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BIOLOGY

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THE ROYAL



NATURAL HISTORY




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THE ROYAL
NATURAL HISTORY



EDITED BY



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S., ETC,



WITH PREFACE BY

P. L. SCLATER, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S., ETC.

SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON



ILLUSTRATED WITH

Seventy -two Coloured Plates and Sixteen Hundred Engravings



W. KUHNERT, F. SPECHT, P. J. SMIT, G. MUTZEL, A. T. ELWES, J. WOLF,
GAMBIER BOLTON, F.Z.S.; AND MANY OTHEKS



VOL. r.



LONDON

FREDERICK WARNE & CO.
AND NEW YORK

1893-94

[All Bights Reserved]



.-*.\
tssss

6



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*." ' ;" r \ c



MORRISON AND GIB^, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.




THE FIELD VOLE



ERRATUM.

PAGE 37. The number of wrist bones should be eight and nine, as correctly stated on page 49.

PREFACE



rilHERE appears to bo no limit to the demand for popular works on
Natural History in these days, especially if they be accompanied by well-
executed Illustrations. There can be little doubt, therefore, that The Royal
Natural History will meet with a favourable reception, and, so far as I am
acquainted with it, I have great confidence in commending it to my brother
naturalists.



The text has been planned in such a way as to render it available not only
for general information about the objects described in it, but also as a guide
to their classification ; and on such lines it will indeed be of priceless value to the
travelling naturalist and to the resident in foreign countries. Applications for

252331



tssss

6



MORRISON AND GIB^, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH.




THE FIELD VOLE



PREFACE



rilHERE appears to be no limit to the demand for popular works on
Natural History in these days, especially if they be accompanied by well-
executed Illustrations. There can be little doubt, therefore, that The Royal
Natural History will meet with a favourable reception, and, so far as I am
acquainted with it, I have great confidence in commending it to my brother
naturalists.



The text has been planned in such a way as to render it available not only
for general information about the objects described in it, but also as a guide
to their classification ; and on such lines it will indeed be of priceless value to the
travelling naturalist and to the resident in foreign countries. Applications for

252331



vi PREFACE

advice as to a good general book on Natural History are amongst those very
frequently to be found in the foreign letter-box of the Secretary of the Zoological
Society of London, and it will be a great satisfaction to him to be able to answer
them in a definite way.

As regards the Illustrations to be employed in the present work, there need not
be any apprehension as to their fitness for the purpose. They are mainly drawn
from what is newest and most satisfactory in the current and largely augmented
edition of Brehm's Tierleben, which is familiar to naturalists as one of the best
illustrated works on popular Natural History ever issued. Specht and Mlitzel,
for instance, to whose artistic pencils a large proportion of these pictures are due,
are well known as being among the most charming portrayers of animal life of
the present day, rivalling even Joseph Wolf and Keulemans in their sketches ;
and many of the other illustrators are of equally favourable reputation. Moreover,
to this nucleus of acknowledged excellence there have been added many original
drawings and engravings of a similar standard of pictorial merit, including not
a few electrotypes from the Proceedings of the Zoological Society and other
recognised sources of recent and trustworthy animal portraiture.

The public are much indebted to private enterprise for ventures of such
magnitude as The Royal Natural History, in which, on an unusually wide
scale, there is a genuine endeavour to give the results of modern investigation in a
convenient and appropriate form, worthy in every respect of the subject, and under
such arrangements as practically place the volumes within everybody's reach.

The study of Natural History has always been deservedly popular with
young and old ; its interest and its educational value as an incentive to thought
and as a stimulant to observational power have ever held high place. The whole
civilised world gains by any addition to the facilities of its pursuit, and by any



PREFACE MII

enterprise that promotes inquiry into the structure and conditions of existence
of the breathing myriads around us.

The Publishers have, I think, very wisely determined to devote a rather large
proportion of the six volumes of The Royal Natural History to the Mammalian
class. Mammals, as of all the animal kingdom approaching man most nearly
in structure, are naturally of the greatest interest to him ; they are, moreover, in
most cases, the first objects likely to attract notice in a strange country, though on
this point it must be admitted that in some parts of the world Birds run them
hard. It can, however, be no matter of complaint on the part of the public in
general if two volumes and a half of The Royal Natural History are devoted to
Mammals.



