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m

91

'



THE ROYAL



NATURAL HISTORY



THE ROYAL
NATURAL HISTORY



EDITED BY



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.R.S., ETC.



WITH PREFACE BY



P. L. SCLATER, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S., ETC.

SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON



ILLUSTRATED WITH

Seventy -two Coloured Plates and Sixteen Hundred Engravings



W. KUHNERT, F. SPECHT, P. J. SMIT, G. MUTZEL, A. T. ELWES, J. WOLF,
GAMBIER BOLTON, F.Z.S.; AND MANY OTHERS



VOL. II.



LONDON
FKEDEEICK WAKNE & CO.

AND NEW YORK

1894

[All Rights Reserved}



MAIN UBRAKY






V



V



BIOLOGY

uiiuuot



MORRISON AND GIBB, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH




CONTENTS



MAMMALS



CHAPTER XVI. CARNIVORES, continued.

BEARS (Ursidce). General Characteristics Distribution The Typical Bears (Ursus) Polar
Bear Brown Bear Crowther's Bear Grizzly Bear American Black Bear Hima-
layan Black Bear Spectacled Bear Malayan Bear Extinct Cave-Bear The Sloth-
Bear (Melursus) The Parti-Coloured Bear (dtturopus) Extinct Bear-like Genera,

CHAPTER XVII. CARNIVORES, continued,

THE RACCOON TRIBE (Procijonidce). Distinctive Features of Raccoons Their Peculiar Distri-
bution The Panda (^lurus) Raccoons (Procyori) Habits Crab-Eating Raccoon
Cacomistles (Bassaris) Coatis (Nasua) The Kinkajou (Cercoleptes),

CHAPTER XVIIL CARNIVORES, continued.

THE WEASEL TRIBE (Mustelidce) Characteristics and Distribution Tayra and Grison (Galictis)
Martens, Polecats, and Weasels (Mustela) Pine-Marten Beech-Marten Sable
American Marten Fisher-Marten Indian Marten Polecat Sarmatian Polecat
Black-Footed Polecat Ferret Weasel Stoat or Ermine Other Species Extinct
Forms Mink Its Fur in commerce Siberian Mink South African Weasel
(Pcecilogale) Glutton or Wolverene (Gulo) The Skunks (Mephitis and Conepatus)
Common Skunk Long-Tailed Skunk Lesser Skunk White-Backed Skunk Fossil
Skunks The Cape Polecat (Ictonyx) Ferret-Badgers (Helictis) Ratels (Mellivord)
Fossil Species The American Badger (Taxidea) Common Badger (Meles) The
Malayan Badger (Mydaus) The Sand-Badger (Arctonyx) Otters (Lutra) European
Otter Habits Tame Otters Otter-Hunting North American Otter Brazilian
Otter Feline Otter Smooth Indian Otter Hairy-Nosed Otter Clawless Otter-
African Otters -Spotted -Necked Otter Extinct Otters The Sea-Otter (Latax\ .



46



891559



vi CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER XIX. CARNIVORES, concluded.

EARED SEALS, WALRUSES, AND SEALS (Otariidce, Trichechidce, and Phocidce). Distinctive
Characters of the Group The Eared Seals (Otariidce) Habits Hair-Seals and Fur-
Seals Southern Sea-Lion Distribution and Habits Northern Sea-Lion Distribution
Calif ornian Sea-Lion Hooker's Sea-Lion Australian Hair-Seal The Northern
Sea-Bear Seal-Rookeries Southern Fur-Seals South American Fur-Seal Cape
Fur-SealNew Zealand Fur-Seal The Walrus (Trichechus)Th& True, or Earless
Seals (Phocidce) Their Distinctive Features, Distribution, and Habits The Grey Seal
(Halichcerus) Common and Greenland Seals (Phoca) Allied Species The Monk-Seal
(Monachus) West Indian Seal The Leopard-Seal (Ogmorhinus) Crab-Eating Seal
(Lobodori) Weddell's Seal (Leptonychotes) Ross's Seal (Ommatophoca) Crested Seal
(Oystophora) Elephant-Seal (Macrorhinus) Seal-Hunting The Primitive Carnivores, 102

CHAPTER XX. THE UNGULATES, OR HOOFED MAMMALS, Order Ungulata.

