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Snakes,

The Bushmaster, .

Siberian Halys Viper,

Copper-Head, or Moccasin-Snake,

Climbing Pit- Viper,

Rat-Tailed Pit- Viper,

Skeleton of Fish - Lizard containing
Young,

Paddle of Fish-Lizard,

New Zealand Tuatera,

Skull of Hyperodapedon, .

Pelvis and Shoulder-Girdle of an Anomo-
dont, .....

Skull of Pavement-Toothed Anomodont, .

Skull of Wall-Toothed Anomodont,

Skull and Teeth of Galesaur,



AMPHIBIANS



Fire-Bellied Frogs,

Bull-Frogs Disporting,

Skeleton of Salamander, .

Skeleton of Frog, ....

Development of the Frog, .

[oor-Frogs, ....

lie Frogs, ....

ivan Flying Frog,
Variable Tree-Frogs,
East African Short-Headed Frogs,
Solomon Island Sharp-Nosed Frog,
Argentine Homed Frogs, or Escuerzos, .
Mexican Sharp-Nosed Toad,
Grasshopper-Frogs,
European Tree-Frogs,
Male Midwife Frog, with Chains of Eggs,
Smooth Spur-Toed Frog and its Tadpole
Female Surinam Water-Toad,



Flying Fish, .

Skeleton of Perch, ....

Skeleton of Extinct Fringe-Finned Shark,

Skeleton of Sturgeon,

Skeleton of Fin of Fringe-Finned Shark,

Skull of Australian Lung-Fish, .

Palatal Teeth of Extinct Lung-Fish,

Australian Lung-Fish,



PAGE

257
259
260
261
262
264
267
269
270
272
274
275
278
279
281
285
287
288



Alpine Newts, ....

Spotted Salamander,

Alpine Salamander,

Male and Female of Marbled Newt,

Male and Female of Common Newt,

Spectacled Salamander,

Larval Stage of Mexican Axolotl, .

Adult of Mexican Axolotl,

Giant Salamander,

Hell-Bender, or Mississippi Salamander, .

Three- Toed, or Eel-Like Salamander,

The Olm,

Siren Salamander, ....
A Worm-Like Amphibian,
Skeletons of Primeval Salamanders,
Skull of Mastodonsaur,
Vertebrae of Primeval Salamander
Skull of Metoposaur,



FISHES



PAGE

314
316
317
318
319
325
326
327



South- American Mud-Fish,

African Mud-Fish,

Restoration of Berry-Bone Fish, .

Pike- Perch and Common Perch, .

Danubian Perches and Ruffe,

Common Bass, Sea-Perch, and Stone-Bass,

Striped Red Mullet,

Sargo and Gilt-Head,



PAGE

289
292
293
295
297
299
300
301
303
305
306
307
309
310
311
312
312
313



PAGE

328
329
331
334
337
339
345
347



XIV



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PACE

Australian Knife-Jawed Fish, . . 348

Spotted Firm-Fin, . .349

Australian Long-Fin, . . . 350

Bleeker's Plesiops, .... 352
Schomburgk's Many- Spine, . . 353

Group of Spine-Finned Fishes, . . 354

New Zealand Trachichthys, . . 355

Common Meagre, .... 357
Spotted Indian Sword-Fish, . . 359

Scabbard-Fish, .... 361
Common Mackerel and Horse-Mackerel, . 364
Pilot-Fish, . . . . . 365