Finally, I may remark that it is now more than ten years ago since the last
general work of Natural History of this character was published in this country.
Science moves fast nowadays, and during the past ten years numerous and
remarkable discoveries have been made in every branch of zoology. These require
to be annexed and incorporated in a new work. Knowing the energetic character
of the Editor, how ably he is supported in his task, and how well acquainted he
is with what is going on in every part of the zoological world, I have little
doubt that The Royal Natural History will be quite up to the present level of
information in every branch of this wide subject, and will form a Reference Work
of the highest value.

P. L. SCLATER.

3 HANOVER SQUARE, LONDON, W.



NOTE



nnHE EDITOR desires to take this opportunity of stating that in such portions
of the work as are not from his own pen, the Chapters will be signed
by their respective authors. His thanks may, at the same time, be offered to
the PUBLICATION COMMITTEE OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON for the
kind permission afforded to make use of numerous figures from the Society's
publications ; and they are likewise due to Messrs. MACMILLAN, Mr. JOHN MURRAY,
Mr. T. SOUTHWELL, and Mr. ROWLAND WARD for similar permission.




FOX-TERRIER "SPOT," THE PROPERTY OF H.M. THE QUEEN.



CONTENTS



MAMMALS



CHAPTER I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMALS.

PAGE

Principles of Classification Genera, Families, Orders, and Classes Structure of Vertebrates
Characteristics of Mammals External Covering Skeleton Teeth Importance of
Mammals Their Past History Mammalian Orders, ..... 1

CHAPTER II. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS (Primates).

THE MAN-LIKE APES (Simiidce). General Characteristics Distribution Special Features
Chimpanzee Bald Chimpanzee" Sally"" Maf uka "Gorilla Orang-Utan Fossil
Apes Gibbons Siamang White-Handed Gibbon Hoolock Agile Gibbon Wou-
Wou Fossil Gibbons, . . . . . . . . .14

CHAPTER III. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMUR'S, continued.

THE OLD -WORLD MONKEYS AND BABOONS (Cercopithecidce). Structure Distribution
Langurs (Semnopithecus) Hanumaii Himalayan Langur Madras Langur Banded
Leaf-Monkey Negro Monkey Crested Lutong Nilgiri Langur Capped Langur
Dusky Leaf-Monkey Hose's Langur Done Tibetan Langur Fossil Langurs
Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis) Thumbless Monkeys (Colobus) Guereza Black Colob
King Monkey Ursine Colob White-Thighed Colob Bay Colob Crested Colob, . 66

CHAPTER IV. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS, continued.

THE OLD-WORLD MONKEYS AND BABOONS, continued. The Guenons (Cercopithecus)
Talapoin Monkey Malbrouck Monkey Vervet Grivet Green Monkey Mozam-
bique Monkey Patas and Nisnas Monkeys Sykes's Monkey Mona Monkey Diana
Monkey OtherSpecies Pluto Monkey Moustache Monkey Hocheur White-Nosed
Monkey Ludio Mangabeys, or White-Eyelid Monkeys (Cercocebus) Sooty Mangabey
Grey-Cheeked Mangabey Macaques (Macacus) Bonnet Monkey Crab-Eating
Macaque Lion-Tailed Monkey Bengal Monkey Pig-Tailed Monkey Burmese Pig-
Tailed Monkey Brown Stump-Tailed Monkey Magot, or Barbary Macaque Its
Habits at Gibraltar Extinct Macaques Black Ape (Cynopithecus) Gelada Baboon
(Theropithecus) True Baboons (Cynocephalus) Arabian or Sacred Baboon Chacma
Anubis Baboon Yellow Baboon Guinea Baboon Mandrill Drill Extinct Baboons, 92

CHAPTER V. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS, continued.

