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BIOLOGY

LIBRARY

G



THE ROYAL



NATURAL HISTORY



THE ROYAL
NATURAL HISTORY



EDITED BY



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.R.S., ETC.



WITH PREFACE BY

P. L. SCLATER, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S., ETC.

SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON



ILLUSTRATED WITH

Seventy-two Coloured Plates and Sixteen Hundred Engravings

BY

W. KUHNEBT, F. SPECHT, P. J. SffiT, G. MUTZEL, A. T. ELWES, J. WOLF,
GAMBLER BOLTON, F.Z.S.; AND MANY OTHERS



VOL. in.



LONDON
FEEDEEICK WAENE & CO.

AND NEW YORK
1894-95

[All Hights Reserved]



MORRISON AND GIBB, PRINTERS, EDINBURGH




CONTENTS



MAMMALS



CHAPTEK XXIX. CETACEANS, Order Cetacea.

General Characters Distribution Habits Classification The Whalebone Whales (Balcenidce)
Eight Whales (Catena) Greenland Whale Southern Whale Fossil Species Pigmy
Whale (Neobalcena) Grey Whale (Rhachianectes) Humpback Whale (Megaptera)
Fin-Whales, or Rorquals (Balcenoptera) Lesser Fin- Whale Rudolphi's Fin-Whale
Common Fin- Whale Sibbald's Fin- Whale Fossil Fin- Whales,



CHAPTER XXX. CETACEANS, continued.

TOOTHED WHALES (Odontoceti). Distinction between Toothed and Whalebone Whales
Sperm-Whales and their Allies (Physeteridce) The Sperm- Whale (Physeter) Ex-
tinct Sperm-Whales Lesser Sperm-Whale (Cogia) Bottlenose-Whale (Hyperoodon)
Cuvier's Whale (ZipJiius) Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon) Sowerby's Whale Layard's
Whale Arnux's Whale (Berardius) Ancestral Sperm- Whales (Physodontidce) Fresh-
water Dolphins (Platanistidce) Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista) Amazonian Dolphin
(Inia) La Plata Dolphin (Stenodelphis) Allied Extinct Dolphins The Porpoises and
Dolphins (Delphinidce) The Narwhal (Monodori) White Whale (Delphinapterus)
Porpoises (Phocce.no} Common Porpoise Porpoise - Hunting Indian Porpoise
Heaviside's Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus) Irawadi Dolphin (Orcella) Killer, or Grampus
(Oreo) Lesser Killer (Pseudorca) ~Blackfish(Globiocephalus) Risso's Dolphin ((rram/ms)
Short-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus) White-Sided Dolphin Pacific Dolphin
White-Beaked Dolphin True Dolphins (Delphinus) Common Dolphin Allied
Species Bottle-Nosed Dolphins (Tursiops) Rough- Toothed Dolphins (Stem) Long-
Beaked River Dolphins (Sotalia) Chinese Dolphin Squalodonts and Zeuglodonts
(Squalodontidce and Zeuglodontidw), .......



23



252333



vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXXI. THE RODENTS, Order Rodentia.

PAGE

General Characteristics of the Order Teeth Mouth Distribution and Habits African
Flying Squirrels (Anomaluridce) The Squirrel Family (Sciuridce) Groove-Toothed
Squirrel (Rhithrosciurus) Spiny Squirrels (Xerus) True Squirrels (Sciurus) European
Squirrels Distribution North American Squirrels Oriental Squirrels Ground-
Squirrels, or Chipmunks (Tamias) Susliks, or Gophers (Spermophilus) Prairie-
Marmots (Cynomys) True Marmots. (Arctomys) Distribution Old World Species
American Species Allied Extinct Rodents Flying Squirrels Lesser Flying Squirrels
(Sciuropterus) Distribution and Habits Larger Flying Squirrels (Pteromys) Woolly
Flying Squirrel (Eupetaurus) Pigmy Squirrels (Nannosciurus) The Sewellels
(Haplodontidce) Common Sewellel (Haplodon) Californian Sewellel The Beavers

(Gastoridce) European and American Species (Castor) Distribution of the European

Beaver Range of the American Species Habits Fses and Trapping of Beavers

Extinct Beavers, . .Go

CHAPTER XXXII. RODENTS, continued.