THE HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS (Bovidce). Characters of Ungulates Their Feet Odd-
Toed and Even-Toed Groups Structure of Teeth Characteristics Size Horns
Distribution Hollow-Horned Ruminants Even-Toed Ungulates Oxen (Bos)
Characters, Distribution, Habits, and Specialisation Aurochs and Domestic Oxen
Domestication Park Cattle Chillingham Cattle Cadzow Cattle Chartley Cattle
Other Herds Shetland Cattle Highland Breed Welsh Breed Kerry Breed Polled
Angus Galloways Polled Suffolk Alderneys and Jerseys Ayrshire Devons
Heref ords Longhorns Shorthorns Continental Breeds Indian Cattle American
and Australian Cattle Humped Cattle Galla Cattle Extinct Species The Gaur
The Gayal The Banting The Yak European Bison The American Bison
. Extinct Bison The Cape Buffalo Short-Horned Buffalo Extinct Forms The Indian
Buffalo Fossil Indian Species The Tamarao The Anoa The Musk-Ox (Ovibos)
Its Distribution and Habits Sheep (Ovis) Their Characters and Distribution
American and Kamschatkan Wild Sheep The Mongolian and Tibetan Argalis The
Pamir Wild Sheep The Urial or Sha Armenian and Cyprian Sheep The Mouflon
Domestic Sheep Flat-Tailed Sheep Shetland Breed Scotch Breeds Welsh Sheep
Irish Breeds Heath Breed Cheviots Norfolk Breed Moor Breeds Southdowns
Dorsets Merino and Long-Woolled Breeds The Bharal Barbary Sheep The
Goats (Oapra) Their Characteristics and Distribution Caucasian Wild Goats, or Tur
Pallas's Tur Caucasian Tur Severtzow's Tur Spanish Wild Goat Persian Wild
Goat Domestic Goats Angora Breed Kashmir Goat Syrian Goat Egyptian Goat
Sudan Goat Feral Goats Ibex Alpine Ibex Himalayan Ibex Arabian Ibex
Abyssinian Ibex The Markhor The Tahr and Nilgiri Wild Goat (Hemitragus)
The Gorals (Gemas) The Serows (Nemorhcedus) The Takin (Budorcas) Rocky
Mountain Goat (Haploceros) The Chamois (Rupicapra) Eland (Orias) Character
and Distribution of Antelopes Size, Distribution, and Habits of Eland Derbian
Eland Kudu (Strepsiceros) Common and Lesser Kudu Harnessed Antelopes (Trag-
elaphus) Bongo Nyala West African Harnessed Antelope Nakong Guib The
T3ilga,i(Boselaphus) The Addax(^dte) Oryx(0n/o;) Gemsbok Beisa East African
Oryx Beatrix Antelope Sabre-Horned Antelope Extinct Forms Sable Antelope
and Roan Antelope (Hippotragus) Blaubok Baker's Antelope Extinct Species, . 151

CHAPTER XXL UNGULATES, continued.

THE HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS, continued. The Gazelles (Gazella) Springbok Dorcas
Gazelle Indian Gazelle Persian Gazelle Grant's Gazelle Thomson's Gazelle Other
Species Clarke's Antelope (Ammodorcas) Gerenuk (Lithocranius) Chiru, or Tibetan
Antelope (Pantholops) The Saiga (Saiga) Palas (dZpijceros) Lesser Pala Angola



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

Pala Black Buck (Antilope) Reitbok (Cervicapra) Water-Buck, Lichi, etc. (Cobus)
Sing-Sing Puku Rhebok (Peleci) Klipspringer (Oreotragus) Steinboks (Nanotragus)
Oribi Grysbok Salt's Antelope (Neotragus) Duikerbok (Cephalophus) Red Buck
Blue Buck Zebra-Antelope Wood-Antelope Four-Horned Antelope (Tetraceros)
Wildebeests (Connochwtes) Hartebeests, Blessbok, and Bontebok (Bubalis) Titel
Hartebeest Cooke's Hartebeest Konzi Herota Korigum Sassabi Blessbok
Extinct Species .......... 289

CHAPTER XXII. UNGULATES, continued,

THE PRONGBUCK (Antilocapridce), and the Giraffe (Gimffidce) The Prongbuck (Antilocapra)
Shedding and Renewal of Horns Habits Hunting Extinct Forms The Giraffe
(Gira/a) Distribution Habits Hunting Extinct Mammals allied to the Giraffe
Samothere Sivathere, ........ . 325

CHAPTER XXIII. UNGULATES, continued.