THE AMERICAN MONKEYS (Cebidce). Distinctive Characters Sapajous, or Capuchins (Cebus)
White-Cheeked Sapajou Brown Sapajou Slender Sapajou Weeper Sapajou



x CONTENTS

PAGE

White-Fronted Sapajou White-Throated, Smooth-Headed, and Crested Sapajous
Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix) Woolly Spider-Monkeys (Eriodes) Spider-Monkeys
(Ateles) Red-Faced Spider- Monkey Other Species Variegated Spider-Monkey
Douroucolis (Nyctipithecus) Three-Banded Douroucoli Other Species Squirrel
Monkeys (Chrysothrix) Common Squirrel-Monkey Short-Tailed Squirrel-Monkey
Black-Tailed Squirrel-Monkey Titi Monkeys Red Titi Collared Titi Moloch Titi
Black-Fronted Titi Black-Handed Titi Saki Monkeys (Pithecia) White-Headed
Saki Humboldt's Saki Red-Backed Saki -Black Saki White-Nosed Saki Uakari
Monkeys (Uacaria) Bald Uakari Red-Faced Uakari Black-Headed Uakari
Howling Monkeys (Mycetes) Black Howler Vera Cruz Howler Red Howler
Brown Howler Mantled Howler Fossil American Monkeys, . . . .144

CHAPTER VI. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS, continued.

THE MARMOSETS (Hapalidce). Distinctive Characters Short-Tusked Marmosets (Hapale)
Common Marmoset Black-Eared and White-Eared Species Silver Marmoset Black-
Tailed Marmoset Pigmy Marmoset Long-Tusked Marmosets, or Tamarins (Midas)
Negro-Tamarin Red-Handed Tamarin Brown-Handed Tamarin Moustached
Tamarin Pinche Silky Marmoset, . . . . . . .188

CHAPTER VII. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS, continued.

THE LEMURS (Lemuridce). Characteristics Indri Lemur (Indris) Propitheques, or Sifakas
(Propithecus) Diademed Sifaka Verreaux's Sifaka Crowned Sifaka Avahi Lemur
(Avahis) True Lemurs (Lemur) Ring-Tailed Lemur Red-Fronted Lemur
Mungoose Lemur White-Fronted and Black-Fronted Species Black Lemur Ruffed
Lemur Gentle Lemur (Hapalemur) Weasel-Lemur (Lepidolemur) Mouse-Lemurs
(Chirogaleus) Their Various Species Galagos, or African Lemurs (Galago) Great
Galago Garnett's Galago Allen's Galago Senegal Galago DemidofFs Galago Slow
Lemurs, or Loris (Nycticebus and Loris) Common Loris Slender Loris Pottos, or
African Slow Lemurs (Perodicticus) Bosnian's Potto Awantibo Fossil Lemurs, . 199

CHAPTER VIII. APES, MONKEYS, AND LEMURS, conceded

THE TARSIER AND THE AYE-AYE. The Tarsier (Tarsius) Its Peculiarities of Structure, and
Mode of Life The Aye-Aye (Chiromys) Its Rodent-like Teeth General Structure
and Appearance Food and Habits, ....... 237

CHAPTER IX. BATS, Order Chiroptem.

Their Flight Structure Migrations Distribution Fruit-Bats (Pteropodidce) Common
Fruit-Bats, or Fox-Bats (Pteropus) Tailed Fox-Bats (Xantharpyia) Epauletted Fruit-
Bats (Epomophorus) Short-Nosed Fruit-Bats (Cynopterus) Tube-Nosed Fruit-Bats
(Harpyid) Cusped - Toothed Fruit - Bat (Pteralopex) Long - Tongued Fruit-Bats
(Carponycteris\ .......... 247

CHAPTER X. BATS, continued.

THE INSECT-EATING BATS (Microchiroptera). Distinctive Features Horseshoe and Leaf-
Nosed Bats (Rhinolophidce) False Vampire-Bats and their Allies (Nyderidce) Typical
Bats ( VespertilionidcR) Long-Eared Bats Barbastelle, Pipistrelle, Noctule, and
Serotine Parti-Coloured Bat Silver-Haired Bat Hoary Bat and Red Bat Tube-
Nosed Bats Daubenton's Bat, Natterer's Bat, etc. Schreiber's Bat Sucker-Footed
Bats, . . ... 262



CONTENTS xi



CHAPTER XL BATS, concluded.

