Halys Vipers (Ancistrodon) Himalayan Halys
Siberian Halys Copper-Head Snake Water- Viper Typical Pit- Vipers (Trimere-
saurus) Jararaca Extinct Groups of Scaled Reptiles Long-Necked Lizards
(Dolichosauria) Cretaceous Sea- Serpents (Pythonomorpha), ....

CHAPTER VI. THE REMAINING GROUPS OP REPTILES, Orders Ichthyopterygia,

Rhynchocephalia, and Anomodontia.

fish-Lizards (Order Ichthyopterygia} The Beaked Lizards (Order Rhynchocephalia) The
Tuatera (Sphenodon} Allied Extinct Families (Homceosauridw and Rhynchosaurida;)
Oldest Types (Proterosaurus, etc.) The Anomodonts, or Mammal- Like Reptiles (Order
Anomodontia} Dicynodonts and Theriodonts, ......



174



250



AMPHIBIANS

JHAPTER I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLASS AMPHIBIA FROGS AND TOADS

Order Ecaudata.

INCTION BETWEEN AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES Skin of Amphibians Skeleton Soft
Parts Development Distribution Habits Characteristics of Frogs and Toads The
Typical Frogs (Ranidce) Water-Frogs (Rana) European Frogs Bull-Frogs Oxy-
f/lossus Flying Frogs (Rhacophorus) Solid-Chested Tree-Frogs (Dendrobatidce}
The Narrow-Mouthed Frogs (Engystomatida;) Sharp-Nosed Frog (Cemtobatrachidce)
The Southern Frogs (Leptodadylidce)H.QTTLedi Frogs (Ceratophrys) Leaf -Frogs (Hylodes)
Piping-Frogs (Leptodactylu*)The Toads (Bufonidw) True Toads (Biifo) Green
T^ad Natterjack Toad Sharp- Nosed Toad (Rhinophrynus) The Overlapping-
Chested Tree-Frogs (Hylidce) Grasshopper- Frog (Acris} Typical Tree-Frogs (Hyla)
Their Nesting - Habits Pouched Tree-Frogs (Nototrema) Pouched Tree-Frogs
(Pelobatidaz) Brown Toad-Frog (Pelobates) Other Genera (Pelodytes, etc.) Allied
Extinct Frogs (Palceobatrachid(e)T}\e Disc-Tongued Frogs (Discoglossidce)Fiw-
Bellied Frog (Bombinator) Midwife-Frogs (Alytes} Other T&milies (Amphirjnathodon-
tidce and Hemiphractid(v)The Tongueless Frogs (Xenopodidcc and Pipid(c) Spur- Toed
Frogs (Xenopus) Surinam Water-Toad (Pipa), ... . 257

CHAPTER II. NEWTS, SALAMANDERS, AND COZCILIANS, Orders Caudata and Apoda.

Distinctive Characters of the Caudata Their Distribution and Habits The Salamander
Tribe (Salamamlridce) Typical Salamanders (Salamandra) Alpine Salamander
Spanish Salamander (Chiocjlossa} Newts (Molcje) Crested Newt Marbled Newt-
Alpine Newt Common Newt Webbed Newt Other Species Habits of Newts
Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina) Other Genera (Tylotriton and Parhytriton}
Axolotls (Amblystoma) Other Genera The Fish-Like Salamanders (Amphiumidce}
Giant Salamander (Megalobatrachua) Hell-Bender (Cryptobranchu.t) Three-Toed



viii CONTENTS

l'A(iE

Salamander (Amphiuma) The GilleJ. Salamanders (Profewte) Olm (Proteus)
Furrowed Salamander (Xecturus) Two-Legged Salamanders (Sirenidas) The Coecil-
ians, or Worm-Like Amphibians (Order Apoda), ...... -2M)

CHAPTER III. THE PRIMEVAL SALAMANDERS, Order Labyrinthodontia.
Characters and Distribution of the Group The Leading Families and Genera, . ,311



FISHES

CHAPTER I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLASS PISCES.

