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CHAPTEE V.



THE WORM-LIKE PROTOCHORDATES, Class Bnteropneusta.



at



Same t " ne



Balanoglossus > l west > group of the Proto-

chordates is typically represented by the marine Balanoglossus.
Living buried in the sand or mud of the seashore, these worm-like creatures exhale
a peculiar odour resembling that of the
chemical substance termed iodoform, and
secrete a copious supply of slime, to which
adhere particles of sand, thus forming
a protective tube for their bodies. At the
front extremity of the creature, writes
Mr. Willey, " there is a long and extremely
sensitive proboscis, which is capable of
great contraction and extension, and is in
the living animal of a brilliant yellow
or orange colour. Behind the proboscis
follows a well-marked collar-region, con-
sisting externally of a collar-like expansion
of the integument, with free anterior and
posterior margins overlapping the base
of the proboscis in front and the anterior
portion of the gill-slits behind. (The gill-
slits are seen in our illustration below the
collar.) In the ventral middle line, at the

base of the proboscis, and concealed by the collar, is situated the mouth.
Following behind the collar is the region of the trunk or body proper, which,
in the adult of some species, reaches a relatively enormous length, even extending
to 2 or 3 feet. The ectodermal covering of the body consists in general of ciliated
cells, among which are scattered unicellular mucous glands ; the cilia x however,
appear to be more prominent on the proboscis than elsewhere. In the region
of the trunk, which immediately follows upon the collar-region, there are a great
number of paired openings on the dorsal side of the body placing the anterior
portion of the digestive tract in communication with the outer world. These are
the gill-slits, and they are arranged strictly in consecutive pairs to the number
of upwards of fifty in the adult. In their structure, and more especially in the
possession of tongue-bars, they bear a remarkable resemblance to the gill-slits of
the lancelet. This is particularly striking in young individuals. As the adult
form is approached in the development, the bulk of the gill-slits sinks below the




A YOUNG BALANOGLOSSUS (much, enlarged).



574 SEMI VERTEBRATES.

surface, only opening at the latter by small slit-like pores, and thus their true
character is obscured in superficial view." On dissection, a rod-like structure, which
arises as an outgrowth of the alimentary canal above the mouth, is seen projecting
into the interior of the proboscis; and this rod has been identified with the
vertebrate notochord. Above this rod, and extending farther back, is a dorsal
nerve-chord, corresponding to the vertebrate nerve-tube, and having, as in the
latter, a central canal, at least during the earlier stages of growth. Some distance
behind the notochord this nerve-tube gives off a descending branch, connecting
it with a similar chord lying on the ventral aspect of the animal.

We thus have evidence of the existence in this strange worm-like creature of
three essentially vertebrate characteristics, namely, gill-slits, a notochord, and a
nerve-tube ; and it is not a little remarkable that while in the sea-squirts the
notochord is found in the transitory tail, in Balanoglossus it is situated in the
anterior extremity, where it extends some distance in advance of the mouth.
Quite recently it has been shown that the tornaria-larva of one species of Balano-
glossus also possesses an entostyle (see p. 570), comparable to that of the lancelet
and sea-squirts. That the creature under consideration is closely allied to the
other Protochordates, and thus to the Vertebrates, may be considered fairly certain ;
but there are also indications of affinity with Nonchordates. In the first place,
while certain species of Balanoglossus pass through the earlier stages of their
existence without undergoing a metamorphosis, in other kinds such a transforma-
tion takes place ; the young making its first appearance in the world in the form
of what is known as a tornaria-larva, or one closely resembling that of a starfish.
And it is held by competent naturalists that this resemblance must be indicative
of some kind of genetic relationship between Balanoglossus on the one hand, and
starfish and sea-urchins on the other. In the second place, there are not wanting
indications of affinity with the so-called Nemertine worms, described in the next
volume; these resemblances presenting themselves in the structure of the outer
layer of the skin, the presence of a proboscis (kept retracted in the Nemertines),
as well as in regard to the nervous system, the reproductive organs, and the
alimentary canal.

