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BIOLOGY

LIBRARY

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THE ROYAL
NATURAL HISTORY



THE ROYAL
NATURAL HISTORY



EDITED BY



RICHARD LYDEKKER, B.A., F.R.S., ETC.



WITH PREFACE BY

P. L. SCLATER, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S., ETC.

SECRETARY OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON-



ILLUSTRATED WITH

Seventy-two Coloured Plates and Sixteen Hundred Engravings

BY

W. KUHNERT, F. SPECHT, P. J. SMIT, G. MUTZEL, A. T. ELWES, J. WOLF,
GAMBLER BOLTON, F.Z.S.; AND MANY OTHERS



VOL. VI.



LONDON
FREDERICK WARNE & CO.

AND NEW YORK

1890



r' ' ' ' ' ' ' "~



PRINTED BY MORRISON AND GIBE LIMITED, EDINBURGH.




CONTENTS



NVERTEBRATE ANIMALS



CHAPTER I. THE JOIXTED ANIMALS, Subkingdom Arthropoda ; THE INSECTS, Class

Insecta ; ANTS, BEES, WASPS, etc., Order Hymenoptera.

:

DISTINCTION BETWEEN VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES Special Characters of Arthropods
Distinctive Characteristics of Insects Geological Age of Insects Other Features
Mimicry Characteristics of Hymenoptera Development Classification The Saw-
Fly Group (Suborder Sessiliventres) Stem Saw- Flies (Cephidce) Tailed Wasps
(Siricidce) True Saw-Flies (Tenthredinidce) Typical Group (Suborder Petiolatd)
Gall-Wasps (Gynipidce) Prodotrypidce Chalcididce Ichneumon- Wasps(Ichneumonidce)
Braconidce Other Families The Ants (Formicidce) Mutillidce, etc. Bembicidce
Pompilidce Sphegidce Crabronidce Philanthidce Wasps and Bees Solitary Wasps
and Mud-Wasps (Masaridce and Eumenidce) Social Wasps (Vespidce) Solitary Bees
(Andrenidce) True Bees (Apidce), .....

CHAPTER. II. JOINTED ANIMALS, continued ; INSECTS, continued.
THE FLIES AND FLEAS, Order Diptera.

Characteristics of the Order Straight- Seamed Flies (Suborder Orthorrhapha) Mosquitoes
and Gnats (Culicidce) Daddy-Long- Legs (Tipulidce) Midges (Chironomidce) Fungus-
Midges (Mycetophilidce) Gall-Midges (Cecidomyidce) Sand-Flies, etc. (Simuliidce and
Bibionidce) Horse-Flies, or Breeze-Flies (Tabanidce) Robber-Flies, etc. (Asilidce and
Empidce) Bee-Flies (Bombyliidce) Circular-Seamed Flies (Suborder Cyclorrhapha)
Hover-Flies (SyrphidcB)Conopidce Typical Flies (Muscidce) Gad-Flies and Bot-Flies
(CEstridce) Forest-Flies (Hippoboscid(e)Tleas (Pulicidv, etc.), .

252336



vi CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER III. JOINTED ANIMALS, continued ; INSECTS, continued.
BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS, Order Lepidoptera.

Characters of the Order Development Structure of Larva Pupa Enemies Mimicry
Imago, or Perfect Insect Head Thorax, and its Appendages Abdomen Extinct
Forms Butterflies (Suborder Ehopalocera) Classification Fritillary Group (Nympli-
alidce) Erycinidce Blues and Coppers (Lyccenidce) Skippers (Hesperiidce) The Moths
(Suborder Heterocera) Emperor- Moths (Saturniidce) Silk-Spinners (Bombycidce)
Hawk-Moths (Sphingidce) Prominents (Notodontidce) Clear-Wings (Sesiidcr) Synto-
midce Burnets (Zygcenidce) Case- Weavers (Psychidce) Cossidce Allied Families
Lasiocampidce Lymantriidce Tiger - Moths (A rctiidce) Owl - Moths (Noctuidce)
Loopers (Geometridcv) Snout-Moths (Hypenidce) Subordfer Microlepidoptera, . 77

CHAPTER IV. JOINTED ANIMALS, continued ; INSECTS, continued.
THE BEETLES, Order Coleoptera.