THE FREE-TAILED INSECTIVOROUS BATS Smooth-Nosed Free-Tailed Bats (Emballonuridce)
Sheath-Tailed Bats (Emballonurd) Pouch-Winged Bats (Saccopteryx) Tomb-Bats
(Taphozous) White Bats (Diclidurus) Hare-Lipped Bats (Nodilio) Long-Tailed Bat
(Rhinoponia) Mastiff- Bats (Molossus) Naked Bat (Chiromeles) Wrinkled-Lipped Bats
(Nyctinomus) New Zealand Bat (Mystacops) Vampire Bats (Phyllostomatidce) Chin-
Leafed Bats (Chilonyderis and Mormops) Harmless Vampires (Vampirus) Javelin
Bats (Phyllostoma) Long-Tongued Vampires (Glossophaga) Short-Nosed Vampires
(Artibeus) Blood-Sucking Vampires (Desmodus and Diphylla) Fossil Bats, . . 289



CHAPTER XII. THE INSECTIVORES, Order Insectivora.

Characteristics of the Group Cobegos, or Kaguans (Galeopithecidce) Philippine Cobego
Tree-Shrews, or Tupaias (Tupaiidce) Pen-Tailed Tree-Shrew (Ptilocercus) Fossil Tree-
Shrews Jumping Shrews (Macroscelididce) Typical Forms (Macrosceles) Rock
Jumping Shrew Long-Nosed Jumping Shrew (Rhynchocyori) Its Habits Hedgehogs
and Gymnuras (Erinaceidce) Hedgehogs (Erinaceus) African Species Extinct Repre-
sentatives Gymnuras (Gymnura) Extinct Forms Shrews (Soricidce) Typical Shrews
(Sorex) Common Shrew Lesser Shrew Alpine Shrew North American Shrews
Short-Tailed, or Earless Shrews (Blarina) Water-Shrew (Crossopus) Musk-Shrews
(Crocidura) Burrowing Shrews (Anurosorex) Swimming Shrews (Chimarrogale) Web-
Footed Shrew (Nedogale) Desmans and Moles (Talpidce) Desmans (Myogale)
Russian Desman Pyreneaii Desman Mole-Shrews (Urotrichus) Web-Footed Moles
(Scalops) Hairy-Tailed Moles (Scapanus) Star-Nosed Mole (Condylura) The True
Moles (Talpa) Extinct Species Yellow-tailed Mole The Tenrecs (Centetidce) Struc-
tural Features Common Tenrec (Centetes) Streaked Tenrec (Hemicentetes) Hedgehog
Tenrecs (Ericulus) Long-Tailed Tenrecs (Microgale) Rice-Tenrecs (Oryzorictes)
Solenodons (Solenodontidce) Haytian Solenodon Cuban Solenodon The Potamogale
(Potamogalidce)The Geogale The Golden Moles (Chrysochloridce), . . .307



CHAPTER XIIL THE CARNIVORES, Order Carnivwa.

THE CAT-TRIBE (Felidce) General Characteristics Distinctive Features of the Cat Tribe
The Lion Present and Past Distribution Varieties Habits Its Roar Its Prey
Perils of Lion-Hunting The Tiger Habits and Haunts Partiality for Water Its
Prey Loss Inflicted on Cattle-Owners Man-Eating Tigers Their Victims Modes of
Destroying Tigers The Leopard Its Coloration and Characteristics Black and White
Leopards Distribution Mode of Life and Haunts Partiality for Dogs Leopard-
Hunting and Trapping Snow-Leopard, or Ounce Distribution and Habits Jaguar
Distinctive Features and Dimensions Its Prey Animosity to the Puma Lassoing
Jaguars Puma Its Colour and Size Adaptability to Climates Attacks on Horses-
Gentleness to Man Food and Habits Fossil Pumas Clouded Leopard Marbled Cat
Golden Cat Fishing Cat Its Habits and Daring Leopard-Cat Serval Rusty-
Spotted Cat Flat-Headed Cat Ocelot Its Remarkable Variability Margay -
Jaguarondi Eyra Its Weasel-like Form Colocollo Caffre, or Egyptian Cat Its
Relation to Domestic Cats Wild Cat Its Present Rarity in Britain Fierceness of its
Disposition Pallas's Cat Indian Desert Cat Domestic Cats Different Views as to
their Origin Various Colours Persian, or Angora Breed Siamese Cat Manx Cat
Mombas Cat Pampas Cat Jungle-Cat Caracal Lynx Distribution and Races
of Lynxes Northern Lynx Canada Lynx Bay Lynx Pardine Lynx Hunting-
Leopard (Cyncelurus) Name Chita not exclusively applicable to this Species Capturing
Black-Buck with Tamed Hunting-LeopardsExtinct Cats, .... 349



xii CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER XIV. CARNIVORES, continued.