THE MOUSE-LIKE RODENTS. The Dormice (Myoxidce) Common Dormouse (Muscardinus)
Squirrel-Tailed and Garden Dormice (Myoxus) Tree-DormouseExtinct Dormice
Jumping Mice and Jerboas (Dipodidce) The Jumping Mouse (Zapus) The
Five-Toed Jerboas Kirghiz Jerboa (Alactaga) Afghan Jerboa Yarkand Jerboa
(Euchoretes) Broad -Tailed Jerboas (Platycercomys) Three -Toed, or True Jerboas
(Dipus) Habits of Egyptian Jerboa African Jumping Hare (Pedetes) The
Sminthus (Sminthus) The Mouse Tribe (Muridce) Australian Water - Rat
(Hydromys) Queensland Rat (Xeromys) Malabar Spiny Mouse (Platacanthomys)
The Gerbils (Gerbillus) Philippine Rat (Phlceomys) Hamsters and White-Footed
Mice (Cricetus) Common Hamster and Its Habits Species of White-Footed Mice
The Fish -Eating Rat (Ichthyomys) Grooved -Toothed Mice (Rhithrodontomys and
Rhithrodon) Wood-Rats (Neotoma) African Crested Rat (Lophiomys) The Voles
(Microtus) Water- Yole Short- Tailed Field- Vole Bank- Vole- Alpine Vole Other
Species Lemmings (Myodes) Banded Lemming (Cuniculus) Musquash (Fiber)
Mole-Like Voles (Ellobius and Siphneus) Rats and Mice (Mus) Brown Rat Black
Rat House - Mouse Long - Tailed Field - Mouse Harvest - Mouse Other Species
Bandicoot Rats (Nesocia) Bush-Rats (Golunda) Spiny Mice (Acomys) Jerboa-Rats
(Hapalotis) Lichtenstein's Rat (Mastacomys) Mole-Rats (Spalacidce) Great Mole-Rat
(Spalax) Bamboo-Rats (Rhizomys) Cape Mole-Rats (Bathyergus) Naked Sand-Rats
(Heterocephalus) American Pouched Rats (Geomyidce) Pocket- Gopher (Geomys)
Northern Pocket - Gopher (Thomomys) Kangaroo -Rats (Dipodomys) Pocket -Mice
(Perognathus and Heteromys), . . . . . . . .104

CHAPTER XXXIIL RODENTS, continued.

THE PORCUPINE-LIKE RODENTS. General Characters of the Group The Octodont Tribe
(Octodontidce) The Gundi (Ctenodactylus^The Degu (Octodon) The Tucotucos
(Ctenomys) The Coypu (Myopotamui)The Hutias (Capromys Plagiodon The
Cane-Rat (Aulacodus) Other Genera The Porcupines (Hystricidce) Canadian Porcu-
pine (Erethizon) Tree-Porcupines (Synetheres) Brazilian and Mexican Species Thin-
Spined Porcupine (Chcetomys)^?^ Porcupines (Hystrix) Brush-Tailed Porcupines
(Atherura) Giinther's Porcupine (Trichys) Chinchillas and Viscachas (Chinchillidce)
True Chinchillas (Chinchilla) Common Species Short-Tailed Species Cuvier's
Chinchilla (Lagidium) The Viscacha (Lagostomus) Description of a Viscachera
Agutis and Pacas (Dasyproctidce) The Argutis (Dasyprocta) Common Species Aguchi
The Pacas (Ccelogenys) Branick's Paca (Dinomys) The Cavies (Caviidce) True
Cavies (Cavia) Restless Cavy Cutler's Cavy Guinea-Pig Bolivian Cavy Rock-
Cavy Patagonian Cavy (Dolichotis) Carpincho, or Capivara (Hydrochcerus), . .154



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER XXXIV. RODENTS, concluded.

THE HARE-LIKE RODENTS. Distinctive Features of the Group The Picas (Lagomyidce)
Distribution arid Habits Hares and Rabbits (Leporidce) Common Hare (Lepus)
Mountain - Hare North American Hares Asiatic Hares African Species The
Rabbit Its Distribution and Acclimatisation Domesticated Rabbits, . .189

CHAPTER XXXV. THE EDENTATES, Order Edentata.