CLASSIFICATION External Skeleton Internal Skeleton Teeth Coloration Soft Part.-

Reproduction Tenacity of Life Distribution, , . . . . .314

CHAPTER II. LUNG-FISHES AND CHDLEBOIDS, Subclasses Dipnoi and Holocephali.

Existing Lung-Fishes (Lepidosirenidce) Australian Lung-Fish (Ceratodus) South American
Mud-Fish (Lepidosireri) African Mud-Fish (Protopterus) Extinct Lung-Fishes Berry-
Bone Fishes (Order Arthrodird) The Chimseroids (Subclass Holocephali), . . 32f>

CHAPTER III. THE BONY FISHES AND GANOIDS, Subclass Teleostomi.

Classification Fan-Finned Group (Order Adinopteryyii) Spine-Finned Fishes (Suborder
Acanthopterygii) The Perch Tribe (Percidce) True Perches (Perca) Pike-Perches
(Lucioperca) Danubian Perches (Aspro) Ruffes (Acerina) Centrarchidce Bass and
Sea-Perches (Serranidce)- South American Perch and Bass (Percichthys and Morone)
Sea-Perch (Centropristes, Serranus, etc.) Stone-Bass (Polyprioii) Oriental and African
Perches (Lates and Psammoperca) Scaly-Finned Fishes (Chcetodontidce) Chaitodon
Chelmon Heniochus Holacanthus Red Mullets (Mullidce) Sea-Breams (Sparidce)
Cantharus Haplodactylus Sanjus Gilt-Heads (Chrysophrys) Knife-Jawed Fishes
(Hoploynathid(e) Thick-Rayed Fishes (Cirrhitidce) G'irrhitichthys Chilodadylus
Scorpsenoids (Scorpcenidce) Allied Families Berycoids, or Slime-Heads (Berych/iln)
Curtidce and Polynemidce Scisenoids (Sciwnidce) Drum (Poyonias) Umbrines
(Umbrina) Meagres (Scicena) Sword -Fishes (Xiphiidce) Scabbard-Fishes and Hair-
Tails (Trichiuridai) Scabbard-Fish (Lepidopus) Hair-Tails (Trichiurus) Barracudas
(Thyr sites) Extinct Forms Surgeons (Acronurid(e) Horse-Mackerels (Carangidce)
Typical Group (Caranx) Pilot-Fish (Naucrates) Sea-Bats (Platax) Dories (Cyttidce)
Stromateids and Coryphamas (Stromateidce and Coryphcenidte) Coryphcena Sun-Fish
(Lampris) Nomseids (Nomceidce) Mackerels (Scomberidai) Thunnies (Tliynnus)
Sucking-Fishes (Echeneis) Star-Gazers and Weavers (Trachinidce) Urnnoscopus
Trachinus Tile-Fish (Lopholatilus) Other Groups Soft-Spines and Frog- Fishes
(Malacanthidce and Batrachidce) Batrachus Angler-Fish and their Allies (Lophiidw)
Anglers (Lophius) Tentacle-Fish (Antennarius) Bull-Heads and Gurnards (Cot-
tidce Bull-Hefids (Cottus) Gurnards (Trirjla) Beaked Gurnards (Peristethus) Flying
Gurnards (Dadylopterus) Dragon-Fishes (Pegasus) Lump-Suckers (Cyclopteridce)
Gobies and Mud-Skippers (Gobiida*) Gobius Periophthalmus Band-Fishes (Cepolidce)
Hairy-Backs (Trichonotidce) Chiridce Blennies (Blenniidce) Viviparous Blennies
(Zoarces) Wolf -Fishes (Anarrhichas) Oblique-Spined Blenny (Acanthodinida;)
Spiny Eels (Rhynchobdellidce) Oil-Fish (Comephortis) Barracuda-Pikes (Sphyr&nida)
Sand-Smelts (Atherinidte) Square-Tail (Tetragonurus) Grey Mullets (Mugilidas)
Gar- Pike and Flying-Fish (Scombresocida:) Gar- Pike (Belom) Flying-Fish (Exoc&tu*)
Sticklebacks (Gastrosteidce) Flute-Mouths (Aulostomatidai) Trumpet-Fish ((.Y/i-
trisddce) Sucker- Fishes (Gobioesocidw) Serpent-Heads (Ophioa i>l<iU<lu} Lai ivrinth-
(iilled Fishes (Anabantidce and Lnciocephalida;) Climbing- Perch (Anabas) Paradise-
Fish (Polyacanthus) Gurami (Osphromenus) Fighting-Fish (Betta) Unicorn-Fish