CIVETS, AARD-WOLF, AND HYENAS. The Civet Tribe (Viverridce) Fossa (Cryptoprocta)
True Civets ( Viverra) African Civet Indian Civet Burmese Civet Javan Civet
Rasse Genets (Genetta) Linsangs (Linsang) Palm-Civets (Paradoxurus) Indian
Palm-CivetMalay Palm-Civets Chinese Palm-CivetSmall-Toothed Palm-Civets
(Arctogale) Hemigales (Hemigale) African Palm-Civet (Nandinia) Binturong
(Arctictis) Cynogale (Cynogale) Mungooses (Herpestes) Egyptian Mungoose Indian
Mungoose, and its Encounters with Snakes Introduction of Mungooses into Sugar
Plantations Crab-Eating Mungoose Other Species Four-Toed Mungooses (Cynidis)
Smooth-Nosed Mungooses (Rhinogale) Cusimanse (Crossarchus) The Meerkat(Simcata)
and its Interesting Habits Madagascar Mungooses (Galidictis and Eupleres) Extinct
Civet-like Animals Aard-Wolf (Proteleidce) Hyaenas (Hycenidce) Characteristics
Striped Hyaena Brown Hysena Spotted Hyaena Extinct Species, . . . 448

CHAPTER XV. CARNIVORES, continued.

THE DOG TRIBE (Canidce). General Characteristics, Distribution and Habits Extent of the
Genus (Ganis) The Wolf Its Numerous Varieties and Wide Distribution Habits
Indian Wolf Coyote Antarctic Wolf Kaberu Jackals Black-Backed Jackal
Side-Striped Jackal Dingo Domestic Dogs Origin Eskimo Dog Hare Indian Dog
Pomeranian Dog Sheep-Dog Collie Drover's Dog Pariah Dogs English Grey-
hound Italian Greyhound Deerhound Irish Wolf-Dogs Other Greyhounds
Hairless Dogs Lurchers Field-Spaniels Irish Water-Spaniel Setters Retrievers

Newfoundlands Bloodhound Staghound Foxhound Harrier Otterhound
Beagle Turnspit Dachshund Pointer Dalmatian Dog Mastiff Bull-Dog Bull-
Terrier Boarhound Pugs Tibet Dog Fox-Terrier Irish Terrier Skye-Terrier
Dandie Dinmont Yorkshire Terrier English Terrier Poodle Maltese Dog
Mexican Lap-Dog Asiatic Wild Dog Siberian Wild Dog Indian Wild Dog Malay
Wild Dog Extinct Species Maned . Wolf Azara's Wild Dog Crab-Eating Dog
Short-Eared Dog Raccoon Dog The Foxes The Common Fox Grey Fox Kit fox
Arctic Fox Desert Fox Corsac Fox Indian Fox Hoary Fox Asse Fox Pale Fox

Ruppell's Fennec Common Fennec Cape Hunting-Dog (Lycaoii) Bush-Dog
(Icticyon) Lalande's Dog (Octocyon) Extinct Dogs, ..... 492

INDEX, ........ .... 577




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



COLOURED PLATES



LION AND LIONESS,

MACAQUES,

BABOONS, .

FRUIT-BATS,

WEB-FOOTED SHREWS,

TIGRESS AND CUBS,

LEOPARDS,

JAGUAR KILLING TAPIR, .

WILD CAT,

LlNSANGS, .

COMMON Fox,
AFRICAN FENNECS,




568



PAGE PLATES



A YOUNG CHIMPANZEE, ....

GORILLAS AT HOME, ....

ORANGS IN THEIR NATIVE WOODS,

WEST AFRICAN GREEN MONKEYS,

GROUP OF DOUROUCOLIS,

THE HAMMER-HEADED BAT AND THE NAKED BAT,

LION AND LIONESS,

OARACALS HUNTING, ....

EGYPTIAN MUNGOOSES, ....