^ ^ The two other forms included among the Protochordates are

Other Forms.

respectively known as Cephalodiscus and Rkabdopleura, and bear

the same relation to the last as is presented by the compound ascidians to the
lancelet. Both these curious creatures are fixed forms, living in societies, repro-
ducing their kind by means of buds, and having a U-shaped, instead of a straight,
intestine. Both are likewise deep-water creatures, the former having been
dredged in the Straits of Magellan at a depth of two hundred and forty-five
fathoms, while the latter has been taken off the Shetlands in ninety, and off the
Lofoten Islands in two hundred fathoms. Extremely minute in size, Cephalodiscus
lives in colonies, the individuals wandering about the tubes of a common house,
the walls of which are composed of a gelatinous material, covered with spiny
projections, and perforated l>y numerous apertures for the free circulation of water.
The mouth is overhung by a large shield-like plate, surmounted by the row of
plume-like tentacles ; while on the side of the body is a pedicle from which grow
the buds; locomotion being probably effected by means of this pedicle and the



ANCESTRY OF CHORDATES. 575

mouth-plate. The latter contains a short notochordal rod ; and there is a single
pair of gill-slits opening from the pharynx, water being passed into this from the
mouth by the action of the tentacles. In the allied genus Rhabdopleura the
individuals which go to form a colony are connected with one another by means
of a common stem, representing the remnants of their original contractile stalks ;
this stem gradually drying up with the growth of the colony in the region most
remote from the living polyps. Each polyp has but a single plume-like tentacle ;
and the buds arising from the soft part of the common stern never become
detached. While the nervous system and notochord are essentially the same as in
Cephalodiscus, gill-slits are wanting.

Ancestry of Before making a few brief remarks on this interesting but

Chordates. perplexing subject, it may be mentioned that while we have no
satisfactory clue as to the first origin of the notochord, it has been suggested that
the original function of gill-slits was to carry off the superfluous water entering
the mouth with the food ; the connection with respiration being a later addition
to these structures. It is also an important factor in the consideration of this
subject to bear in mind that the whole of the existing Protochordates are to a
greater or less extent degenerate types, although they doubtless retain some original
and simple primitive features. For the proud position of the original ancestral
stock, from which have sprung both Protochordates and Vertebrates, there are
many claimants ; among these being segmented worms or annelids, creatures allied
to the existing king-crab, and star-fishes and sea-urchins. With regard to the
annelid theory, Mr. Willing very significantly remarks that in this case the doctrine
of parallelism in development has not been sufficiently taken into account ; and
that the more complete the superficial resemblance between an Annelid and a
Vertebrate, in the same measure is the parallelism in their developmental history
the more striking, and their genetic affinity the more remote. Neither is it likely
that the king-crab line of descent (in spite of the apparent identity in the structure
of one layer of its shell with that of the Cephalaspidians) will hold good. The
evidence in favour of an alliance between Vertebrates and Echinoderms (sea-urchins
and star-fishes), through the intervention of Balanoglossus, seems, however, to be
steadily gaining ground. Mr. Willey, for instance, remarks that while it is
probable that the proximate ancestor of the Vertebrates was a free-swimming
creature, intermediate in structure between an ascidian larva and the lancelet, the
ultimate or primordial ancestor may be assumed to have been a worm-like animal,
with an organisation approximately on a level with that of the bilaterally sym-
metrical progenitors of the Echinoderms. Mr. Garstang also, having proved that
the larvae of the whole of the latter group can be derived from a single common
type, and likewise having shown that the tornaria-larva of Balanoglossus can be
referred to the same modification, expressed an opinion that the Vertebrates also
trace their origin to the same free-swimming pelagic form. Perhaps still more
probability may attach to a later theory of the same observer, who now comes to
the conclusion that Echinoderms, Enteropneusta, and Chordates are all divergent
branches from a common unknown ancestor; such ancestor being a bilaterally
symmetrical creature with the general appearance of a certain type (Auricularia)
of Echinoderm larva. From the hypothetical common stock the Echinoderms