CONTENTS

(Lophotidce) Ribbon-Fish ( Trachypteridce) Thornbacks (Notacanthidce) Pomacentridce
Wrasses (Labridce) True Wrasses (Labrus) Parrot- Wrasses (Scarus) Viviparous
Wrasses (Diatrematidce) Chromids (Chromididce) Tuft-Gilled Fishes (Suborder Lopho-
branchii) Mailed Tube-Mouths (Solenostomatidce) Pipe-Fishes and Sea-Horses (Syn-
gnathidce) Comb-Gilled Group (Suborder Plectognathi) File-Fishes and Coffer-
Fishes (Balistidce) Globe-Fishes and Sun-Fishes (Diodontidce) Soft-Finnecl Fishes
(Suborder Anacanthini) Lycodidce The Cod Tribe (Gadidce) True Cod (Gadus)
Haddock Other Species Hakes (Merluccius) Burbot (Lota) Ling and Rockling
(Molva) Sand-Eels and their Allies (Ophidiidce) Cave-Fish (Lucifuga) Snake-
Fishes (Ophidium) Parasitic Fish (Fierasfer) Sand-Eels (Ammodytes) Conyrodus
The Long- Tails (Macruridce) Flat-Fishes (Pleuronectidce) Psettodes Holibut (Hippo-
glossus) Turbot, etc. (Rhombus) Plaice and Flounder (Pleuronectes) Soles (Solea)
- Blind Soles (Soleotalpa) The Tube-Bladdered Fishes (Suborder Physostomi) Eel
Tribe (Murcenidce) Mursenas (Murcena) True Eels (Anguilla) Congers (Conger)
Serpent-Eels (Ophichthys) Deep-Sea Eels (Synaphobranchus) Single-Slit Eels (Sym-
branchida;) Electric Eel (Gymnotidce) Cat- Fishes (Siluridce) Eel-Like Cat-Fish
(Clarias) Wels (Silurus) Yarrell's Cat-Fish (Bagarius) Electric Cat-Fishes (Mala-
pterurus) Mailed Cat-Fishes (Callichthys, etc.) Carp Tribe (Cyprinidce) True Carp
(Cyprinus) Crucian and Golden Carp (Carassius) Barbels (Barbus) Gudgeon (Gobio)
White-Fish (Leuciscus) Tench (Tinea) Beaked Carp (Chondrostoma) Bitterling
(Rhodeus) Bream (Abramis) Rapfen (Aspius) Bleak (Alburnus) Sichel (Pelecus)
Loaches (Cobitis, etc.) African Loaches (Kneriidce) Characinoid Fishes (Erythrinidce)
Cyprinodonts (Cyprinodontidce) Double-Eyes (Anableps) Blind-Fish (Amblyopsidce)
Unibres (Uvnbridce) Pike (Esocidce) African Beaked-Fish (Mormyridai) Feather-
Backs (Notopteridce) Southern Pikelets (Galaxiidw) Arapaimas (Osteoglossid(e)
Arapaima (Arapaima) Barbelled Arapaima (Osteoglossum) Small-Mouthed Arapaima
(Heterotis) Moon-Eye (Hyodontidce) Chisel-Jaw (Pantodontidce) Beaked Salmon
(Gonorhynchidce) The Scopeloids (^opelidce) Phosphorescent Scopeloids (Sternopty-
chidce and Stomateidw) Silvery Light-Fish (Photichthys) Hedgehog-Mouths (Echio-
Ktoma) The Dorab (Chirocentridce) Long-Finned Herring (Bathythrissidce) The
Extinct Saurodoiits (Enchodontidce, Saurocephalidce, etc.) The Herring Tribe (Clupeidce)
Typical Group (Clupea) Fresh- Water Herrings (Diplomystus) Anchovies (Engraidis)
Elops Slender-Scales (Leptolepis) The Smooth-Heads (Alepocephalidce) Southern
Salmon (Haplochitonidce) Salmon Tribe (Salvnonid.ee) Typical Group (Salmo)
Salmon Trout Charr Many-Rayed Salmon (Onchorhynchus) Smelts (Osmerus)
Coregonoids (Coregonus) Grayling (Thymallus) Percopsidce Bony Pike and its
Kindred (Suborder ^Etheospondyli) Existing Types (Lepidosteidfe) Spear-Beaks
(Aspidorhynchidce) The Bow-Fin and its Allies (Suborder Protospondyli) Existing
Family (Amiidce) Extinct Families (Pachycormidce, etc.) The Sturgeon Tribe (Sub-
order Ghondrostei) Toothed Sturgeons (Polyodontidai) Toothless Sturgeons (Acipen-
seridce) True Sturgeons (Acipenser) Shovel-Beaked Sturgeons (Scaphirhynchm)
Allied Extinct Families (Cbondrosteidw, etc.) Fringe-Finned Ganoids (Order Cros-
sopterygii) Existing Species (Polypteridtv) Extinct Families, , . .