Coryphsena, .... 368

New Zealand Gastrochisma . . 370

Sucking-Fishes, .... 372
Star-Gazer and Weaver, . . 374

Tile-Fish, . . . . .376

Hoedt's Soft-Spine, . . .377

Barracuda and Angler-Fish, . . 379

Common Bull- Heads, . .381

Sapphirine Gurnards, . . . 383

Armed Bull-Head, . . .384

Beaked Gurnard, . .385

Australian Dragon-Fish, . . . 386

Lump-Sucker and Viviparous Blenny, . 387
Fresh-Water Goby, . . .388

Mud- Skippers Disporting, . . 390

New Zealand Thorny-Nose, . . 392

Japanese Chirus, .... 393
Oblique-Spined Blenny, . . . 395

Indian Spiny Eel and Oil-Fish, . . 396

Sand- Smelt and Square- Tail, . . 398

Commofl. Grey Mullet, . . . 399

Gar-Pike, 401

Group of Sticklebacks, . . . 404

Two-Spotted Sucker-Fish, . . .407

Striated Serpent-Head, . . . !<'!>

Climbing-Perch on Land, . . . 410

Paradise-Fish and Telescope-Fish, . 412

The Gurami, . .413

Pike-Head, . .414

Unicorn-Fish, . . .415

Banks's Ribbon-Fish, . .416

Risso's Thornback, . . . .417

Silver-Dotted Pomacentrus, . . 418

Striped Wrasse, . . . 420

Silvery Viviparous Wrasse, . . 421

Tristram's Chromid, . . . 422

Blue-Finned Tube-Mouth, . . 424

Pipe-Fish and Sea-Horse, . . . 425

Fucus-Like Sea-Horse, . . . 426

Eel-Like Lycodes, . . . .431

Haddock, Whiting and Cod, . . 432

Burbot and Wei*, .... 436



Parasitic Fish in Pearl-Shell,

Lesser Sand-Eel, ....

Mediterranean Mursena, .

Eels in the Mud, ....

Bengal Short-Tailed Eel, .

Electric Eel,

Group of Carp, ....

Group of White-Fish,

Tench, .....

Bitterling, Bleak, and Gudgeon, .

Group of Bream, ....

Sichel, Rapfen, and Beaked Car}),

Group of Loaches, ....

Angola Loach, ....

The Piraya, ....

Head of Cyprinodont,

Female and Male Double-Eye,

Kentucky Blind- Fish,

Common Pike, ....

Beaked Fish and Slender Pikelet,

Bornean Feather- Back,

Brazilian Arapaima,

Chisel- Jaw and Moon- Eye,

Beaked Salmon,

Phosphorescent Sardine, . ,

Silvery Light-Fish and Hedgehog-Mouth,

The Dorab, ....

Long- Finned Herring,

Skeleton of a Saurodont, .

Shad, Sprats, and Herring,

Black Smooth-Head,

Zebra Salmon,

Salmon and Sea-Trout,

May-Trout and Hucho,

Grayling and Charr,

Common Smelt, ....

Mai-anes, .....

Bony-Pike, .....

The Bow-Fin,

Skeleton of Extinct Amioid,

Jaw of Pycnodont, ....

Giant Scale-Tooth,.

Spoon-Beaked Sturgeon, .

Sterlet, .....

Extinct Acipenseroid Fish,

The Bichir,

Skeleton of Hollow-Spined Ganoid,

11 an nner-Headed Shark, .

Spiny Dog-Fis?h and Smooth-Hound,

Indo- Pacific Baaking-Shark,

Lesser S] Kitted Dog- Fish and its Egf,'>.

Port Jackson Shark, . .

Lower Jaw of Port Jackson Shark,

T.-eth of Comb-Toothed Sharks, .



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



xv



Frill-Gilled Shark,
, Angel -Fish,
Japanese Saw-Fish,
Halavi Ray,
Thornback Skates,



PAGE

533

536
537
539

540



Jaws of Thornback,

Common Skate and Marbled Electric Ray,
Teeth of Lobe-Finned Shark,
Restoration of Fold-Finned Shark,
Restoration of Spine-Firmed Shark,



THE LOWEST VERTEBRATES AND THEIR ALLIES



. Group of Lampreys, . . .551

Hag-Fish, . . . . .553

Skeleton of Primeval Lamprey, . . 554

Restoration of Pteraspis, . . . 555

Restoration of Cephalaspis, . . 556

Restoration of Pterichthys, . . . 556
Lancelet, ..... 558

A Leathery Sea-Squirt (Microcosmus), . 561

Section of Sea-Squirt, . . . 562



I'AOE

541
542
546
547
547



PAGE

A Cartilaginous Sea-Squirt (Phallusia), . 565

Pear-Shaped Ascidian (Hypobythius), . 566

A Creeping Ascidian (ClaveUna), . . 567

An Incrusting Ascidian (Botrylloides), . 568

A Compound Ascidian (Amarucium), . 568

An Individual of a Chain-Salpa, . . 570

Botryllus, ..... 572

Young Balanoglossus, . . . 573

A Pyrosoma Colony, . . . 576




ERRATA

PAGE

47. Line 18 from top, after "yet" add "except in the leathery turtle."

77. Line 4 from top, for " rib-process " read " rib-like process."

79. Lines 2 and 3 from top, for "the majority of the vertebrae of the tail have the articular cup
behind and the ball in front" read "the nuchal bones give off rib-like processes underlying
the marginals."