576



SEMIVER TEBRA TES.



appear to have been derived by a series of changes mainly correlated with the
assumption of their characteristic radial .symmetry ; while the Chordatcs retained
the original bilateral symmetry, at the same time undergoing certain changes, into
the consideration of which it will be unnecessary to enter in this place. Still more
complicated are the changes necessary to evolve Balanoglossus and its allies from
the ancestral form. Such of our readers as are desirous of pursuing further this
interesting subject, may be referred to the works of the observer last mentioned.







A PTBOBOMA-OOLOmr.

Iii life the colony assumes a horizontal position.



INDEX.

VOL. V.



Ablepharus, 168.
Abramis, 463.
Acanthodinidee, 395.
Acanthodinus, 395.
Aonithias, 584.
Acanthodactylus, 1 66.
Acanthodcs, 548.
Acanthodii, 315, 547.
Acanus, 340.
Acerina, 337.
Acichelyidiv, 86.
Acipenscr, 514.
Acipcnscridfc, 514.
Acris, 279.
Acrochordus, 198.
Acrodus, 532.
Acronuridw, 36'2.
Acronurus, 363.
Adinistia, 518.
Actinopterygii, 315, 334.
Adders, 220.

Banded, 221.
Death, 225.
Puff, 235.
Eesplendent, 220.
sEtlicospandyli, 506.
Aetobatis, 544.
Agama, 120.
Aganias, 120.
Armed, 120.
Rough-Tailed, 122.
Spinoso, 121.
Agamidae, 117.
Aglypha, 198.
Agonus, 384.
Albnrnus, 465.

Alepocephalidse, 491.

Alepocephalus, 491.

Alligator, 18.

Alligators, 18.

Double-Tusked, 20.

Alligator-Terrapin, 79.

Alopecias, 526.

y%fcs, 285.

Amarucium, 568.

AmblyccplialidiR, 229.

Amblyopsidze, 471.

Amblyopsis, 471.

AmblyrhyncJius, 136.

Amblystoma, 290.

Amtiva, 156.

Amia, 508.

Amiidae, 508.

Ammoccetcs, 552.

Ammodytcs, 438.

VOL. v. 37



Amphibians, 257.
Amphichelydia, 98.

Amphicyon, 198, 202.
Ampkignathodontidfe, 286.
Amphioxus, 558.
Amphipnous, 450.
Amphisbeena, 158.
Amphisb&nidse, 156.
Amphisile, 406.
Amphiuma, 305.
Amphiumidse, 302.
Anabantidae, 409.
Anabcts, 410.
Anableps, 470.
Anacanthini, 430.
Anacanthus, 427.
Anaconda, 189.
A'iMrrhic/ias, 394.
Anchinia, 572.
Anchovy, 491.
Ancish'odon, 243.
AnelytropidtB, 171.
Angel- Fish, 535.
Anglers, 378.
Anguidx, 145.
Anguilla, 446.
Anguis, 147.
Anolis, 130.
Anomalochilus, 196.
Anomodonts, 254.
Anoplogastcr, 355.
Antcnnarias, 380.
Anthias, 339.
Aphyonus, 437.
Apioniclithys, 444.
Apoda, 309.
Aporoscelis, 127.
Appendicularia, 572.
Arapaimas, 477.
Arius, 454.

Armed Bull-Head, 384.
Arthrodira, 315, 330.
Ascidia, 566.
Ascidians, 561.
Ascidiidss, 565.
Asp, 236.
Aspidites, 186.
Aspidorhynchidas, 507.
Aspidorhynchus, 507.
Aspius, 464.
^spro, 336.
Astcracanthus, 532.
Astronesthes, 483.
Atherina, 397.
Athcrinidee, 397.