CHAPTER IV. SHARKS AND RAYS, Subclass Elasmobranchii.

Distinctive Features The Blue Shark and its Allies (Carchariidw) Typical Genus (Car-
rharias) Tope (Galeus) Hammerheads (Sphyrna) Hounds (Mustelus) Porbeagle
Group (Lamnidce) Porbeagles (Lamna) Rondeleti's Shark (Car char odori) Fox-Shark
(Alopecias) Basking-Shark (Cetorhinus) Indo-Pacific Basking-Shark (Rhinodontid(t')
Dog-Fishes and Their Allies (Scylliid(e)TTue Dog-Fishes (Scyllium) Other
Genera Pavement-Toothed Sharks (Cestraciontidai) Comb-Toothed Sharks (Noti-
damd(e) Typical Genus (Notidanus) Frill-Gilled Shark (Chlamydosclache) The
Spiny Dog- Fishes and their Allies (Spinadda') r T]\e Extinct Petalodonts (Petalodon-
tid(e) The Angel-Fish (SquatinidrfThe Saw-Fishes (Pristiophoridce and Pmstid(e)
VOL. v *



X



CONTENTS



Side-Gilled Saw-Fishes (1'ristwphonui) True Saw-Fishes (Prism) Beaked Rays
(lihinobatidce) Typical Genus (Rhinobatis)Rhynchobatis'n\v True Rays, or Skates
(Kaiidai) Electric Rays (Tor yedinidx) The Eagle-Rays (Myliobatida) Typical Genus
(Myliobatis) Other Genera (Aetobatis, etc.) Sting-Rays (Trygonida) Lobe-Finned
Sharks (Ichthyotomi) Fold - Finned Sharks (Cladodontia) Spine - Finned Sharks
(Acanihodii), . ,

THE LOWEST VERTEBRATES AND THEIR

ALLIES

CHAPTER I. THE LAMPREY GROUP, Class G'yclostomah,.

CHARACTERS OF CHORDATES AND NON-CHORDATES Lainpivys and Hag-Fishes (Subclass
Marsipobranchii) True Lampreys (Petromyzum) Southern Lampreys (Mordacia, etc.)
Hag-Fishes (Myxinidw) Primeval Lampreys (Palaospondylus),

CHAPTER II. THE ARMOURED PRIMEVAL VERTEBRATES, Subclass Ostracophori.
fteraspis Cephalaspis Pterichthys,

CHAPTER III. THE LANCELETS, Subkingdom Protochordata Class Leptocardii.
Common Lancelots (Branchiostoma),

CHAPTER IV. THE SEA-SQUIRTS OR ASCIDIANS, Class Tunicata.