Characteristics Distribution Mode of Life The Sloths (Bradypodidce) Three-Toed Sloths
(Bradypus) Two- Toed Sloths (Cholcepus) Extinct Ground-Sloths (Megatheriidce)
The Ant- Eaters (Myrmecophagidce) Great Ant-Eater (Myrmecophaga) The Taman-
dua (Tamandud) Two-Toed Ant-Eater (Cycloturus) The Armadillos (Dasypodidce)
The Pichiciago (Chlamydophorus) Six-Banded Armadillos (Dasypus) Their Structure
and Mode of Life Broad-Banded Armadillo (Lysiurus) Giant Armadillo (Priodori)
Three-Banded Armadillo (Tolypeutes) Peba Armadillo (Tatusia) Other Species
The Extinct Glyptodonts (Glyptodontidce) The Pangolins (Manidce) Asiatic Species
African Pangolins Aard-Varks (Orycteropodidce), ..... 202

CHAPTER XXXVI. THE POUCHED MAMMALS, OR MARSUPIALS, Order Marsupialia.

Distinctive Characters Teeth Mode of Suckling Young Distribution The Kangaroos and
Their Allies (Macropodidce) Kangaroos and Wallabies (Macropus) Rock- Wallabies
(Petrogale) Spur- Tailed Wallabies (Onychogale) Hare- Wallabies (Lagorchestes) Dorca
Kangaroos (Dorcopsis) Tree-Kangaroos (Dendrolagus) Banded Wallaby (Lagostrophus)
Rat-Kangaroos Common Rat- Kangaroo (Potorous) Brush-Tailed Rat- Kangaroo
(Bettongia) Rufous Rat-Kangaroo (^Epyprymnus) Five-Toed Rat- Kangaroo (Hypsi-
prymnodori] Extinct Kangaroo-Like Marsupials The Phalanger Tribe (Phalangeridce)
Long-Snouted Phalanger (Tarsipes) discuses (Phalanger) True Phalangers (Tricho-
surus) Crescent- Toothed Phalangers (Pseudochirus) Great Fly ing- Phalanger (Petaur-
oides) Striped Phalanger (Dadylopsila) True Fly ing- Phalangers (Petaurus) Lead-
beater's Phalanger (Gymnobelideus) Dormouse-Phalangers (Dromicia) Pigmy Flying-
Phalanger (Acrobates) Pen-Tailed Phalanger (Distcechurus) Koala (Phascolarctus)
Great Extinct Phalanger (Thylacoleo) The Wombats (Phascolomyidce) The Bandicoots
(Peramelidce) True Bandicoots (Perameles) Rabbit-Bandicoot (Peragale) Pig-Footed
Bandicoot (Chceropus) The Dasyure Tribe (Dasyuridce) Thylacine (Thylacinus)
Tasmaniaii Devil (Sarcophilus) Dasyures (Dasyurus) Phascologales (Phascologale)
Common Pouched Mouse (Sminthopsis) Jerboa Pouched Mouse (Antechinomys)
Banded Anteater (Myrmecobius) The Pouched Mole (Notoryctidce) The Opossums
(Didelphyidce) True Opossums (Didelphys) Water -Opossum (Chironectes) Extinct
Marsupials, .......... 235

CHAPTER XXXVII. EGG-LAYING MAMMALS, OR MONOTREMES, Order Monotremata.

Distinctive Features The Duckbill (Ornithorhynchidce) Its Structure and Habits The

Echidnas (Echidnidce) Allied Extinct Mammals, ..... 283




viii CONTENTS

BIRDS
CHAPTER I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.



PAGF,



Distinctive Characters of Birds Skeleton Skull External Characters Plumage Change

of Plumage Eggs Migration Distribution Classification, . . 289

CHAPTER II. PERCHING-BIRDS, Order Passeres.