Characteristics of the Order Section Pentamera Tiger-Beetles (Cicindelidce) Carnivorous
Ground-Beetles (Carabidce) Carnivorous Water-Beetles (Dytiscidce) Whirligig Beetles
(Gyrinidce) Short- Winged Beetles (Staphijlinidce) Paussidce Pselaphidce Bury ing-
Beetles (Silphidw) Hairy-Winged Beetles ( Trichoptery<jid<x)~Histeridce Nitidulidce
Dermestidce Hydrophilidce Stag- Beetles (Lucanidce) Passalidce Tribe Lamelli-
cornia Buprestidce Click - Beetles (Elateridce) Lycidce Glow - Beetles (Lampyridce)
Telephoridce Cleridce Ptinidce Section Heteromera Tenebrionidm Rhipidophoridce
'Meloidce Stylopidce Section Tetramera Weevils (Curculionidce) Scolyttdce
Brenthidce Anthribidce Longicorn Beetles (Cerambycidce) Bruchidce Chrysomelidce
Section Trimera Lady-Birds (Coccinella), . . . . . .123

CHAPTER V. JOINTED ANIMALS, continued ; INSECTS, concluded. Orders Neuroptera,

Orthoptera, Rhynchota, etc.

Characters of Neuroptera Caddis-Flies (Suborder Trichoptera) Pliryganeidce, etc. Flat-
Winged Group (Suborder Planipennia) Scorpion-Flies (Panorpidce) Snake-Flies and
Adder-Flies (Sialidce) Mantis-Flies (Mantispidce) Nemopteridce Ant-Lions (Myr-
meleontidce) Lace-Wing Flies (HemoroUidce and Clirysopidce) Order Orthoptera
Dragon-Flies (Odonata)Libellulidce JEschnidce Agrionidce M&y-Ylies(EphemeridcK)
Stone-Flies (Perlidai) Termites, or White-Ants (Termitidce) Book-Lice (Psocidce)
Bird-Lice (Mallophaga)True, Orthoptera Crickets (Gryllidce) Long- Horned
Grasshoppers (Locustidce) Locust Tribe (Acridiidce) Stick- and Leaf-Insects (Phas-
midce) Praying Insects (Mantidce) Cockroaches (Blattidce) Earwigs (Forficulidce)
Order Rhynchota Land-Bugs (Geocorisa) Water-Bugs (Hydrocorisa) Cicadas
(Cicadidce) Lantern-Flies (Fulgoridce) Frog-Hoppers (Cercopidai) Leaf -Flies (Psyl-
lidce) Plant- Lice (Aphidce) Scale-Insects (Coccidce) True Lice (Pediculina) Order
Thysanoptera Order Thysanura, . . . . . . .159

CHAPTER VI. JOINTED ANIMALS, continued. CENTIPEDES, MILLIPEDES, SCORPIONS,
and SPIDERS, Classes Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Arachnida, etc.

Characters of Centipedes Subclass Anartiostigma Subclass Artiostigma Orders Litho-
biomorpha, ticolopendromorpha, and GeophilomorphaT}ie Millipedes (Class Diplopoda)
Their Subclasses and Orders Scorpions, Spiders, Ticks, etc. (Class Arachnidce)
Their Characteristics The Scorpions (Order Scorpiones) The Whip-Scorpion and their
Allies (Order Pedipalpa) Order PalpigradiThe True, or Web-Spiders (Order
A ranece} Segmented Group (Suborder MesotJielce) Typical Group (Suborder Opistho-
thel(K)T}iQ various Tribes and Families of the same The False Spiders (Order Soli-



CONTENTS vii

I'AGE

fugce) The False Scorpions (Order P8wdo*corpiones)The Harvest-Spiders (Order
Opiliones) Suborder Laniatores Suborder Palpatores Group Ricinulei ~ The
Mites and Ticks (Order A cari) Aberrant Types, . 204

CHAPTER VII. THE JOINTED ANIMALS, concluded. THE SEA-SPIDERS, KING-CRABS,
CRUSTACEANS, etc., Classes Pantopoda, Giyantostraca, Crustacea, etc.