Structure of Ascidians Development Typical Ascidians Non- Luminous Pelagic Aacidiana
Tailed Ascidians,

CHAPTER V. WORM-LIKE PROTOCHORDATES, Class Enteropneusta.
Balanoylossus Other Forms Ancestry of Chordates, .
INDEX . .



520



541)
555
558

561

573
577




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



COLOURED PLATES



RAT-SNAKE AND COBRAS,

SOFT RIVER-TORTOISES, .

THE BLACK IGUANA,

WATER-MONITORS ROBBING A NEST,

WALL LIZARDS,

CHAMELEONS,

CHIMERA, .

GURNARDS,

GLOBE-FlSH AND CoFFER-FlSH, .

FLAT-FISH,

A SALMON LEAP, .

BLUE SHARK,

I.ACK CAIMANS AT HOME,
[ANT TORTOISES OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS,
ROUGH-TAILED AGAMA BASKING,
A FAMILY OF VIPERS, ....

GROUP OF ScALY-FlNNED FlSHES,

GIANT AND COMMON STURGEONS,

ASCIDIANS, .....



PAGE PLATES



Frontispiece
Facing page 99
128
152
163
:, 172
:: 332
., 383
,, 428
441
496
522



Page



Facing



TEXT ENGRAVINGS

REPTILES



Mississippi Alligator,

Skull of Crocodile,

Pelvis of Dinosaur,

Skeleton of Ichthyosaur, .

Skeleton of Armoured Dinosaur,

Tooth of Plesiosaur,

Skull of Cyaniodus,

Skull of Flying Dragon, .

Vertebra of Dinosaur.

Vertebra of Fish-Li/ard, .



I'AGE
1


3

4
4



Vertebra of Snake,
Skeleton of Crocodile,
Skull of Extinct Crocodile,
Spectacled Caiman,
M ississippi Alligator,
Stumpy Crocodile,
Estuarine Crocodile,
Nile Crocodile,
Sharp-Nosed Crocodile,
Long-Nosed Crocodile,



PAGE

6
10
13
16
19
21
23
24
26
28



Xll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

Gangetic Garial, . . . .30
Restoration of the Iguanodon, . . 33
Vertebra of Dinosaur, . . .34
Tooth of Hoplosaur, . 34
Tooth of Pelorosaur, . . .35
Hind-Foot of Dinosaur, . . .35
Huckle-Bone and Tibia of Megalosaur, . 36
Skeleton of Claosaur, . . .36
Tooth of Iguanodon, . . .37
Teeth of Trachodon, . . .37
Toe-Bone of Armoured Dinosaur, . . 37
Skull of Horned Dinosaur, . . 38
Restored Skeleton of Horned Dinosaur, . 39
Skeleton of Pterodactyle, . . .40
Restoration of Long-Tailed Pterodactyle, . 41
Shells of Chaibassa Terrapin, . . 42
Skull of Gangetic Soft-Tortoise, . . 43
Skeleton of Tortoise, . . .44
Diagram of Plates on Shell of a Tortoise, . 45
Plastron of Chaibassa Terrapin, . . 47
Skull of Tortoise, . . . .47
Brazilian Tortoise, . . . .49
Shell of Burmese Brown Tortoise, . 51
Elegant Tortoise, . . . .52
Elephant-Tortoise,. . .56
Grecian Tortoise, . . . .60
Areolated Tortoise, . . .62
Dentated Hinged Tortoise, . . 63
Bell's Hinged Tortoise, . .64
Chaibassa Terrapin, . . .66
Carolina Box-Tortoise, . . .67
European Pond-Tortoise, , . .69
Sculptured Terrapin, . . .71
Carapace of Hamilton's Terrapin, . . 72
Painted Terrapin, .... 73
Carapace of Smith's Batagur, . .74
Skull of Big-Headed Tortoise, . . 75
Big- Headed Tortoise, . . .76
Pennsylvanian Mud-Terrapin, . . 77
Alligator-Terrapin, . . .79
<; ivm Turtle, . . ... 82
Hawksbill Turtles Swimming, . . 83
Young Loggerhead Turtle, . . 84
Leathery Turtle, . . . .87
Humerus of Extinct Leathery Turtle, . 88
Skull and Jaw of Greaved Tortoise, . 89
Front of Plastron of Side-Necked Tor-
toise, ... 89
Carapace of Black Sternothere, . . 90
Mulamata Tortoise, . . .91
Snake-Necked Tortoise, ... 92
American Side- Necked Tortoise, . . 93
Giant Amazonian Tortoise, . . 94
Skull of Horned Tortoise, . . 97