A GATHERING OF STRIPED HYENAS,

AN ESKIMO AND HIS DOGS,



Page 19
39
47
96
167
246
348
434
467
484
511



TEXT ENGRAVINGS



PAGE

The Koyal Bengal Tiger, ... 1

Skeleton of Lion, .... 7

Foot-Bones of a Mammal, ... 8

Human Skeleton, 9

Teeth of the Dog, . . . .10

Skull of Pig, . . . .11

Jaw of Fossil Marsupial, . . .12

Hands and Feet of Apes and Monkeys, . 15
Skeleton of Gorilla, . . .17



Head of Chimpanzee,

The Chimpanzee " Mafuka,"

The Chimpanzee " Sally," .

Head of "Mafuka,"

Side View of do. .

Young Gorilla at Play,

Head of Orang,

Young Orangs and Gibbons,

White-Handed Gibbon, .



PAGE

23

28
30
32
33
35
50
55
58



XIV



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

Hoolocks in a Bamboo Jungle, . . 63
The Yellow Baboon, ... 66

Hanumaii Monkey, or Langur, . . 70

Negro Monkey, . . . .76
The Done, ..... 82

Proboscis Monkey, . . .85

The Guereza Monkey, . . .88

Ursine Colob and Black Colob, . . 90

Patas Monkey, . . . .99

Mona Monkey and Diana Monkey, . 101

Black-Bellied Monkey, . . .103

Sooty Mangabey, . . . .106

Burmese Pig-Tailed Monkey, . . 108

The Bonnet Monkey, . . .110

The Lion-Tailed Monkey, . . 112

Bengal Monkey, . . . .114

The Pig-Tailed Monkey, . . .116

The Magot, . . . .118

Black Ape, . . . .123

Gelada Baboon, . . .124

Arabian Baboon, . . . .128

Chacma Baboon, . . . .133

The Yellow Baboon, . . .137

The Mandrill, . . . .139

The Drill, . . . . .141

Red-Faced Spider-Monkey, . . 145

Typical Spider-Monkeys, . . .146

Group of Sapajous, . . .150

Horned, and Weeper Sapajou, . . 152

Humboldt's Woolly Monkey, . . 157

Woolly Spider-Monkey, . . .159

The Chameck, . . . .161

Variegated Spider-Monkey, . .164

Common Squirrel-Monkey, . .170
Head of Short-Tailed Squirrel-Monkey, . 171

White-Headed Saki, . . .174

Humboldt's Saki, . . . .176

The Black Saki, . . . .177

Bald Uakari, . . . .179

Black-Headed Uakari, . . .182

Head of Vera Cruz Howling Monkey, . 183

The Black Howler, . . .184

Jaws of American Tertiary Monkey, . 187

Group of Marmosets, . . .189

Silver Marmoset, . . . .192

The Pinche, . . . .194

Silky Marmosets, . . . .197
Skeletons of Squirrel - Monkey and

Lemurs, ..... 200

Black Lemur and Young, . . . 202
Indri Lemur, .... 204

Head of Sifaka, . . . .206
Heads of Common and Smooth -Eared

Black Lemur, . . . .210



PAGE

The Ring-Tailed Lemur, . . .211

The Mungoose Lemur, . . .213

The Black Lemur, . . . .214

Ruffed Lemur, . . . .216

The Gentle Lemur, . . .217

Forked Mouse-Lemur, . . . 218

Murine Mouse-Lemur, . . .221

The Great Galago, .... 222
Senegal Galago, .... 226
The Common Loris, . . . 228

Slender Loris, in Waking and Sleeping

Postures, .... 230

The Slender Loris, . . . 232

Sleeping Potto, , . . . . 233

Bosnian's Potto, .... 234
The Awantibo, .... 235
Teeth of Extinct Lemuroid, . . 236

The Tarsier, . . . .237

The Aye-Aye, . . . .241

The Tarsier, according to Dr. Guillemard, 244
Skeleton of Bat, .... 247
Skeleton of Fruit-Bat, . . .252