Atlantosaurus, 35,
Auliscops, 406.
Aulostom-a, 406.
Aulostomatidsa, 403.
Australian Lung-Fish, 326.
Axolotls, 299.



&, 352.
aena, 98.
Bagarius, 454.
Bagrus, 456.
Batistes, 427.
Balistidse,, 427.
Balannglossus, 573.
Band-Fishes, 391.
Baptemys, 78.
Barbel, 458.
Barbus, 458.
Barracuda Pike, 397.
Barracudas, 362, 397.
Barramundi, 326.
Basil iscus, 132.
Basilisks, 132.
Bass, 339.
Batagur, 75.
Bathydraco, 375.
Baihythrissidee, 485.
Batrachidse, 376.
Batracliopsis, 284.
Batrachus, 377.
Batrachyperus, 302.
Bdellostoma, 554.
Beaked Fish, 474.
Beaked Gurnards, 385.
Beaked Lizards, 252.
Beaked Salmon, 481.
Bdlia, 72.
Below, 400.
Bdonorhyndius, 5] 7.
Berry-Bone Fishes, 330.
BerydiidaB, 353.
J?c?T/ar, 354, 355.
^c<to, 413.
Bichir, 517.
Bitterling, 462.
Bleak, 465.
Blennies, 391, 393.
BlenniidiK, 391, 393.
Blennius, 394.
Blind-Fish, 471.
Blind-Soles, 444.
Blind-Worm, 147.
Blue Shark, 522, 523.
.Boa, 191.
!, 181.



INDEX.



Boinee, 186.
Boas, 187.

Dog-Headed, 189.

Keeled, 189.

Tree, 187.

True, 191.
Bolieria, 195.
Bombinator, 284.
Bony Fishes, 333.
Bony Pike, 506, 507.
Bow-Fin, 508.
Botryllidaz, 567.
Botrylloidcs, 568.
Botryllus, 568.
Box, 347.
Brachydirus, 331.
Brachylophus, 140.
Branchiostoma, 558.
Branchiostomatidw, 558.
Bream, 463.
Brontosaurus, 35.
Brookcsia, 172.
Brosmius, 437.
Brotula, 437.
.fiw/o, 277.
Bufomdse, 276.
Bull-Heads, 380, 381.
Bunyarus, 221 .
Burbot, 435.
Bushmaster, 243. .

Cachuya, 74.
Caimans, 15.
Caiman, 17.
Calabar ia, 186.
Calamoichthys, 517.
Californiau toad, 142.
Callagur, 75.
Callichthys, 455.
Callionymus, 491.
Callorhynchus, 332.
Callophis, 220.
Calotes, 119.
Canthunis, 347.
Cantorirt, 218.
Carangidas, 363.
Carctnx, 363, 364.
Carassius, 458.
Carcharias, 522, 523.
Carchariidee, 522.
Carcharodon, 526.
CareUoclielyidsR, 97.
Carcttochelys, 97.
Carps, 456.

Beaked, 462.

Crucian, 458.

Golden, 458.

True, 456.
Casarea, 193.
Cat-Fishes, 452.

Eel-Like, 454.

Electric, 455.

Mailed, 456.

Yarrell's, 454.
Caturus, 509.
Caudata, 289.
Cave-Fish, 437.
Ccntrarchidse, 338.
Centrarchus, 338.
Cent'riscidae, 403.
Centriscus, 406.
Centrogenys, 338.



34.

/x//.s', 339.