Characters of Sea-Spiders The King-Crabs (Class Gigantostraca) Existing Forms (Order
Xiphosura) Order Merostomata Order Trilobita Crabs, Lobsters, Crayfish, etc.
(Class Crustacea) Characteristics of the Class Typical Crustaceans (Subclass Malaco-
.s/rara) Order Decapoda Short- Tailed Group (Suborder Brachyura) Long-Tailed
Group (Suborder Macrura) Cleft-Footed Group (Order Schizopoda) The Mantis-
Shrimps (Order Stomatopoda) Sessile-Eyed Series (Edriophthalmata) Order Isopoda
Order Amphipoda Subclass Entomostraca The Barnacles (Order Cirripedia)
Bivalved Group (Order Ostracoda) Oar- Footed Group (Order Copepodd) Order
Cladocera Leaf -Footed Group (Order Phyllopoda) Class Prototracheata, . . 248

CHAPTER VIII. STONE-LILIES, STAR-FISHES, SEA-URCHINS, AND SEA-CUCUMBERS,

Subkingdom Echinodermata.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP Distinction of the Classes Mode of Life The Cystids (Class
Cystidea) The Stone-Lilies or Crinoids (Class Crinoidea) The Blastoids (Class Blas-
toidea) The Star-Fishes (Class Asteroidea) The Brittle Stars (Class Ophiuroidea)
The Sea-Urchins (Class Echinoidea)The Sea-Cucumbers (Class Holothuroidea) De-
velopment of Echinoderrns, ........ 289

CHAPTER IX. THE MOLLUSCS, OR SHELL-FISH, Subkingdom Mollusca.

Definition of the Group Growth Coloration Age Reproductive System Food Organs
of Sense Locomotion Uses in Nature and to Man Noxious Molluscs Distribution
Classification Squids, Cuttle-Fishes, and Nautili (Class Cephalopoda) Characteristics
Two-Gilled Group (Order Dibranchiata) Octopus Tribe (Odopodidce) Other Families
Argonautidce Suborder Decapoda Squids (Loliginidce) Sepiolidce Onychoteuthidce
and Chiroteuthidce The Cuttle-Fishes (Sepiidce) Spirulidce Four-Gilled Group (Order
Tetrabranchiata)Nautilidce Allied Families, ...... 320

CHAPTER X. THE MOLLUSCS, continued. Class Gastropoda.

Distinctive Features of Gastropods Lung-Breathing Group (Order Pulmonata) Suborder
Stylommatophora Shelled Slugs (Testacellidce) True Slugs (Limacidce) The Snail
Tribe (Helicidce) Other Families Suborder Basommatophora Earlet Shells (Auri-
culidce} Pond-Snails, etc. (Limnceidce, Physidce, and Chilinidce) Hind-Gilled Group
(Order Opisthobranchiata) Naked-Gilled Subgroup (Suborder Nudibranchiata) Sec-
tion Anthobranchiata Doris Tribe (Doridopsidce, Doridce, etc.) Section Inferobranchiata
Section Polybranchiata Section Pellibranchiata Section Parasita Covered-Gilled
Subgroup (Suborder Tectibranchiata} Suborder Pteropoda Sections Gymnosomata and
Thecosomata Front-Gilled Group (Order Prosobranchiata} Suborder Pectinibranchiata
Section Toxoglossa Cones (Conidce) Auger -Shells (Terebridce) Pleurotomidce
Cancellariidce Section Rhachiglossa Olives (Olividw)Raxv$(Harpid(E)MarginelUd(K
Volutes (Volutidce) Tulip- Shells (Fasciolariidce) Conch-Shells (Turbinellidce)
Whelks (Buccinidce)- Dog- Whelks (Nassidce) Dove-Shells (Columbellidce) Murices
(Muricidai) Section Tanioglossa Tritons (Tritonidce) Tun-Shells (Doliida;) Cowries
( Cyprmdce) Wing-Shells (Strombidce)Cerithiidce Worm-Shells ( Vermetidce)Melan-
iidce St repopomatidte Periwinkles (Littorinidce)Rissoid(cHydrobiidce Viviparous