CHARACTERS OF THE ORDER. The Crow Tribe (Corvidce) Ravens and Crows (Corvus) Rook
Jackdaw Nutcrackers (Nucifraga) Magpies (Pica) Azure-Winged Magpies (Gyano-
pica)~Blne Magpies ( Urocissa) Indian Tree- ~Pies, 9 (Dendrocitta) Jays (Garrulus)
Siberian Jay (Perisoreus) Long-Crested Jay (Cyanocitta) Urraca 3zy(Cyanocorax)
Struthidea Piping Crows (Gymnorhina) Choughs (Graculus) Chough - Thrushes
(Podoces) Huia-Bird (Heteralocha) Birds of Paradise (Paradiseidce) Twelve- Wired
Bird of Paradise (Seleucides) Allied Genera Gorget Bird of Paradise (Astrapia)
Wattled Bird of Paradise (Paradigalla) Typical Group (Paradisea) King Paradise-
Bird (Gincinnurus) Wilson's Bird of Paradise (Diphyllodes) Six -Plumed Bird of
Paradise (Parotid} Standard- Wing (Semioptera) Superb Bird of Paradise (Lophorhina)
Bower-Birds (Ptilonorhynchidce) Satin Bower -Bird (Ptilonorhijnchus) Spotted
Bower-Bird (Chlamydodera) Gardener Bower-Bird (Amblyornis) Starlings (Sturnidce)
Typical Group (Sturnus) Rose - Coloured Starling (Pastor) Other Genera Ox-
Peckers (Buphaga) Glossy Starlings and Grackles (Eulabetidce) African Glossy
Starlings (Larnprotornis and Lamprocolius) Grackles or Hill Mynas (Eulabes) Asiatic-
Glossy Starlings (Calornis) Drongos (Dicruridce) Orioles (Oriolidce) Cassiques and
Hangnests (Icteridce) Cassiques (Ostinops and Gassicus) True Hangnests (Icterus)
Rice-Birds (Dolichonyx) Cow-Birds (Molothrus) Red-Shouldered Starling (Agelceus)
Troupials (Quiscalus) Weaver-Birds (Ploceidce) Ox-Birds (Textor) White-Headed
Weaver (Dinemellia) True Weaver-Birds (Ploceus) Masked Weaver (Hyphantornis)
Paradise Whydah Birds (Vidua) Bishop -Birds (Pyromelana} Sociable Weavers
(Philceterus) Cut -Throat Weaver -Finches (Amadina) Muiiias (Munia) Blood
Weaver-Finches (Estrilda) Tanagers (Tanagridce) Violet Tanager (Euphonia)
Scarlet Tanagers (Pyranga) White - Capped Tanager (Stephanophorus) Honey -
Creeper (Cwrebidce) West Indian Honey-Creepers (Certhiola) Banana-Quit, . . 305

CHAPTER III. PERCHING-BIRDS, continued.

FINCHES (Fringillidce) Grosbeak Group (Coccothraustince) Greenfinches (Ligurinus) Haw-
finches (Coccothraustes) Rose-Breasted Grosbeak (Hedymeles)Hed Cardinals (Gardin-
alis) True Finches (Fringillince) Chaffinches (Fringilla) Siskins (Chrysomitris)
Linnets (Linaria) Snow-Finches (Montifringilla) Desert Finches (Erythrospiza)
Rock-Sparrows (Petronia) True Sparrows (Passer) Serin Finches (Serinus) Oanary
Rose-Finches (Carpodacus) Bullfinches (Pyrrhula) Pine - Grosbeak (Pinicola)
Crossbills (Loxia) Laysan Finch (Telespiza) The Buntings (Emberizince) Snow-
Bunting (Plectrophenax) Lapland Bunting (Calcarius) Typical Group (Emberiza)-
Reed Bunting Common Bunting Black-Headed Bunting Yellow-Breasted Bunting
Yellow Bunting Cirl Bunting Ortolan Bunting Meadow Bunting Allied
Genera, ........... 377

CHAPTER IV. PERCHING-BIRDS, continued.