Cephaltupis, 556.
Ccphalodiscus, 574.
Cephalojitera, 544.
Ccpola, 391.
Ccpolidee, 391.
Cerastes, 236.
Oeraterpctum, 313.
Ceratobatrachida; 273.
Ccratobatrachus, 273.
Ceratodus, 326.
Geralophrys, 274.
Cerates, 39.
Cestracion, 530.
Cestraciontidie, 530.
Cetorhinus, 527.
Chsetodon, 343.
Ch&todontidaz, 343.
Chalcides, 170.
Chamielcon, 172.
Chaimeleons, 171.
Chamseleontidae,, 172.
Chamaesaurus, 144.
Channa, 408.
Characinidx, 468.
Characmus, 468.
Charina, 195.
Charr, 561.
Chauliodus, 483.
C/iclmon, 343.
Chelodiiia, 93.
Chclonc, 82.
Chclonia, 42.
Chclonidse, 81.
Chelydra, 79.
Chelydridse, 78.
Chelyidw, 88.
Chelys, 90.
Chersydrus, 199.
Chilodactylus, 351.
Chiloscyllium, 530.
Chim&ra, 331.
Chimeeridee, 331.
Chimaeroids, 315, 331.
Chioglossa, 294.
Chiridas, 392.
Chirocentrid&, 484.
Chirocentrus, 484.
Chirotes, 157.
C%ir?w, 392.
("hisel-Jaw, 480.
CAifra, 100.
Chlamydosaurus, 1 23.
Chlamydoselache, 532.
Chologaster, 472.
Chondrojnjthon, 186.
Chondrostei, 510.
Chondrostcus, 516.
Chondrostoma, 462.
Choridactylus, 351.
CJiorincmus, 350.
Chromididx, 418, 422.
Chromis, 423.
Chryscmys, 73.
Chrysichthys, 455.
CMhonerpctum, 310.
Chub, 459.
Cladocydus, 397.
Cladodontia, 546.
Cladosclache, 547.
Claosaurus, 38.



Clarias, 454.

Claudius, 78.

Clavelina, 567.

ClavclliiiidiK, 567.

' '/'-in in i/it, 70.

' 7;</<mtcs, 249.

Climbing-Perch, 410.

Clupca, 486.

Clupcidx, 486.

' 'ininliosaurus, 102.

Cinostern idee , 77.

Cinosternum, 77.

' 'i /!<.' i/ft, 63.

Cirrhites, 350.

Cirrhitichthys, 350.

Cirrhitidx, 349.

Cistudo. 66.

Coal-Fish, 434.

Cobitis, 467.

Cobras, 222.

Coccostcidie, 331.

Coccosfcus, 330.

Cod Tribe, 431.

Ciecilia, 310.

Cosciliidae, 309.

Ccelacant/ms, 518.

Coffer- Fishes, 427, 428.

CbiYia, 491.

Coluber, 209.

Colubridas, 198.

Comb-Gilled Fishes, 423, 427.

Comephorus, 396.

Compsognathus, 36.

Conger, 449.

Conolophus, 137.

Conyrodus, 439.

Corallus, 189.

Coronella, 205, 209.

Coryphsena, 368.

Coryphaenida?,, 368.

Corythophancs, 134.

Cotiidie, 386.

6^oits, 381.

Craits, 221.

Crenidens, 347.

Crocodiles, 10.

Earlier, 32.

Estuarine, 22.

Existing, 15.

Indian, 21.

Long-Nosed, 27.

Nile, 24.

Orinoco, 27.

Sharp-Nosed, 26.

Siam, 25.

Stumpy, 20.

True, 21.
Crocodilia, 10.
Crocodilidte, 15.
Crocodilus, 21.
Crossopteryaii, 315, 333 517.
Crotaliis, 239.
Cryptobranchus, 304.
Cryptodira, 89.
Ctenosaitrn, 141.
Curtidse, 355.
Curtus, 355.
Cybium, ; i71.
Cyclanorbis, 100.
Cyclcmys, 66.
Cydodcrma, 100.
Cydomyaria, 572.



INDEX.



579



CydopteridsR, 386.
Cydopterus, 387.
Cydosalpa, 572.
Cyclostomafa, 549.
Cyclura, 140.
Cynodon, 469.
Cynthiidss, 565.
CyprinidSB, 456.
Cyprinodon, 470.
Cyprinodontidse; 469.
Ci/pri/iKS, 456.
CijUidx, 366.
?/, 367.