169. Line 6 from bottom, for " 3 " read " 8."
178. Line 10 from bottom, for "African" read "Oriental."
180. Lines 21 and 22 from bottom, transpose "upper" and "lower."
186. Line 12 from bottom, for "New Island" read "New Ireland."
245. Line 7 from top, for " heavy " read " horny."
266. Line 4 from top, for " Australia " read " Papua."

273. Line 12 from bottom, after "and" add "almost."

274. Line 8 from top, for " vertical " read " horizontal."

302. Line 4 from top, for " Hypnobius " read " HynoMus " ; line 22, omit " only."

333. In table, delete "(6) Suborder ISOSPONDYLI Leptolepis " ; and on p. 334, line 7 from top, for
" eight " read " seven."

362, 397. The species of Thyrsites and Sphyrcena are both termed "barracudas 1 ' ; the latter may lie
distinguished as "barracuda-pikes." The account of the fishing of the latter refers to tin-
former.

527. Line 29 from top, /or " Iceland " read " Ireland."

532. Line 25 from bottom, instead of " four . . . five or six" read "five ... six or seven."

534. Line 2 from top, for " developed " read " depressed."




GAMBIER



REPTILES.






CHAPTER I.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS, Class Reptilia.

[x ordinary language the term Reptile is applied indifferently to such creatures
crocodiles, tortoises, lizards, snakes, frogs, and salamanders, but by the
ituralist it is used in a more restricted sense, and includes only the first
)ur of these, together with a host of extinct types; while the frogs and
ilamanders, with certain other forms, both living and extinct, on account of
iportant structural differences, constitute a class by themselves, known as the
Amphibians, and bearing the same rank as the class of Reptiles. To an ordinary
observer there would seem but little in common between a scaled lizard or snake,
a cuirassed crocodile, and a carapaced tortoise, on the one hand, and a feathered
bird on the other. Nevertheless, as we have had occasion to mention at the close
of the preceding volume, the connection between Reptiles and Birds is exceedingly
intimate, so close, indeed, that Professor Huxley has termed the latter greatly
VOL. v. i



REPTILES.



modified Reptiles. At the present day the two groups are, indeed, somewhat
widely sundered; and it is only by the study of forms long since extinct that
we are enabled to grasp the intimate relationship that exists between them.
That Birds are the descendants of Reptiles may accordingly be taken for granted,
although we are still unacquainted with the immediate links connecting the two
classes. In another direction Reptiles are, however, connected through other extinct
forms with the Amphibians ; while from these intermediate, half - Reptile, half-
Amphibian creatures, it is probable, as elsewhere mentioned, that Mammals have
originated. As we shall point out later on, Amphibians are also intimately con-
nected with the class of Fishes, and we thus see how closely allied are all the
classes of the Vertebrates, and how difficult is the task of the naturalist to dis-
tinguish them satisfactorily one from another when the whole of the extinct forms
are taken into consideration. It is, indeed, solely from the still imperfect condition
of our knowledge of the past that we are enabled to formulate any definitions at

all, for had we the whole chain of
organised nature before us, it will be
obvious that no breaks would exist,
but that every group would pass by
imperceptible degrees into the earlier
one from which it originated.