THE DEER-TRIBE (Cervidce) Nature and Growth of Antlers Other Characters The Red
Deer Group (Cervus elaphus, etc.) Characters and Habits of Red Deer Allied Species
Hangul Shou Maral Wapiti The Japanese Deer Group (C. sika, etc.) Mant-
churian Deer Dybowski's Deer Formosan Deer Caspian Deer Indian Spotted
Deer, or Chital (C. axis) The Sambar Group (C. unicolor, etc.) Allied Species Hog-
Deer The Swamp-Deer Group (C. duvauceli, etc.) Schomburgk's Deer Eld's Deer
David's Deer (C. davidianus) Fallow Deer Group (G. dama, etc.) Persian Fallow
Deer Extinct Irish Deer The Muntjacs (Cervulus) The Tufted Deer (Elaphodus)
The Reindeer (Rangifer) Caribou The Elk, or Moose (Alces) Distribution Habits
Hunting The Roe Deer (Capreolus) Tartarian Roe Chinese Water-Deer (Hydro-
potes) The American Deer (Cariacus) Characters of their Antlers Brockets Costa
Rica Deer Guemals Pampas Deer Marsh-Deer Virginian Deer Naked-Eared
Deer Mule-Deer Black-Tailed Deer The Pudu Deer (Pudua) The Musk-Deer
(Moschus), ........... 338

CHAPTER XXIV. UNGULATES, continued.

CHEVROTAINS AND CAMELS (Tragulidce and Camelidw). The Chevrotains True Chevrotains
(Tragulus) Water-Chevrotain (Dorcatherium) Camels and Llamas Their Distinctive
Characters The Camels (Camelus) Arabian Camel Its Various Breeds Bactrian
Camel The Llamas (Lama) Vicunia Guanaco Llama Alpaca Extinct Camel-
like Ungulates, .......... 398

CHAPTER XXV. UNGULATES, continued.

THE PIG-LIKE UNGULATES, PIGS, PECCARIES, AND HIPPOPOTAMI. The Pigs (Suidce) The
True Pigs (Sus) European and Indian Wild Boars Andaman Pig Pigmy Hog-
Malayan Pigs Domestic Swine European Breeds Masked Swine Bush-Pigs
Extinct Pigs The Babirusa (Babirusa) Its Remarkable Tusks The Wart-Hogs
(Phacochcerus) The Peccaries (Dicotylidce) Extinct Types Hippopotami (Hippopo-
tamid(B) Common Hippopotamus Its Distribution and Habits Hunting The
Pigmy Hippopotamus Extinct Species, ....... 420

CHAPTER XXVI. UNGULATES, continued.

TAPIRS, RHINOCEROSES, AND HORSES. Characteristics of Odd-Toed Ungulates The Tapirs
(Tapiridce) Characters and Distribution Malayan Tapir American Tapirs Habits
Hunting The Rhinoceroses (Rhinocerotidce) Characteristics Teeth Horns
Habits The Asiatic Rhinoceroses Indian Rhinoceros Javan Rhinoceros Allied



vin CONTENTS

PAGE

Extinct Species Sumatran Species African Rhinoceroses Common African Species
Size of Horns Habits Hunting Burchell's Ehinoceros Holmwood's Ehinoceros
Extinct Ehinoceroses The Horse-Tribe (Equidce) Characteristics Specialisation
Equus Nomenclature of Limbs Indications of Age The Horse Its Distribution
Tarpan Prejevalski's Horse Domestication In. America In Australia Barbs and
Arabs Arab Levant and Persian Horses English Race-Horse Hunters, etc.
Leaping Powers American Trotter Shetland, and other' Ponies Cart-Horses
Shire-Horse Clydesdale Suffolk Punch Foreign Breeds The Zebras True Zebra
Burchell's Zebra Grevy's Zebra Quagga The Asses Asiatic Wild Ass Varieties,
Distribution, and Habits African "Wild Ass Domestic Ass Mule Fossil Horses
Other Extinct Odd-Toed Ungulates Ancestry of the Horse Palaeotheres and Lophio-
aons Titanotheres and Chalicotheres Palseosyops, ..... 454

CHAPTER XXVII. UNGULATES, concluded.