THE L&-RKs(Alaudidce) Skylarks (Alauda)Woodl&Tk(Lullula) Crested Larks (Galerita)
Desert -Lark (Alcemori) Short-Toed Larks (Calandrella) Calandra Larks (Melano-
corypha} Horned Larks (Otocorys) The Wagtails and Pipits (Motacillidce) Wagtail*



CONTENTS ix

(Motacilla) White Wagtail Yellow-Headed, Grey, Blue-Headed, and Cape Wagtails

Pipits (Anthus)Tru& Pipit Meadow Pipit Richard's Pipit Tawny Pipit The
Creepers (Gerthiidce) Wall Creeper (Tichodroma) Australian Straight Claws (Or-
thonyx~)The Nuthatches (Sittidw)^}^ Honey-Eaters (Meliphagidce) Parson-Bird
(Prosthemadera) Stitch-Bird (Pogonornis) White-Eyes (Zosterops) The Sun-Birds
(Nectariniidw) Typical Group (NedanVim) The Honey- Peckers (Dicceidce)The. Tits
(Paridce) True Tits (Parus) Crested Tits (Lophophanes) Long- Tailed Tits (Acredula)
Bearded Tits (Pcwmrws) New Zealand Creepers (Gerthiparus) Allied Types The
Shrikes (Laniidce) Shrike Tits (Falcunculus) True Shrikes (Lanius) Great Grey,
Lesser Grey, Bed-Backed, Woodchat, Masked and Hooded Shrikes Miiiivets (Peri-
crocotus) Other Genera The Waxwings (Ampelidm) Cedar Bird, . . . 417

CHAPTER V. PERCHING-BIRDS, continued.

THE THRUSHES AND WARBLERS (Turdidce) True Thrushes (Turdus) Missel-Thrush Song-
Thrush Redwing Fieldfare Blackbirds(MerWa) Rock-Thrushes(Mow^'coZa) Blue-
Birds (Sialia) Chats (Saxicola) Wheatear Blackchat Whinchat Stonechat Fork-
Tails (Henicurus) Redstarts (Ruticilla) Black Redstart Blue-Throated Warbler
(Erythacus) Redbreast Rubythroat Nightingales New Zealand Robins (Miro)
Dhyal Birds (Gopsychus) Shamas (Gittocincla) Grey Warbler (Gerygone) True
Warblers (Sylvia) Whitethroats Subalpine, Spectacled, Sardinian, Orphean, and
Garden Warblers Blackcap Barred, Dartford, and Willow Warblers Icterine
Warbler (Hypolais) Reed Warblers (Acrocephalus) Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella)
River- Warbler Savi's Warbler Pheasant-Tailed Warbler (Stipiturus malacurus)
Cetti's Warbler (Bradypterus) Fan-Tailed Warblers (Gisticola) Accentors (Accentor)
Hedge-Sparrow Goldcrest (Reyulus) Firecrest Rubycrest The Wood Warblers
(Mniotiltidce) The Dippers (Cindidce) The Wrens (Troglodytid(e)Trne Wrens (Tro-
glodytes') Cactus -Wrens (Campylorhynchus)^^ Mocking - Birds (Mimidce) The
Babblers (Crateropodidce) Typical Babblers (Crateropus) Green Bulbuls (Chloropsis)
True Bulbuls (Pycnonotus) Liothrix The Flycatchers (Muscicapidce) True Fly-
catchers (Muscicapa) Spotted, Pied, White-Collared, and Red-Breasted Flycatchers
Paradise Flycatchers (Terpsiphone) Fantail- Fly catchers (Ehipidura) The Swallows
(Hirundinidw) True Swallows (Hirundo) Chimney and Red-Rumped Swallows
Martins (Chelidon) Sand-Martins (Cotile) Purple Martins (Progne\ . . 468

CHAPTER VI. PERCHING-BIRDS, concluded.

THE AMERICAN FLYCATCHERS (Tyrannidce) Tyrant Flycatchers (Tymnnus) Bienteveo
Tyrant Ant-Birds (Formicivora) The Chatterers (Cotingidce) Umbrella-Bird (Ceph-
alopterus) Bell -Birds (Chasmorhynchus) Cotingas (Cotinga) Manakins (Pipra)
Cocks of the Rock (Eupicola) The Plant-Cutters (Phytotomidce)T}iQ Broadbills
(Eurylcemidce)^^ Pittas (Pittidce) The Wood-Hewers (Dendrocolaptidce)0\en-
Birds (Furnarius) Spine-Tails (Synallaxis) The Lyre-Birds (Menuridce), . . 527

CHAPTER VII. THE PICARIAN BIRDS, Order Picarice.