Dadylopteridie, 384.
Dactylopterus, 385.
Dace, 460.
Damonia, 72.
Danubian Perches, 336.
Dapediuf, 510.
Dapedoglossus, 477.
Dasypeltis, 214.
Dendrelaphis, 214.
Dendrobatcs, 271.
Dendrdbatidse, 271.
Dendrophis, 214.
DendrophryniseidsB, 276 .
Dentice, 348.
DermatemydidsR, 77.
Dcrmatemys, 78.
Dcsmognathus, 302.
Devil-Fish, 543.
Dibamidae, 171.
Dicamptodon, 302.
Dicerobatis, 544.
Dicynodonts, 255.
Dmosaiiria, 33.
Dinosaurs, 33.

Armoured, 38.

Bird-Like Group, 36.

Carnivorous Group, 35.

Horned, 38.

Lizard-Footed Group, 34.
Diodon, 429.
Diodontidx, 428.
Dipnoi, 315, 326.
Diplacanthus, 548.
Diplocynodon, 20.
Diplomystus, 490.
Dipsas, 217.
Discoglossidse, 284.
Discoglosxus, 284. '
Distira, 229.
Ditrema, 422.
Ditrematidte, 421.
Dog-Fishes, 529, 530.

Spiny, 533.
Dolichosauria, 249.
Ddichoaoma, 313.
Doliolum, 572.
Dorab, 484.
Doras, 455.
Dories, 366.
Doryichthys, 425.
Double-Eyes, 470.
Draco, 118.
Dragonets, 391.
Dragon-Fish, 386.
Drum, 356.
DryopMs, 217.

Eagle-Rays, 543.



Ecaudata, 257.
Eclieneis, 371.
Ediiostoma, 483.
&7m, 238.
Edaphodon, 332.
Eel-Pout, 435.
Eels, 445.

Conger, 449.

Deep-Sea, 449.

Electric, 451.

Serpent, 449.

Short- Tailed, 450.

Single-Slit, 450.

Spiny, 395.

True, 446.
Eja, 237.
Elacate, 371.
.Efops, 218.
Elasmobranchii, 315.
Elasmodus, 332.
Electric Eel, 451.
Electric Rays, 542.
^ops, 491.
Elseya, 93.
Emperor-Fish, 344.
Emyda, 100.
Emydura, 93.
-Eto^s, 68.
Encheliophis, 438.
Engraulis, 491.
Engystoma, 271.
Engystomatidse, 271.
Enteropneusta, 573.
Enygrus, 189.
Eosphargis, 88.
Epicrates, 188.
ErythrinidsR, 468.
#n/x, 194.
Escuerzos, 275.
EsocidsR, 473.
#soc, 473.
Eublepharis, 116.
Euneces, 191.
Eustomias, 484.
Exomegas, 553.

Fan-Finned Fishes, 334.
Feather-Backs, 475.
Fer-de-Lance, 248.
Ferreiro, 281.
Fierasfer, 438.
Fighting-Fish, 413.
File-Fishes, 427.
Firm -Fin, 350.
Fishes, 314.
Fish -Lizards, 250.
Fistularia, 406.
Fiat-Fishes, 439.
Flounder, 443.
Flute-Mouths, 403, 405.
Flying-Dragons, 39.
Flying-Fish, 400, 401.
Flying-Gurnards, 384.
Fold- Finned Sharks, 546.
Fringe-Filmed Ganoids, 517.
Frog-Fishes, 376, 377.
Frogs, 257, 265.

Agile, 266.

Antillian, 276.

Bull, 268.

Common, 266.

Darwin's, 272.



Frogs continued.

Disc-Tongued, 284.
Edible, 266.
European, 266.
Extinct, 284.
Fire-Bellied, 284.
Flying, 269.
Grasshopper, 279.
Guppy's, 268.
Horned, 274.
Leaf, 276.
Midwife, 285.
Montezuma's, 268.
Moor, 266.