Head of Wallace's Fox-Bat, . . 253

Kalong, or Malay Fox -Bat, . . 254

Collared Fox-Bat and Young, . . 257

Tube-Nosed Fruit-Bat, . . . 259

Fruit-Bat, . . . . .261

Greater Horseshoe Bat, . . . 263

Head of Leaf-Nosed Bat, . . .264

Face of Flower-Nosed Bat, . . 266

Head of False Vampire Bat, . . 267

The Long-Eared Bat, . . .269

The Barbastelle, . . . .271

The Pipistrelle, . . . .274

The Noctule, . . . .276

Head of Hoary Bat, . . .280

Head of Tube-Nosed Bat, . . .283

Daubenton's Bat, .... 284
Head of Tall-Crowned Bat, . . 288

Skeleton of Bat in Creeping Posture, . 288
Head of Tomb-Bat, . . .291

Long-Tailed Bat, .... 293
Head of Mastiff-Bat, . . .294

Head of Female of the Naked Bat, . 297

Head of Blainville's Chin-Leafed Bat, . 300
The Great Vampire-Bat, . . .301

The Javelin-Vampire, . . . 302

Head of Long-Tongued Vampire, . . 303

Head of Centurion Bat, . . 304

Skeleton of Hedgehog, . . .308

The Cobego, .... 310

The Common Tree-Shrew, . . 313

Pen-Tailed Tree-Shrew, . . .314

Cape Jumping-Shrew, . . .316



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



XV



PAGE

Kock Jumping-Shrew, . . .317

The Common Hedgehog, . . .319

Hedgehog and Young, . . . 320

Raffles's Gymnura, . . . 322

Teeth of Swimming-Shrew, . . 323

Skeleton of Water-Shrew, . .324

The Spider Musk-Shrew and Common

Shrew, ..... 325
The Water-Shrew, . . .328

The Common Musk-Shrew, . . 329

Skeleton of Mole, . . . .332

Russian Desmans, .... 333
Fore-Foot of Mole, . . . 337

The Common Mole, . . . 338

Tritubercular Molar Tooth, . . 340

The Tenrec, . . . .341

The Cuban Solenodon, . . .344

The Potamogale, . . . .345

Skeleton of Tiger, . . . .349

Skull of the Common Fox, . . 352

Flesh-Tooth of the Striped Hyaena, . 353

Flesh-Tooth of an Extinct Dog-like Car-
nivore, ..... 353
Cape Maned Lion, .... 358
Teeth of Sabre-Toothed Tiger, . . 359

Lion at a Pool, .... 363
Maneless Lion from Senegal, . . 367

The Tiger and the Tigress, . . 373

The Bengal Tiger, . . . .376

The Struggle in the Stream, . . 384

The Leopard, . . . .387

Black Leopard, .... 389
Leopard on the Prowl, . . .391

The Snow-Leopard, . . . 393

The Puma, . . . . .398

The Clouded Leopard, . . . 407

The Marbled Cat, .... 409
The Fishing-Cat, .... 410
The Leopard-Cat, . . . .412

The Serval, . . . .414

The Ocelot, . . . .417

The Margay, . . . .418

The Eyra, . . . . .419

The Caffre Cat, . . . .421

The Domestic Cat, . . . 426

The Angora Cat, .... 428
The Pampas Cat, . . . .431

The Jungle-Cat, . . . . * 432

The Northern Lynx, . . . 437

The European Lynx, . . . 439

The Pardine Lynx, . . .441

The Hunting-Leopard, . . . 443

Skull of Sabre-Toothed Cat, . . 447

Upper Jaw of the Indian Civet, . . 449



The Fossa, ....

The Civet, ....

The Indian Civet, .

The Rasse, ....

The Genet,

The Common Palm-Civet,

The Malay Palm-Civet, .

The Chinese Palm-Civet, .

The Binturong,

The Cynogale,

The Indian Mungoose,

The Crab-Eating Mungoose,

The Thick-Tailed Mungoose,

The Cusimanse,

The Banded Mungoose,

The Meerkat,

The Aard-Wolf, .

Skeleton of Spotted Hyaena,

Lower Jaw of an Extinct Hyaena,

The Brown Hyaena,

The Spotted Hyaena,

Teeth of Common Fox and Azara's Fox,

Skeleton of Wolf, .

The Wolf, ....

The Coyote,

The Jackal,

The Black-Backed Jackal,

The Side-Striped Jackal, .

Variety of the Side-Striped Jackal,

The Dingo,

The Pomeranian Dog,

Rough-Coated Collies,

English Greyhound,

Italian Greyhounds,

Persian Greyhound,



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe royal natural history (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 63)