Proceeding to the consideration
of what constitutes a Reptile, as
distinct from any other animal, we
may first point out some of the
features in which Reptiles agree
with Birds, and thereby differ from
Mammals. In the first place, the
skull articulates with the first vertebra
by a single knob, or condyle (V of
the figure) ; while each half of the
lower jaw is composed of several
distinct bones; and the whole lower
jaw articulates with the skull by the

intervention of a separate quadrate-bone. 1 Then, again, both agree in that tin
appendages developed from the outer layer of the skin never take the form
hairs, while the young are not nourished by means of milk secreted by specie
glands on the body of the female parent, neither are gills developed at any perioc
of life, throughout which respiration is effected by means of lungs. A further
resemblance is shown in the position of the ankle-joint between the upper and lower
rows of small bones entering into the composition of that part of the skeleton. In
producing their young from eggs (sometimes retained within the body of the parent
until hatched), Reptiles resemble not only Birds, but likewise the lowest Mammals ;
with which they also agree in the nature of the investments surrounding the
embryo. As regards the distinction between the two groups, Reptiles are broadly




LOWER AND UPPER SURFACES OF THE SKULL OF
A CROCODILE.

iV, aperture of the internal or posterior nostrils ; 0,
sockets of the eyes ; P, vacuities of the palate ; T, frontal
vacuities, or fossae ; V, condyle of the occiput.



1 In the figure the quadrate-bones are the prominences at the hinder external angles on either side of the
letter .V.



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.



it



separated from Birds by the absence of feathers; the appendages of the outer
layer of the skin being in the form either of overlapping horny scales, or of large
shields uniting by their opposed edges. Moreover, all known Reptiles differ from
Birds in having more than three digits in the fore-limb ; while in no cases are
the collar-bones fused into a furcula, as they are in all flying Birds. A further
distinction is to be found in connection with the circulatory system, the blood of
all existing Reptiles being cold, while the aorta, or great propelling blood-vessel of
the heart is double, and
crosses both branches (in-
stead of only the left branch)
of the windpipe. It will
be obvious, however, that
these two last characters
cannot be verified in the
case of extinct Reptiles,
among which it is quite
probable that there may
have been some in which
the blood was warm. A
similar remark will apply
to the absence among living
Reptiles of those ramifica-
tions of the bronchial tubes

iroughout the body, which

)rm such a characteristic
feature in the structure of

Jirds. As additional features

On, It may be THF BONES OF THE LEFT SIDE OF THE PEL vis OF AN EXTINCT

lOticed that Reptiles never DINOSAURIAN REPTILE (fa nat. size).

ave the terminal faces of H, ilium ; p, pubis ; is, ischium. After Marsh.

e vertebrae saddle-shaped ;
while in those forms in which the number of toes in the hind-limb is reduced to three,
e metatarsal bones do not unite to form a cannon-bone in conjunction with the
wer row of bones belonging to the ankle-joint. Then, again, with the exception
one remarkable extinct group, Reptiles, as a rule, are characterised by the three
>nes of the pelvis remaining distinct from one another through life ; whereas in all
xisting birds they are welded together. There are likewise differences in regard
to the form and structure of the breast-bone and sacrum, into the consideration of
which it will be unnecessary to enter in this work.

Diversity of ^ n marked contrast to the uniformity in appearance and structure

Form and characterising Birds, the various groups of Reptiles differ widely from

lre ' one another, both as regards external form and internal structure.

Externally, a lizard, a snake, and a tortoise present the most marked differences in

general appearance among living members of the order ; while among extinct types

there were some which walked on their hind-limbs alone, after the manner of Birds,

and others having their fore-limbs modified into wings and the digits connected




4 REPTILES.

by a leathery membrane like that of bats. In a typical Reptile, such as a lizard
or crocodile, both pairs of limbs are well developed, and of approximately equal
length ; but in the snakes all external traces of limbs have disappeared ; while
in the extinct flying dragons, or Pterodactyles, the fore-limbs much exceed the
hind ones in size, and in many of the so-called Dinosaurs, which are likewise
extinct, the excess in size falls to the share of the hinder pair of limbs. In
other cases, again, the limbs may be modified into paddles, adapted for progres-




SKELETON OF FISH-LIZARD, OK ICHTHYOSAUK.

sion in the water, as in the existing turtles, and the extinct fish -lizards or
Ichthyosaurs ; the body in the latter assuming a somewhat fish-like form. In
nearly all cases Reptiles have long and well-developed tails ; although in some of

the flying dragons these be-
come rudimentary.