Narrow-Mouthed, 271.
Piping, 276.
Pouched, 282.
Sharp-Nosed, 273.
Short-Headed, 272.
Southern, 273.
Spur-Toed, 286.
Tongueless, 286.
Tree, 271, 279.
Typical, 265.
Water, 265.

Gadidae, 431.
&'ac?iis, 433.
Galesaur, 255.
Galeus, 524.
Garial, 30.

Extinct, 31.

Schlegel's, 29.
Garialis, 30.
Gar-Pike, 400.
Gaslrocliismn, 369.
Gastrosteidse, 403.
Gastrosteus, 403.
GcckonidsR, 110.
Geckos, 110.

Eyelid, 116.

Fringed, 114.

Lobe- Footed, 112.

Turkish, 112.

Wall, 114.
Gegenopliis, 310.
Genypterus, 438.
Geoemyda, 64.
Geotria, 553.
Gerrohonotus, 146.
Gilt-Heads, 348.
Glauconia, 180.
GlauconiidaR, 180.
Globe-Fishes, 428.
Gobies, 388.
Gobiidse, 388.
ofo'o, 459.
GoUus, 388.
GobioesocidsR, 407.
Gobiocsox, 408.
Gongylophis, 195.
Goniognathus, 369.
Goniopholis, 32.
Gonorhynchidse, 481.
Gonorhynchus, 481.
Grayling, 505.
Grey Mullets, 399.
Gudgeons, 459.
Gurami, 412.
Gurnards, 380, 382.
Gymnarchiis, 475.
Gymnelis, 431.



580



INDEX.



Gymnoscopelus, 482.
Gymiiotidse, 445.
Gymnotu*, 451.
Gyroptychius, 519.

Haddock, 433.
Hag- Fishes, 550, 553.
Hair-Tails, 362.
Hairy-Backs, 392.
Hake, 435.
ffalargyreus, 435.
Half-Beaks, 401.
Haliophis, 439.
Hamadryad, 223.
Hammer-Headed Shark, 524.
Haplochiton, 492.
Haplochitonids, 491.
Haplodactylus, 347.
Hardella, 75.
Harottia, 332.
Hausen, 515.
Hedgehog-Mouths, 483.
HeUcojts, 204.
Hell-Bender, 304.
Helminthophis, 1 80.
Heloderma, 148.
Helodcrmatidw, 148.
Hemerocoiites, 392.
Hemibungarus, 221.
Hemichelys, 97.
ffcmimyaria, 570.
Hemiphractidse, 286.
Hcmirhamphus, 401.
Hemirhynchus, 362.
Heniochus, 344.
Herrings, 486, 487, 490.
Heterocarpus, 422.
Heterocephalus, 239.
Heterotis, 478.
Hippocampus, 426.
Hippoglossus, 442.
Histiophorm, 358.
Holaccmthus, 344.
Holocentrum, 354.
Ifolocephali, 315, 326, 331.
Holoptychius, 519.
Holibut, 442.
ffomalopsis, 218.
Homalopterus, 456.
HomcRosaurus, 254.
Homopus, 62.
Hoplognathidsz, 349.
Hoplognathus, 349.
ffoplosaunis, 35.
Horned Lizards, 142.
Horse- Mackerels, 363.
Hi/bodus, 532.
Hydraspis, 93.-
Hydrocyon, 469.
Hydromedusa, 92.
ffydrophis, 228.
Hydrus, 228.
Hyl&obatrachus, 300.
Hylesochelys, 97.
Hylidie, 279.
y///A/, 280.
Hy lodes, 276.
ffylonomus, 313.
Ifypnobius, 302.
II !t<><l<>n, 479.
Jfyodont.idae, 479.
1 1 H ! rodapedon, 254.