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF THE ORDER The Jacamars (Galbulidv) True Jacamars
(Galbula) Broad-Billed Jacamars (Jacamerops) The Puff-Birds (Bucconidce) The
Woodpeckers (Picidce) Ground Woodpecker (Geocolaptes) Bright - Shafted Wood-
peckers (Colaptes) Golden- Winged, and Pampas Woodpeckers- -Green Woodpeckers
(Gecinus) Grey - Headed Woodpecker African Green Woodpeckers (Chloron-
erpes) Red - Headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes) Sap - Suckers (Sphyropicus) Pied
Woodpeckers (Dendrocopus) Three-Toed Woodpeckers (Picoides) Crimson Headed
Bay Woodpecker (Lepocestes) Rufous Woodpeckers (Micropternus) Ivory - Billed



CONTENTS

Woodpeckers (Hemilophus) Great Black Woodpecker (Picus) Piculets (Picumnus)-
Rufous Piculets (Sasia) The Wrynecks (lyngidce] The Honey-Guides (Indicatoridce)
The Barbets (CapitonidcK) Tooth-Billed Barbets (Pogonorhynchus) Tinker Barbets
(Barbatula) Brown Barbets (Colorhamphus) Great Barbets (Megalcema) Crimson-
Headed Barbet (Xantholcema) The Toucans (Rhamphastidce) Toco Toucan (Rham-
phastus) Aracari Toucans (Pteroglossus), ......



INDEX,




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



COLOURED PLATES

MAMMALS

THE RED KANGAROO, ........ Frontispiece

THE GREENLAND WHALE, ....... Facing page 8

FLYING SQUIRREL, ........ ,,89

HARVEST MOUSE, ........ ,,144

CRESTED PORCUPINE, ....... .. 168

THE TWO-TOED SLOTH, ........ ,,208

BIRDS

GLOSSY STARLINGS, ........ Facing page 349

WEAVER-BIRDS, ......... 362

DESERT FINCH AND DESERT LARK, ...... 380

BUNTINGS, .......... ,,408

WHEATEAR, STONECHAT, AND WHINCHAT, ..... 480

DIPPER, PIED-WAGTAIL, AND YELLOW- WAGTAIL, .... 507



PAGE PLATES

MAMMALS

HUMPBACK WHALES DISPORTING, ....... Page 15

A COLONY OF BOBAC MARMOTS, .... . 85

BEAVERS AT WORK, .......... 97

PHILIPPINE RATS, ........... 121

A SCENE IN SOUTH AMERICA WITH RHEAS AND PATAGONIAN CAVIES, . 183

A HERD OF CARPINCHOS, ...... 187

CAPE AARD-VARKS AT HOME, ......... 232

BIRDS

GROUP OF CROWS, ......... Page 307

GROUP OF FINCHES, .....,... 376

GROUP OF TITS, ............ 448

GROUP OF THRUSHES, .......... 469

GREAT BLACK WOODPECKERS EXPLORING, ....... 550



Xll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



TEXT ENGRAVINGS

MAMMALS



PAGE

Sibbald's Fin-Whale, . . 1

Skeleton of Greenland Whale, . . 2

The Greenland Whale, . . 7

Section of Skull of Greenland Whale, . 8

Skeleton of Fin- Whale, . 18

The Lesser Fin- Whale, . . .19

The Common Fin- Whale, ... 21
Skeleton of Sperm-Whale, . . 24

The Sperm- Whale, ... 26

Skull of a Bottlenose- Whale, . . 30

Bottlenose- Whale, . . . .32

Skull of Sowerby's Whale, . . 34

Skull of the Physodon, ... 36
The Gangetic Dolphin, . . 38

The Amazonian Dolphin, . . .40

Skeleton of Dolphin, . .41

A School of Narwhals, . . .42

The White Whale, . . 44

The Common Porpoise, . . .46

Porpoise Diving, . . . .47

Heaviside's Dolphin, . . .49

Teeth of the Killer, . . .51

The Killer, .... 52

The Blackfish, .... 54
Bisso's Dolphin, . . . .56

The Pacific Short-Beaked Dolphin, . 57

The Common Dolphin, . . .59

Bed-Bellied Dolphin, ... 60
The Slender Dolphin, ... 60
Bottle-Nosed Dolphin, . . 61