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

Pond-Snails (Viviparidce) Valvatidce Ampullariidce Cydophoridce Cyclostomatidce
TruncatellidceHipponychidceCalyptrceidce XenopJwridce Naticidce Section Pteno-
(jlossa Violet Snails (lanthinidce) Wentle-Traps (Scalariidce) Section Gymnoglossa
Eulimidce Pyramidellidce Suborder Heteropoda Pterotracheidce Atlantidce Sub-
order Scutibranchiata Section Rhipidoglossa Helicenidce Neritidce Turbinidce-
Trochidce Delphinulidce Ormers (Haliotidce) Pleurotomariidce Keyhole Limpets
(Fissurellidce) Section Docoglossa Acmceidce Limpets (Patellidce) Lepetidce, . . 341

CHAPTER XI. MOLLUSCS, concluded. Classes Amphineura, Scaphopoda, and Pelecypoda.

The Chiton Group (Class Amphineura) Chitons (Order Polyplacophora) Order Aplacophora
The Tooth-Shells (Class Scaphopoda) The Bivalves (Ckss Pelecypoda) Order Proto-
branchiata Order Filibranchiata Order Pseudolamellibranchiata Order Eulamelli-
branchiata Suborder Submytilacea Suborder Tellinacea Suborder Veneracea Sub-
order Cardiacea Suborder Myacea Suborder Pholadacea Suborder Anatinacea
Order Septibranchiata, . .... .398

CHAPTER XII. MOSS-ANIMALS AND LAMP-SHELLS, Subkingdom Molluscoidea.

The Moss- Animals (Class Bryozoa) Characteristics of the Group Subclass Ectoproda Order
Phylactolcemata Order Gymnolaemata Subclass Entoprocta The Lamp-Shells (Class
Brachiopoda) and their Characteristics Hinged Group (Order Testicardines) Hinge-
less Group (Order Ecardines\ ... . . 419

CHAPTER XIII. THE WORM-LIKE ANIMALS, Subkingdom Vermes.

Characteristics of Worms Bristle-Worms, or Annelids (Class Annelida) Their Distinctive
Features Many-Bristled Group (Order Polychceta) Sparsely-Bristled Group (Order
Olicjoch(Eta)1\\Q Leeches (Class Hirudinea) The Gephyrean Worms (Class Gephyrea)
The Wheel- Animalcules (Class Rotifera) The Thread-Worms, or Round-Worms (Class
Nematohelminthes) Spiny-Headed Thread-Worms (Order Acanthocephala) Typical
Thread-Worms (Order Nematoidea) Arrow-Worms (Order Chcctognatha) The Nemer-
tine Worms (Class Nemertinea) The Flat- Worms (Class Platyhelminthes) Tape-
Worms (Order Cestoda) Trematode Worms (Order Trematoda) Many-Suckered Group
(Suborder Polystomece) Two-Suckered Group (Suborder Distomece) Turbellarian
Worms (Order Turbellaria) Suborder Ehabdoccela Suborder Dendroccela Group of
Uncertain Position (Orthonectidce and Dicyemidce), ..... 43i

CHAPTER XIV. JELLY-FISH, CORALS, AND SEA-ANEMONES, Subkingdom Codenterata.