HYRACES, ELEPHANTS, ETC. Characters of Foot in the Elephants and their Allies The Hyraces
(Hyracoidea) Characters of the Procaviidce Distribution Abyssinian Hyraces
Cape Hyrax Syrian Hyrax Tree-Hyraces Elephants (Proboscided) Characters of
the Elephantidce -The Skull and Teeth Habits Indian Elephant Distribution
Habits Breeding Elephant - Shooting Modes of Capture Value and Uses of
Elephants The Mammoth The African Elephant Distribution Habits Hunting
Mode of Capture Extinct Elephants Sutledje Elephant Narbada Elephant
Straight-Tusked Elephant Pigmy Species Southern Elephant Stegodont Elephants
The Mastodons The Dinothere Short-Footed Ungulates (^4 mUypoda) The Macrau-
chenia and its Allies (Litopterna) The Astrapotheres and their Kin (Astrapotheria)
The Toxodonts (Toxodordia\ . . . . . . . .517

CHAPTER XXVIIL MANATIS AND DUGONGS, Order SIRENIA.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP. Mode of Life Distribution Classification Manatis
(Manatus) Distribution and Number of Species Habits The Dugong (Halicore)
Distribution Habits Northern Sea-Cow (Rliytina) Distribution and Habits-
Extermination Tertiary Sirenians, ....... 567

INDEX, ..'.. 577




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



COLOURED PLATES



THE EUROPEAN BISON, .

WHITE- NOSED COATI, .

EUROPEAN OTTER,

HOOKER'S SEA-LION,

LEOPARD-SEAL,

BHARAL, .

DORCAS GAZELLE,

SOUTH AFRICAN GIRAFFES,

FALLOW DEER,

INDIAN RHINOCEROS,

ZEBRA,

AFRICAN ELEPHANT,



Frontispiece
Facing page 44
93
108
144
232
289
332
364

464
505
545



PAGE PLATES



POLAR BEARS AND THEIR PREY,

THE GRIZZLY BEAR,

SLOTH-BEARS IN A FOREST GLADE,

A FAMILY PARTY OF SOUTHERN SEA-LIONS,

WILD CATTLE OF CADZOW PARK,

DOMESTIC YAK, ....

ALPINE IBEX, ....

CHAMOIS AT BAY,

MALE AND FEMALE KUDU,

GROUP OF AFRICAN ANTELOPES,

A FAMILY OF RED DEER,

ARABIAN CAMEL, ....

A FAMILY OF EUROPEAN WILD SWINE,

INDIAN ELEPHANT,

THE HAUNT OF THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT,



Page 7

15

28

103

165

184

246

264

272

317

342

405

423

531
547



TEXT ENGRAVINGS



Brown Bears on the March,
Skeleton of Bear, .
Polar Bear Climbing a Floe,
The Brown Bear, .
Head of Brown Bear,
The American Black Bear,



1

2
5

10
11

18



The Himalayan Black Bear,

The Malayan Bear,

Skull of Cave-Bear,

The Parti-Coloured Bear, .

Jaw of Arctothere,

Molar Teeth of Hysenarctus,



PAGE

21
24
25
33
34
34



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

Palate of the Cacomistle, . . .35

The Panda, .... 37

Skeleton of Raccoon, . . .39

The Common Raccoon, . . .40

The Cacomistle, .... 42
The Kinkajou, .... 45
Skeleton of Weasel, . .46

The Tayra, . . . .48

The Pine-Marten, . . . .51

The Beech-Marten, . . .53

The Sable, . . . .55

Skeleton of Polecat, . . .58

The Polecat, . . . . 59

The Ferret, . . . .61

The Weasel, .... 63

The Stoat, or Ermine, in Winter Dress, . 65
European Mink, . . . .68

The Glutton, or Wolverene, . .71

White-Backed Skunk, . . . 76

The Cape Polecat, . . . .79

The Cape Ratel, . . . .81

Palate of Fossil Indian Ratel, . . 82

Skeleton of Badger, . . .84

The Common Badger, . . .85

The Malayan Badger, ... 85
Palate of Clawless Otter, ... 91
Skeleton of Otter, . . . .92