Carapace of Wide-Shielded Weald en Tor-
toise, ..... 98

Cantor's Soft-Tortoise, . , .100

Skeleton of Plesiosaur, . . .102

Skull of Simosaur, . . 102

Vertebra of a Plesiosaur ian, , .103

Skeleton of Lariosaur, . . ,103

Vertebra of a Snake, . . =104

Skeleton of Lizard, . . .108

Lobe-Footed Gecko, . . .11.1

Turkish Gecko, . . . .112

Fringed Gecko, . . . .113

Wall-Geckos, . . . .115

Common Scale-Footed Lizard, . . 117

Armed Agama, . . . .121

Sail- Tailed Lizard, . . .124

Arabian Thorny-Tailed Lizard, . . 125

Moloch Lizard, . . . .128

Red-Throated Anolis, . . .130

Helmeted Basilisk, . . . 133
Stilted Lizard, .... 135

Galapagos Sea-Lizard, . . . 136

Galapagos Land-Lizard, . . . 138

Ring- Tailed Iguana, . . .141

Horned Lizard, . . . .142

Cape Girdle-Tailed Lizard, . . 144

Common Scheltopusik, . ... 146

The Blind- Worm, . . .147

Arizona Poisonous Li/ard, . .149

Cape Monitor, . . . .151

TheTeju, . . . . .154
Surinam Ameiva, .... 155

Handed AmphiBbeena, . . 157

Spotted Amphisha>na, . . . 158

Green Lizards, . . . .161

Viviparous Lizard, . . .163

Algerian Keeled Lizards, . . .164

Common Fringe-Toed Lizards, . .165

Stamp-Tailed Lizards, . . .167

European Snake-Eyed Lizard, . . 168
Common Skink, .... 169

Three-Toed Bronze Li/ard, . . 171

Head of Snake, . . . .175

Skeleton of Snake, . . 1 76

Indian Python crushing its Prey, , .181

African Python swallowing a Bird, . 183

Australian Diamond-Snake, . . 185

Streaked Tree-Boa, . .187

Dog- Headed Tree-Boa, . 188

The Home of the Anaconda, . 190

( '< mimon Boa, . . 192

Kgypl ian Sand-Snake, . l!>l

Coral (Vlimler-Snake, . . . 19i:

A Shield-Tailed Snake, . . l'.7



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Xlll



Javan Wart-Snake,

Ringed Snake seizing its Prey,

Viperine and Tesselated Snakes, .

Keel-Tailed Snake,

Javan Pigmy Snake,

The Dark Green Snake,

Black-Marked and Horseshoe -Snakes,

JSsculapian Snake,

Leopard-Snake, .

The Four- Rayed Snake, .

Sipo, or Brazilian Wood-Snake, .

Crowned Moon-Snake,

(Jut-Snake, .

Coral-Snake, .

Long-Glanded Snake and Masked Adder,

Banded Adder, or Raj -Samp,

Young Giant Cobra, or Hamadryad,

Short Death - Adder and Spine - Tailed

Death-Adder, .
Banded Sea-Snake,
Black-Banded Sea-Snake, .

ng-Nosed, or Sand- Viper, .



199
201
202
203
204
206
208
210
211
212
213
215
216
219
220
221
223

225

227
228
233



Russell's Viper,

The Puff- Adder, .

Horned Vipers in the Sand,

The Eja, or Desert Saw- Viper,

Common Rattle-Snake,

Diamond and South American Rattle-



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe new natural history (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 62)