Distinctive Features of Ccelenterates The Ctenophores (Group Ctenophora) Stinging Series
(Group Cnidaria) The Jelly-Fish and their Allies (Class Polypomedusce) Order
Siphonophora Order Hydromedusce Fresh- water Forms Order Scyphomedusce The
Sea- Anemones and Corals (Class Anthozoa) Six-Rayed Polyps (Order Hexactinid)
Horny Corals (A niipatharia) Eight-Rayed Polyps (Order Odactinia) Coral-Reefs and
Islands, . ..... . 474

CHAPTER XV. THE SPONGES, Subkingdom Porifera.

Distinctive Characters of the Group Reproduction The Calcareous Sponges (Class Calcarea)
Six-Rayed, or Glass-Sponges (Class Hexactinellida^Tlie Common Sponges (Class
Demospongia) Four-Rayed Sponges (Order Tetractinellida) - The Fleshy Sponges
(Order Carnosa) Single-Rayed Sponges (Order Monaxonida) Fresh-Water Sponges
Horny Sponges (Order C&ratosa), . . 526



CONTENTS



IX



CHAPTER XVI. THE LOWEST ANIMALS, Subkingdom Protozoa.

Characteristics of Protozoans The Root-Footed Group (Class Rhizopoda) The Amaebas
(Order Lobosa) Order Foraminifera Sun- Animalcules (Order Heliozoa) Order
Radiolaria The Infusorial Animalcules (Class Infusoria) Flagellated Infusorians
(Order Flagellata) Ciliated Infusorians (Order Ciliata), . . . 550



INDEX



569




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



COLOURED PLATES



TYPICAL BUTTERFLIES,
MIMICRY IN INSECTS,
GIANT SWIFT MOTH,
BEETLES IN A FLOOD,
ORTHOPTERA,
CRUSTACEANS,
CEPHALOPODA,
LAND MOLLUSCS, .
CTENOPHORES,
SEA-ANEMONES, .
GLASS-SPONGES, .
RADIOLARIANS,



Frontispiece
Facing page 10

103

128
176

256

336

345
475
500
537

562



PAGE PLATES



A COLUMN OF THE ARMY-WORM,
INSECT LIFE IN SUMMER,
HERMIT CRABS, .



Page 53
65

263



TEXT ENGRAVINGS



Group of Beetles (Bruchus\ . . 1

Mouth Organs of Insects, ... 7

Group of Saw-Flies, . . .15

Boring Apparatus of Giant-Tailed Wasp, 16
Giant-Tailed Wasp, . . .17

Pine Saw-Fly and Broad-Bodied Saw-Fly, 1 7
Saw-Flies, .... 18

Green Saw-Fly, . . . 19

Oak-Gall Wasp, etc., . . .20

Sponge Gall- Wasp, Oak-Root Gall-Wasp,

etc., ..... 20
Rose Gall- Wasp and Gall, . 21

Egg-Wasps, . . 22

Gouty-Legged Wasp, Chrysalis-Stinger,

etc., . 23



Ichneumon-Wasps,

Various Ichneumon- Wasps,

Pimpla instigator, .

Microgaster nemorum,

Javelin-Wasp,

Burnished and Gold Wasps,

Honey-Pot and Parasol Ants,

Mutilla and Scolia,

Pompilus, etc.,

Mellinus, etc.,

Leaf-Cutter Bee, .

Inmates of a Hive, .