Tooth of Extinct Otter, ... 97
The Sea-Otter, . . . ,98

Northern Sea-Lion, . . .111

Head of Calif ornian Sea-Lion, . . 113

Northern Sea-Bear, . .116

Skeleton of Walrus, . . .124

Head of Walrus, . . .125

Walruses on the Ice, . . .126

Flippers of Ringed Seal, . - .132

Skeleton of Seal, . . . .136

Common Seal, . . . .137

Greenland Seal, . . . .138

Seals Swimming, . . . .140

Skull of Leopard-Seal, . . .142

Crested Seal, . . . .144

Teeth of Elephant-Seal, . . .146

Bones of Wrist and Foot of Coryphodon, . 152
Bones of the Left Wrist and Foot of

Titanothere, . . . .152

Bones of Left Fore-Foot of Three-toed and

Four-toed Horse-like Animals, . .153

Bones of Foot of Horse and Deer, . 154

Teeth of Nilgai and Merycopotamus, . 155
Teeth of Four-Horned Antelope, . 158

Skeleton of European Bison, . .158

Skull of Swayne's Hartebeest, . .159

Skull of Aurochs, . . . .162



PAGE

Durham Shorthorn, . . .167

FriburgBull, . . . .169

Dutch Cow, . . . .171

Skull of Galla Ox, . . .173

Indian Humped Bull, . . .174

Galla Bull,. . . . .175

Bull Gaur, . . . . .176

Cow Gayals, . . ; .180

The Banting, . . . .182

Skull of Domestic Yak, . . .186

American Bison, . . . .192

Head of Bull Bison, . . .194

Cape Buffalo, . . . .199

Short-Horned Buffalo, . .201

Congo Variety of Buffalo, . . . 203

Indian Buffalo, .... 204
The Anoa, ..... 207
The Musk-Ox, . . . .209

Head of Bull Musk-Ox, . . .210

Musk-Oxen at Bay, . . .211

Skeleton of Mouflon, . . .212

Bones of Foot of Sheep, . . .213

Skull of Kamschatkan Wild Sheep, . 214
American Wild Sheep, or Bighorn, . 215

Head of Kamschatkan Wild Sheep, . 216
Skull and Horns of Tibetan Argali, . 218
Pamir Wild Sheep, . . .221

Skull and Horns of Pamir Sheep, . 222

Head of Cyprian Sheep, . . . 225

The Mouflon, .... 226
Black-Headed Sheep, . . .228

Head of Merino Ram, . . . 230

Barbary Sheep, .... 233
Skeleton of Ibex, .... 235
Horns of Pallas's Tur, . . .236

Spanish Wild Goat, . . .238

Persian Wild Goat, . . . 240

Angora Goat, .... 242
Head of Himalayan Ibex, . . . 248

Arabian Ibex, ' . . . . 249

The Markhor, Cabul Variety, . .251

Head of Pir Panjal Markhor, . . 253

The Himalayan Tahr, . . . 255

The Goral, . . . . .257

Horns of Himalayan Serow, . . 259

Skull and Horns of Takin, . . 260

The Chamois, .... 262
The Leap of the Chamois, . .266

Head of Bull Eland, . . .267

The Eland, .... 268

Skeleton of Addax, . . . 269

Head of Kudu, .... 273
Head of West African Harnessed Antelope, 276
Male and Female Guib, . . .277