A large number of Rep-
tiles are characterised by the
development of bony plates
within the deep layer of the
skin ; such plates, which are
well displayed in existing
crocodiles, being overlain by
horny shields, and thus
corresponding in every re-
spect with those forming
the carapaces of the arm-

RESTORED SKELETON OF ARMOURED DINOSAUR (about -fa liat. size). adllloCS amOn"" Mammals.

sc, shoulder-blade, or scapula; co, coracoid ; h, upper arm-bone, or Among certain CXtlllCt

Imniorus ; r, u, bones of fore-arm, or radius and ulna ; c, wrist or carpus ; Dinosaurs these bony plates
me, metacarpus ; il, haunch-bone, or ilium ; p, pubis ; is, ischium ; /, , ,

thigh-bone, or femur ; ti,fi, bones of lower leg, or tibia and fibula ; fa, attain a

aukle, or tarsus ; mt, metatarsus. After Marsh. paralleled at the present

day ; and in some they are

believed to have occupied the extraordinary position shown in the accompanying
figure.

Still more remarkable differences exist with regard to the form and structure
of the teeth ; which, instead of being, as in the two preceding classes, strictly
confined to the borders of the jaws, may be spread over the entire palate.
In spite, however, of this diversity of form, the teeth of Reptiles differ from nuiny
of those of the majority of Mammals in that they are never implanted in the




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.



jaws by two or more roots ; while in no cases are their crowns complicated by the
presence of infoldings of enamel. The simplest type of reptilian tooth is in the
form of a cone; such conical teeth being confined to the margins of the jaws,
where, as among crocodiles, they may be implanted in distinct sockets, or, as in
the extinct fish -lizards,
in an open groove. In
other cases, as among
lizards, teeth of the same
general type may be
united by a bony deposit
either to the summit or
to one side of the margin
of the jaw. In place
of the one regular re-
placement, characteris-
ing the anterior teeth of
the majority of Mam-
mals, the teeth of most
Reptiles are replaced
irregularly and continu-
ously throughout life ;
the successional teeth

growing up beneath the bases of those in use, and gradually causing an absorp-
tion of their roots. When teeth are distributed over the whole or a greater
portion of the palate, they generally assume a more or less flattened and bean-
:e shape, so as to form a kind of pavement in the mouth, as shown in the
iompanying figure of the under surface of the skull of an extinct reptile.





CONICAL TOOTH OP AN
EXTINCT PLESIO-
SAURIAN REPTILE.



UNDER SURFACE OF SKULL OF AN EXTINCT

REPTILE (Cyamodus), WITH PAVEMENT - LIKE

TEETH ON THE PALATE.




LEFT SIDE OF THE SKULL OF A BEAKED FLYING DRAGON (J liat. size).

a, vacuity in front of the eye ; b, socket of the eye ; c, occipital spine ; d, angle of lower jaw ; e, extremity of
upper, and e', of lower jaw ; q, articulation of the skull proper witli the lower jaw ; s, point where the two branches
of the lower jaw diverge. After Marsh.

Between conical and pavement - like teeth there are various intermediate grades,
some of which will be referred to in the sequel. It is, however, by no means
all members of the class that are provided with teeth ; the tortoises and turtles
being living examples of the total loss of these organs, and the consequent conver-



REPTILES.



sion of the jaws into horn-clad beaks. Certain representatives of the extinct
flying dragons were likewise devoid of teeth ; and as in these forms the horn-
covered jaws were long and narrow, the resemblance to the beak of a bird becomes
most marked.

It has already been stated that the vertebrae of Reptiles never articulate by
means of those saddle-shaped surfaces so characteristic of Birds. They present,
however, great diversity of structure in this respect. In some cases, for instance,
as in the fish-lizards, the bodies or central portions of the vertebrae are very short

from front to back, and have concave surfaces
both in front and behind for mutual articula-
tion. In marked contrast to this type is the





LEFT-SIDE VIEW OF A NECK VERTEBRA
OF A DINOSAUR.

b, anterior ball. After Marsh.



1-



SIDE AND FRONT VIEWS OK THE BOD
OF A FISH-LIZARD.