The Bough-Toothed Dolphin, . . 62

The Pale River-Dolphin, . . 63

Skull of Prairie-Marmot, . .66

Skeleton of Squirrel, . . .69

The Fulgent Flying Squirrel, . . 69

The Abyssinian Spiny Squirrel, . . 71

The European Squirrel, . . .73

The Irawadi Squirrel, . . .76

The Common Chipmunk, . . .78

The Common Suslik, . . .80

The Prairie-Marmot, . . .82

The Alpine Marmot, . . .88

American Flying Squirrel, . . 91

Skeleton and Jaws of Beaver, . . 96

Skeleton and Molars of Dormouse, . 1 04

The Common Dormouse, . . .105

The Squirrel -Tailed and Garden -Dor-
mouse, . . . . .107
Skeleton of Garden Dormouse, . .109
Skeleton of Jerboa, . . .110



The Kirghiz Jerboa,

Egyptian Jerboa, .

The African Jumping Hare,

Skeleton of Jumping Hare,

Skeleton and Molars of Brown Bat,

Jaw and Teeth of Gerbil, .

Egyptian Gerbil, .

The Hamster,

Teeth of Vole,

The Water- Vole, .

The Continental Field-Vole,

The Alpine Vole, .

The Norwegian Lemming,

The Musquash,

The Brown Bat, .

The Black Bat,

The House Mouse,

The Barbary Mouse,

The Great Mole-Bat,

The Common Pocket Gopher,

The Common Kangaroo-Bat,

Skeleton of the Cane-Bat, .

The Degu, .

The Magellanic Tucotuco,

The Coypu,

The Hutia-Couga, .

The Cane-Bat, . . . .

Skeleton of Porcupine,

The Canadian Porcupine, .

Brazilian Tree-Porcupine, .

Mexican Tree-Porcupine, .

Common Porcupine,

African Brush-Tailed Porcupine, .

The Chinchilla, .

The Short-Tailed Chinchilla,

Cuvier's Chinchilla,

The Viscacha,

A Viscachera.

Skeleton and Skull of Aguti,

The Common Aguti,

Skull of Paca,

The Paca, .

The Guinea- Pig, .

Skeleton and Teeth of Hare,

Siberian Pica,

Hare in its Form, .

Common Hare,

Mountain- Hare,

Babbit,

Lop- Eared Babbit,



113
114
115
116
118
119
120
123
129
130
131
133
135
137
140
142
143
145
]48
151
152
154
156
157
158
160
161
163
164
165
166
167
168
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
181
189
190
192
194
195
198
200