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



XI



PAGE

The Nilgai, .... 279

The Addax, .... 280

Head of Gemsbok, . . .282

The Beisa, . . . . .283

Sabre-Horned Antelope, . . . 284

Sable Antelope and Eoan Antelope, . 286

Head of Fringe-Eared Oryx, etc., . . 287

Head of Sable Antelope, . . .288

A "Trek "of Springbok, . . .289

Head of Grant's Gazelle, . . . 290

The Springbok, . . . 291

Dorcas Gazelle, . . . .292

Skull of Indian Gazelle, . . .293

Horns of Thomson's Gazelle, . . 294

Head of Clarke's Antelope, . . 295

Head and Neck of the Gerenuk, . . 296

HeadofChiru, . . . .297

The Saiga, . . . . .298

Head of Pala, . . . .299

Male and Female Black-Buck, . . 300

Skull of Black-Buck, . . . 301

Head of Water-Buck, . . .303

The Puku, . . . . .304

Male and Female Klipspringer, . . 306

The Oribi, . . . . .308

The Duikerbok, . . . .309
Male and Female Four-Horned Antelopes, 311

Skull of Four-Horned Antelope, . . 312

White-Tailed Wildebeest, . . . 313

Blue Wildebeest, . . . .314

Wildebeests curveting round a Waggon, . 315

Hartebeest, . . . .319

Skull and Horns of Cooke's Hartebeest, . 320

Head of Swayne's Hartebeest, . . 321

Head of Hunter's Hartebeest, . . 322

Head of Korigum or Senegal Antelope, 323

Group of Prongbuck, . . . 326
Head of Prongbuck, with newly -growing

Horns, . . . . 328

Giraffes at a Pool, . . . .331

Skeleton of Giraffe, . . . 332

South African Giraffe, . . . 334

Skull of Samothere, . . . 337

Skull of Sivathere, . . . 337

Skeleton of Male Red Deer, . . 338
Head of Red Deer with new Antlers in

the " Velvet," . . . .339

Left Antlers of Asiatic Deer, . . 340

Antler of Red Deer, . . . 344

Red Deer at a Pool, . . . 346

Wapiti Chased by Wolves, . . 349
Antlers of Spotted Deer, Swamp-Deer,

and Sambar, .... 353

Indian Spotted Deer, 355



PAGE

The Sambar, . . . .357

Head of Schomburgk's Deer, . .361

Antlers of Irish Deer, . . . 365

The Indian Muntjac, . . . 366

Head of Hairy-Fronted Muntjac, . . 367

Michie's Deer, . . . .368

Bones of Foot of Roebuck, . . 370

Foot of Reindeer, . . . .370

Reindeer, . . . . .371

Foot of Elk, . . . .376

A Family of Elk, . . . .377

A Moose- Yard, . . . .379

Male and Female Roe Deer > . 382

Skull of Chinese Water Deer, . . 384
Antlers of Marsh, Virginian, and Mule Deer, 385

The Red Brocket, . . . .386
Pampas Deer, .... 388

Virginian Deer, . . . .390

Virginian Deer Swimming, . . 392

Head of Mule-Deer, . . .393

Head and Shoulders of Pudu Deer, . 395

Male and Female Musk Deer, . . 396

Bones and Foot of Chevrotains, . . 399

The Smaller Malayan Chevrotain, . 400

Skeleton of Arabian Camel, . . 402

Bones of Camel's Foot, . . . 403

Water-Cells in Camel's Stomach, . . 403

The Bactrian Camel, . . .410

A Drove of Vicunias, . . . 412

The Llama, . . . .416

The Alpaca, . . . .418

Skeleton of Wild Boar, . . .420
Molar Teeth of Extinct Pig-like Animals, 421

Bones of Foot of Pig, . . .422

Skull of Bearded Pig, . . .422

Molar Tooth of Pig, . . .425

A "Sounder" of Wild Swine, . . 427
Berkshire Pig, .... 428
Harrison Pig, .... 430

Dwarf Chinese Pig, . . . 432

Masked Japanese Pig, . . . 434

The Red Bush-Pig, . . .435
The Babirusa, .... 437

Skull of Babirusa, . . . 438

^Elian's Wart-Hog, . . .439

Head of Pallas's Wart-Hog, . ' . 440

The Collared Peccary and Young, . 442

Skeleton of Hippopotamus, . . 445

A Family Party of Hippopotami, . 447

Hippopotami at Home, . . .451

Skeleton of Malayan Tapir, . . 454

Bones of Foot of Rhinoceros, . .455

Teeth of the Anchithere, . . . 455
Malayan Tapir, .... 458



Xll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

American Tapir, .... 460
Teeth of Rhinoceroses, . . . 464

Indian Khiiioceros in Zoological Gardens, 466
The Indian Rhinoceros, . . . 468

The Sumatran Rhinoceros, . .471

The Common African Rhinoceros, . 473

Head of Common African Rhinoceros, . 474
Burchell's Rhinoceros, . . . 480

Head of Burchell's Rhinoceros, . . 482

Skull of Extinct Rhinoceros, . . 484

Teeth of Anchithere, Horse, and Hipparion, 487
Skull of Three-Toed Horse, . . 488

Shire Stallion, . . . .489

Teeth of the Horse at Various Ages, . 490
English Race-Horse (" Doncaster ") . 492