Hypobythius, 566.
Ichthyophis, 310.
Ichthyopterygia, 250.
Ichthyosaurs, 250.
Ichthyoscopics, 375.
Jchthyotomi, 315, 545.
Ide, 460.
Tgiuina, 139.
Iguanas, 128.

Black, 141.

Extinct, 142.

Fijian, 140.

Ring- Tailed, 140.

True, 139.
Iquanavus, 142.
/ifi/i'iiidte, 128.
Iguanodons, 37.
Ilysia, 195. ,
Hytiidte, 195.
Ischnacanthus, 548.
Isospondyli, 475.

Jacares, 16.
Jaouaru, 154.
Jararaca, 248.

Knerria, 468.
Kncmidse, 468.
Knife-Jawed Fishes, 349.
Kreuzotter, 230.

Labaria, 248.

Labridai, 418, 419.

Labrus, 419.

Labyrinth-Gilled Fishes, 409.

Labyrinthodontia, 311.

Laccrta, 159.

Laccrtidse, 158.

Lacertilia, 104.

Lnchcsis, 243.

Liemargus, 334.

Lamna, 526.

LamnidsR, 525.

Lampreys, 549, 550.

Lampris, 368.

Lancelets, 558.

Lariosaur, 103.

Larvacea, 572.

, 340.

, 375.
Latilus, 375.
Latris, 351.
Latnmculwt, 389.'
Leathery Turtles, 86.
Le.padogaster, 407.
JspidoeoUits, 381.
Lcpidopus, 360.
Lr.pidosiren, 328.
LepidorirenidsB, 326.
Lepidostcidw, 506.
/.I'/iii/n.i/i'iis, 507.
/.'jiiiftifiis. 510.
Laptocardii, 558.
Leptodactylidse, 273.
Leptodactylus, 276.
Lfptolepis, 491.
Lcptoscopus, 375.
/,1'iifiifs/iitix, 466.
/.-cc/.svv/x. 459.
A/W/X 116.

/.v, 186.

, 195.



Light Fish, 482.
Ling, 436.
Liodesmus, 509.
Cjodtm, 249.
Li/arils, 104.

Againoid, 107.

Anolis, 130.

Australian Frilled, 122.

Beakerl, 252.

Bronxe, 170.

Ceylon Horned, 120.

Flying, 118.

Fringe-Toed, 166.

Galapagos, 135, 137.

Girdled, 143.

Greaved, 153.

Green, 160.

Horned. 142.

Keeled, 165.

Long-Necked, 249.

Moloch, 127.

Oriental Tree, 119.

Pearly, 159.

Poisonous, 148.

Ridge-headed, 134.

Sail-Tailed, 123.

Scale-Footed, 116.

Sea, 135.

Snake- Eyed, 168.

Snake-Like, 145.

Stilted, 134.

Stump-Tailed, 167.

Thorny-Tailed, 124, 127.

True, 158.

Viviparous, 162.

Wall, 163.
Loaches, 466.

African, 468.
Lobe-Finned Sharks, 546.
Loggerhead, 83.
Long-Finned Herring, 485.
Long-Fins, 351.
Long-Tails, 439.
Lophiidie, 379.
Lophius, 379.
Lophobranchii, 423.
Lopholatilus, 375.
Lophotes, 414.
Lophotidse, 414.
Li>lnirus, 123.
Loricaria, 455.
ioto, 435.
Loxocemus, 186.
Lin-ifiiga, 437.
LuciocephaJ/idiv, 409.
Lucioccpha/its, 414.
Luciopcrca, 336.
Lump-Suckers, 386.
Lung-Fishes, 315, 326.
Luth, 86.
/.i/foi/ftt, 431.
LycodidsR, 430.
Lytoloma, 86.

Mackerels, 369.
Macroclcmmys, 80.



, 439.

439.

... -Months, 423.

'/.r, 878.

x, 376.




INDEX.



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe new natural history (Volume 5) → online text (page 61 of 62)