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



xin



PAGE

Half- Lop Rabbit, . . 201

The Great Ant-Eater, . . . . 202

Skeleton of Three-Toed Sloth, . . 204

The Common Three-Toed Sloth, . . 206

Skull of Extinct Ground Sloth, . . 209

Skeleton of Great Ant-Eater, . . 210

The Great Ant-Eater, . . .211

The Tamandua, . . . .213

Two-Toed Ant-Eater, . . .214

Skeleton of Armadillo, . . .216

The Pichiciago, . . . .218

The Weasel-Headed Armadillo, . . 220

The Giant Armadillo, . . .223

The Three-Banded Armadillo, . . 224

Carapace and Skeleton of Glyptodon, . 225

Sheath of Tail of Glyptodont, . . 226

Skeleton of Pangolin, . . .227

The Indian Pangolin, . . . 228

The Short-Tailed Pangolin, . . 229

White-Bellied Pangolin, . . .230

The Ethiopian Aard-Vark, . . 233

Bennett's Wallaby, . . .235

Jaws and Teeth of Rat-Kangaroo, . 237

Skeleton of Kangaroo, . . . 238

Skull of Lesueur's Rat-Kangaroo, . 239

The Great Grey Kangaroo, . . 240

The Pandamelon Wallaby, . . 242

Yellow-Footed Rock- Wallaby, . . 245

The Common Hare- Wallaby, . . 246

The Black Tree-Kangaroo, . .248

Common Rat- Kangaroo, . . . 250

Brush-Tailed Rat-Kangaroo, . .251

Skull of Diprotodon, . . . 253

Skeleton of Phalanger, . . . 254



PAGE

The Long-Snouted Phalanger, . . 255
Spotted Cuscus, .... 257

Common Phalanger, . . . 259

Squirrel Elying Phalanger . . 261

Pigmy Flying Phalanger, . < . 262
The Koala, .... 263

Skull of Extinct Phalanger, . . 264

Skeleton of Wombat, . . .265

Wombats, . . . . .266

Skull of Tasmanian Devil . . 268

Skeleton of Thylacine, . . .269

The Thylacine, . . . .270

The Tasmanian Devil, . . .271

Common Dasyure, . . . 272

Yellow-Footed Pouched- Mouse, . . 273

Brush-Tailed Phascologale, . 274

Jerboa Pouched-Mouse, . . . 275

The Banded Ant-Eater, . . 275

Pouched-Mole, . .276

Feet of the Pouched-Mole, . . 276
Skull and Foot-Bones of Pouched-Mole, . 277

Common Opossum, . . .278

Philander Opossum, . . 279

Water-Opossum, . . . .281

Lower Jaw of Triconodon, . . 282

Lower Jaw of Amphilestes, . . 282
Lower Jaw of American Jurassic Mammal, 282

Echidna Walking, . . .283

Skeleton of Duckbill, . . .284

The Duckbill, . .285

Skeleton of Echidna, . . 287

Under-Part of the Skull of a South

African Secondary Mammal, . 288

Lower Jaw of Plagiaulax, . . . 288



BIRDS



A Rookery,

Pelvis of Kiwi, ....

Skeleton of Vulture,

Skeleton of Parrot and Skull of Cockatoo,

Skull of Teal, .

Vertebra of Moa, ....

Shoulder and Breast-Bone of Flightless

Bird,

Metacoracoid of Flying Bird,

Humerus of Gull, ....

Leg-Bones of Moa,

Tibia of Crane and Ostrich,

Skulls of Capercaillie, Duck, and Raven, .

Diagram of a Bird's Plumage,

Thick-Billed Raven,

White-Bellied Crow,



PAGE

289
290
291
292
292
293

294
294
295
295
296
297
298
309
310



Rook.

Nutcracker and Siberian Jay,

Magpies, .

Azure-Winged Magpie,

Red-Billed Blue Magpie, .

Indian Tree-Pie, .

Common Jay,

Mexican Long-Crested Jay,

Urraca Jay,

Grey Struthidea, .

Black-Backed Piping Crow,

Red-Billed and Alpine Chough,

Pander's Chough-Thrush, .

Huia Birds,

Twelve- Wired Bird of Paradise,

Gorget Bird of Paradise, .



PAGE

311
313
315
316
317
318
319
321
322
323
324
325
327
328
331
333



XIV



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

Great Bird of Paradise, . . . 334

Ked Bird of Paradise, . . 335

Wilson's Bird of Paradise, . . 337

Head of Six-Plumed Bird of Paradise, . 338
Satin Bower-Birds, . . .341

Spotted Bower-Birds at Home. . . 342

Common Starling, .... 343
Common and Black Starling, . . 345

Rose-Coloured Starling, . . . 346

Red-Billed Ox-Pecker, . . .348

Superb Glossy Starling, . . .350

Southern Grackle, . . . .351

Black Indian Drongo, . . . 353

Golden Oriole, . . . .354

Crested Cassique, .... 356
Common Cow-Bird, . . . 359

Red-Shouldered Starling, . . .360

Purple Troupial, . . . .361

Nest of Sociable Weavers, . . . 362

Common and White-Headed Ox-Birds, . 364
Abyssinian and Masked Weaver-Birds, . 365
Sociable Weaver-Bird, . . .367

Java Sparrow, .... 369
Violet Tanager, .... 370
West Indian Hone}' -Creeper, . . 373

Red Cardinal and Rose-Breasted Grosbeak, 380
Brambling, .... 384

<Htril Finch, Snow-Finch, and Lesser



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe royal natural history (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 60)