Mud-Wasps,

Life-History of the Hornet,

South African Wasp and Nest,



PAGE

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25
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26
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27
31
33
34
35
36
38
40
41
42



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



XI



PAGE

Group of Solitary Bees, . . 43

Mason-Bee, .... 43

Carpenter-Bee, . .44

Flower-Bees, . . . .44

Humble-Bees, .... 45
Wing of Dadcty-Long-Legs and Blow-Fly, 48
Banded Gnat, . . . 50

Army- Worm Fly, . . . .55

Development of Hessian Fly, . . 57

Columbatsch Fly, .... 58
St. Mark's Fly, . .58

Great Horse-Fly, . . 59

Robber-Flies, . .60

Black and White Bee- Fly, . 61

Female Stratiomys, . . .61

Hover-Fly, .... 62

Group of Flies and their Grubs, . . 67

Tsetse Fly, ..... 69
"Spiny Fly, . . . . .71

Asparagus Fly, . .71

Chlorops tceniopus, . . . .72

Development of Horse Bot-Fly, . . 72

Ox Warble-Fly and its Development, . 73
Life-History of Sheep Bot-Fly, . . 74

Forest-Fly, . . . .75

Common Flea and its Structure, . . 76

Pine Hawk-Moth, with Larvae and Pupa, 77
Wing of Noctua Moth, . 82

Peacock and Meadow- Brown Butterflies, . 86
Resplendent Ptolemy, . . .87

Wall-Brown, .... 88

Group of British Butterflies, . . 89

Group of Tropical Butterflies, . . 90

Black- Veined White, . .91

Hawk-Moths, . . . .93

Spurge Hawk-Moth and Caterpillar, . 96
Oleander Hawk-Moth, with Larva and

Pupa, ..... 97
Puss-Moth and Lobster- Moth . .100

Hornet Clear- Wing and Goat-Moth, . 101
Psyche Moth, . . . .102

Life-History of Pine-Lappet Moth, . 105

Procession-Moth, .... 106
Lackey-Moth, . . . .107

Hermaphrodite Gipsy-Moth, . .107

Development of Gipsy-Moth, . . 108

Black- Arches Moth, . . .108

Pale Tussock- Moth, with Larva and Pupa, 109
Brown-Tail and Gold-Tail Moths, . 109

Satin Moth, . . . .110

Tiger -Moth, Six -Spot Burnet, and

Spangled White, . . .111

Merveil-du-Jour, Rustic Shoulder-Knot,

and Figure-of -Eight Moth, . . 112



White- Spotted Pinion and Pine- Moth,

Red Under- Wing, with Larva,

Feathered Gothic, Angle - Shades, and
Antler-Moth, ....

Pepper-Moth, with Larva and Pupa

Group of Loopers, ....

Bordered White, and Argent- and Sable-
Moth, .....

Magpie Moth and its Development,

Dark Spinach-Moth and Larva, .

Purple-Barred Yellow, and Lime-Speck
Moth, .....

Mother-of- Pearl Moth, with Larva,

Oak-Tortrix and its Development,

Oak-Gail Tortrix, and Larch Tortrix,

Pea- Moth and Larva,

Codlin and Meal-Moth,

Corn-Moth, and Larva of Clothes-Moth
and Wax-Moth, ...

Plume-Moth, etc., ....

Larch Mining-Moth,

Carnivorous Beetles and their Prey,

Zabrus and Larva, ....

Tiger-Beetles, ....

Elaphrus riparius, ....

Mormolyce phyllodes,

Scarites gigas, ....

Dytiscus and Hydrocharis, .

Whirligig Beetle, .

British Rove-Beetles,

Claviger testaceus, .

Silpha atrata and Larva, .

Hister fimetarius, . . . .

Meliyethes ceneus, .

Great Black Water-Beetle,

Burrowing Beetle, .

Scarabceus sacer, ....

Aphodius fossor,

Male of Geotrupes, .

Polyphylla fullo,

Summer Chafer, .

Rhinoceros-Beetle,

Ceratorrhina smithi,

Chalcophora mariana,

Wire- Worm,

West Indian Fire-Fly,

Telephones fuscus, .