The Tarpan, .... 494

English Race-Horse (" Bend-Or ") . 496

German Half -Bred Horse, . . 498

Percheron Cart- Horse, . . . 501

Clydesdale Mare, . . . .502

Burchell's Zebra, .... 504
Grevy's Zebra, .... 506
The Quagga, . . . .507

Tibetan Wild Ass, or Kiang, . . 508

A Troop of Persian Wild Asses, . . 510

The African Wild Asses, . . .511

Domestic Ass, .... 513
Cheek-Teeth of Palseothere, . .515



PAGE

Molar Teeth of Palseosyops, . .516

Foot-Bones of Elephant, . .517

Skeleton of Cape Hyrax, . . .518

Foot-Bones of Hyrax, . . .519
Syrian Hyrax, .... 520

Tree-Hyrax, . . . .521

Skeleton of Indian Elephant, . . 523

Molar Teeth of Mammoth, . . 525

Molar Tooth of Cliffs Elephant, . . 526

Molar Tooth of Elephant, . . .528

Indian Elephant Drinking, . .533
Indian Elephants Enjoying Themselves, . 535

Indian Elephant Kneeling, . . 540

Elephant Carrying Timber, . . 542

Molar Tooth of African Elephant, . 545

Last Molar Teeth of Mastodons, . . 556

Molars of Mastodons, . . . 557

Skull of Dinothere, . . .559

Cheek-Teeth of Uintathere, . .560

Palate of Homalodontothere, . . 562

Lower Jaw of Astrapothere, . . 563

Skeleton of Toxodon, . . .565
Skull of Nesodon, .... 566

Skeleton of Manati, . . . 568

The American Manati, . . .570

The Dugong, . . . .573

Skeleton of Northern Sea-Cow, . . 574

Head of the African Elephant, . . 576




THE ROYAL NATURAL HISTORY.




MAMMALS.



CHAPTER XVI.

CARNIVORES, continued.

BEARS.
Family URSID^E.

THE bears are so different in appearance from the other Carnivores that no one
could fail to recognise their representatives at a glance, or would hesitate to admit
that, so far at least as living forms are concerned, they are entitled to constitute a
group by themselves. The number of species included in the family is compara-
tively small; and the whole of them are arranged under three genera, two of
which are represented by but a single species each.

Bears differ from the Carnivores hitherto noticed in an important feature
connected with the hinder-part of the under-surface of the skull. Thus, whereas
in all the preceding families the so-called tympanic bulla at the base of the
internal portion of the ear forms an inflated bladder-like capsule, which is

VOL. II. I



2 CARNIVORES.

generally divided internally by a larger or smaller bony partition, in the bears
(as well as in the following families of the raccoons and weasels), this bulla is
depressed and flattened, and has no trace of an internal partition ; and its mouth,
leading to the external ear, is produced much further outwards. There are
also other characters connected with the skull which help to distinguish the bears
and the members of the next two families from the Carnivores hitherto described,
but the bulla alone is sufficient to determine at a glance to which of the two groups
any given skull may belong, and the reader will accordingly perceive how import-
ant is this apparently insignificant feature. The degree of inflation of the bulla
of the skull is doubtless associated with the acuteness of hearing ; the Carnivores
with the longest ears, like the African fennec, having larger bullse than their nearest




SKELETON OF BEAR.



relatives. Bears are notoriously deficient in the sense of hearing ; and it is probable
that raccoons and weasels are also less acute in this respect than cats, civets, and
dogs. Although many of the Carnivores with inflated bullse have, like the cats, com-
paratively small ears, it is noteworthy that no bear, raccoon, or weasel has these
organs of very large dimensions, while in some instances they are almost absent.

The members of the bear family are characterised by their heavy and massive
build, their thick limbs, extremely short tails, and the presence of five toes,
armed with powerful claws, on both the fore and hind -feet. Moreover, when
walking, ,the whole sole of the foot is applied to the ground, in the old-fashioned
plantigrade manner, so that the impression of a bear's foot presents a considerable
superficial resemblance to that of a man. The claws of the feet are incapable
of being retracted, and are well adapted for digging, although no members of
the family are in the habit of constructing burrows for themselves after the
manner of foxes. In most bears the under surface of the sole of the foot is



BEARS. 3

completely devoid of hair ; and the ordinary gait is peculiarly slow and measured.
All the bears are of considerable bodily size, while some of them are among the
largest of the Carnivores.

The living species of bears, with which alone we are at present dealing, are
likewise readily distinguished from other Carnivores by the characters of their



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe royal natural history (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 61)