A VERTEBRA



a, b, attachment of ribs.



neck vertebra of a Dinosaur, where the anterior end of the body of each vertebra
forms a convex knob (&'), received into a cup at the posterior end of the vertebra
in advance. 1 In other instances, as in the existing crocodiles and lizards, an

arrangement pre-
cisely the reverse
of the last is pre-

sent; that is to

yqK^^^^^BH ^^H^^^PT^JA^V

say, the ball is at
the hinder end, and
the cup at the front
of the body of the
vertebra. In a
few lizards and in
all snakes the ver-
tebrae are further
complicated by the
development of

additional articular facets, taking the form of wedge-like projections from one
vertebra, which are received into cavern-like excavations in the adjacent one.





FRONT AND BACK VIEWS OF A VERTEBRA OF A SNAKE.

zi indicates the additional articular process, which is received into the cavity zi l .



1 It should be mentioned that in this figure only the portion of which b is the extremity corresponds with the
whole of the specimen represented in the other figure on the same line.



CLA SSI PICA TION. 7

Omitting mention of certain features connected with their osteology, it may
be observed that among those reptiles with four or five toes to each foot, while a
few, such as certain tortoises, have the same number of joints in each toe as
Mammals, that is to say, two in the first toe, and three in each of the others, in
the greater majority there is a departure from this simple arrangement. In the
lizards, for instance, the number of joints in the toes (reckoning from the first to
the fifth digit) "is 2, 3, 4, 5, 3 in the fore-limb, and 2, 3, 4, 5, 4 in the hind-limb ;
while in crocodiles, where there are but four toes in the latter, the numbers are
respectively 2, 3, 4, 4, 3, and 2, 3, 4, 4. In this increasing number of joints in the
toes from the first to the fourth, such reptiles approximate to birds.

As regards their soft internal parts, Reptiles are characterised by the low
development of their brains ; which, in conjunction with their cold blood, accounts
for the generally sluggish movements of their existing representatives. With the
exception of the crocodiles, Reptiles differ from Birds in that the heart has only
three, in place of four, complete chambers, thus causing the freshly oxygenated
blood returning from the lungs to be mixed with the effete blood which has
traversed the body. Even in crocodiles, where the heart has practically four
chambers, the fresh and effete blood is partially mingled, owing to a communica-
tion between the vessels just outside the heart. Like Birds, Reptiles never have a
midriff completely separating the cavity of the chest from that of the. abdomen.

Classification Reptiles having come into existence at an earlier period than

id Distribution. either Mammals or Birds, and attaining an enormous development
luring epochs when both those groups were but feebly represented, it would be

ily natural to expect that they should have suffered to a much greater extent by
the extinction of types with the lapse of time. As a matter of fact this is found
be the case ; the number of existing orders of Reptiles being now but four (of

rhich one is represented by only one or two species), whereas, if we include the
.'xtinct types, at least nine orders may be recognised. These nine orders, of which
the extinct ones are indicated by asterisks (*) may be named and arranged as
follows, viz. :

1. CROCODILES Crocodilia.
*2. DINOSAURS Dinosauria.
*3. FLYING DRAGONS Ornithosauria.

4. TORTOISES and TURTLES Chelonia.
*5. PLESIOSAURIANS Plesiosauria.

6. LIZARDS and SNAKL,> Squamata.
*7. FISH-LIZARDS Ichthyosauria.

8. TUATERAS, or BEAKED-LIZARDS Rhynchocephalia.
*9. MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILES Anomodontia.

Of these groups, by far the most numerously represented at the present day
is the one containing the lizards and snakes, all of which are highly specialised
forms, occupying a position in the class analogous to that held by the perching
birds in the preceding class ; the majority being comparatively small or medium-
sized forms. Next in point of numbers come the tortoises and turtles, all of which
are protected by the presence of a bony carapace, and some of which attain very



8 REPTILES.

large dimensions. The third numerical position in the fauna of the present day
is held by the crocodiles, of which there are some twenty-four species, all of
relatively large size, and all more or less aquatic in their habits. The fourth
existing order is now represented only by the lizard-like New Zealand tuateras, of
which there is probably but a single species ; although in past times there were
a host of allied forms. Of the five extinct orders the whole, or nearly the whole,
of their representatives ceased to exist with the close of the Secondary period,
that is to say, soon after the deposition of the chalk, and previous to that of the
overlying London clay. During that long period, or " world of reptiles," the class



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