Clerus formicarius, with Larva and Pupa,

Trichodes apiarius,

Death- Watch Beetle,

Churchyard Beetle and Larva,

Mi-al-Worm Beetle and Larva,

Oil-Beetles and Larvae,

Male and Female of Xenos,



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113

114
115
116

116
117

117

117
118
119
119
120
120

121
121
122
124
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142
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146
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147
148
148



Xll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

Sitones lineatus, . . . .149

Pine- Weevil, with Larva and Pupa, . 149

Apion apricanSj . . . .150

Leaf- Rolling Weevils, . . . .150

Apoderus longicollis, . . .150

Nut- Weevil and Larva, . . .151

Pear-Blossom Weevil, . . .151

Apple-Blossom Weevil, . . . 151

Various Weevils, . . . .151

Palm- Weevil, . . . .152

Hylotrupes bajulus, with Larva, . . 152

Prionus and Eryates, . . .153

Musk-Beetle, . . . .154

Strangalia armata and Larva, . .154

Toxotus meridianus, . . .154
Rhagium, ..... 155

Necydalis major, . . . .155

Long- Horned Beetles, . . . 156

Donacia clavipes, . . . .156

Colorado Potato-Beetle, . . .157

Life-History of Tortoise-Beetles, . . 157

Lady-Birds, . . . .158

Cases of Caddis-Fly Larvee, . .160

Life- History of Caddis-Fly, . .162

Common Scorpion-Fly, . . .163

Life- History of Alder-Fly, . . 163

Life-History of Ant-Lion, . . 164
Lace- Wing Flies, .... 165

Life-History of Dragon- Flies, . . 168

Male May-Fly, . . . .170

May-Fly Moulting, . . .170

Common Stone-Fly, . . .171

White Ants and their Development, . 173

Psocus lineatus, . . . .176

Group of Crickets, . . .177

Mole-Cricket, with Eggs and Larva, . 178

Hetrodes and Meconema, . . . 1 79

Migratory Locust and Larvee, . . 181

Tettix subulata, . . . .182

A Stick-Insect and Larva, . . 183

Praying Insects, . . . .184

Egg-Case of Kitchen Cockroach, . .185

Cockroaches, . . . .185

Earwigs, . . .186

Hottentot Bug, . . . .188

Shield Bugs, . . . .189

Syromastes and Neides, . . .189

Pyrrhocoris apterus, . . .190

Calocoris striatellus . . .190

Tingis, Aradus, and Cimex, . . 191

Reduvius personatus, . . .191

Salda elegantula, . . . .191

Common British Water- Bugs, . .192

European Cicadas, . . .193



PAGE

Cixius nervosus, . . . .195

Pseudophana europcea, . , . .195

Ledra and Aphrophora, . . .196

Centrotus cornutus, . . . .196

Psylla genistce, . . . .196

Life-History of Vine-Phylloxera, . . 197

Lachnus punctatus, . . . 198

Spruce-Gall Aphid, . . .199

Female Orthezia urticce, . . .199

Cochineal Insects, .... 200

Various Lice, .... 201

Corn-Thrips, " . . .202

Heliothrips, .... 202

Podura villosa, .... 202

Desoria glacialis, .... 203

Black-Banded Centipede, . . .205

Common English Centipede, . . 206

Centipede devouring a Beetle Larva, . 207
Head of Geophilus, . . . 207

Geophilus grappling with Earth- Worm, . 208
Sumatran Millipede, . . . 209

Bristly Millipede, . . . .209

Sumatran Pill-Millipede, . . . 210

English Pill-Millipedes, . .210

Millipede (Julus), . . . .211

Flat Millipede, . . . .212

Celebean Millipede, . . . 213

Spanish Yellow Scorpion, . . .215

African Rock-Scorpion, . . .216

Bornean Whip- Scorpion, . . .218

West African Tailless. Whip-Scorpion, . 219
Anatomy of Cross-Spider, . .221

Female Drassus, .... 222

Female Wolf-Spider, . . .222

Jamaica Trap-Door Spider and Nest, . 223
Bird-Eating Spider, . . .225

Palm Trap-Door Spider, . . .226

Field-Spiders, . .. . . . 227

House-Spiders, . . . .228

Water-Spiders, .... 229

An Orb-Spinner, . . . .231

Common Cross-Spider, . . .231

Side- Walking Spiders (Xysticus), . . 232

Side- Walking Spider (Palystes), . . 233

Tarantula, . . . . .233

Jumping Spiders, .... 234

False Spider, .... 236

Book Scorpion, . . . . 237

South American Harvest Spider, . . 239

Chilian Harvest Spider, ... . 240

Velvety Mite, .... 242

Water Mite, and Water Scorpion infested

with same, . . . 243

Beetle-Mite, and Dor Beetle infested with same 243



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Xlll



Mouth- Organs of Sheep-Tick, . .244

English Sheep-Tick, . . .244

Dog- or Sheep-Tick, . . .245

Pigeon-Tick, . . . .245

Cheese-Mite . . . .245

Itch-Mite, . . . . .246

Demodex folliculorum, . . . 246

A Spider's Spinnerets, . . . 247

Slender Sea-Spider, . . .248

Shore-Spider, .... 249
Chinese King-Crab, . . . 250

A Trilobite, . . . .252

Nauplius Larva of Barnacle, . . 253

Zosea Stage of Crab, . . . 254

Jaws of Crayfish, . . . . 254

Young Edible Crab, . . .256

Swimming Crab, .... 256
Indian Land-Crab, . . . 257

Swift Land-Crab, . . . .258

Calling-Crab, . . . .258

Thornback Crab, . . . .259

Long-Beaked Spider-Crab, . . 261

Dromia Crab, . . . .261

Broad-Clawed Porcelain- Crab, . . 262

One-Clawed Lobster, . . . 265

Larva of Crayfish, . . . .266

Slender- Clawed Crayfish, . . .266

Common Crayfish, . . . 267

Common Prawn, .... 268
West Indian Prawn, . . . 269

Mussel-Prawn and Sponge-Prawn, . 270

Hooded Shrimp, .... 270
Long-Necked Shrimp, . . .271

Mantis-Shrimp, .... 272
Scrolls bromleyana, .... 274
Sphceroma, ..... 275
Male and Female Gnathia, . . 275

Common and Pill Wood- Lice, . .276

Fresh- Water Shrimp, . . .277

Sand-Hopper, . . . .277

Spiny Shrimp, . . . .277

Gigantic Andania, . . . 278

Skeleton-Shrimp, .... 278
Whale-Louse, . . . .279

Transparent Ocean-Shrimp, . . 279

Phronima, ..... 280
Barnacles attached to Pumice, . .281

Acorn-Barnacle, .... 282
Stalkless Barnacle, . . . 282

Parasitic Cirripedes, . . . 282

Parasitic Barnacles, . . . 282

Copepods, ..... 283
Fish-Lice, ..... 284
Spiny-Tailed Water-Flea, . . 285



Egg-Capsule of Water-Flea,

Glassy Leptodora, .

Scale-Tailed Apus,

Branchipus, and Brine Shrimp,

Peripatus, .....

Anchor Sea-Cucumber,

Sea-Cucumbers and Brittle-Star, .

Ambulacral System of Starfish, .

Group of Stone-Lilies,

Lofoden Eoot-Crinoid,

Medusa- Head Pentacrinid,

Kosy Feather-Star and Sabella, .

Parasitic Swellings on Crinoids, .

Blue China Star-Fish,

PedicellaricBj . .

Starfish Turning Over,

Common Brittle-Star,

Edible Sea-Urchin,

Jaws of Stone-Urchin,

Shield-Urchin, ....

Fiddle Heart- Urchin,

Phial- Shaped Pourtalesia,

Leather-Urchin, ....

U-Shaped Sea- Cucumber, .

A Deep-Sea Holothurian (Scotoplana),

(Psychropotes), .

Club-Like Sea-Cucumber,
A Plated Holothurian,
Green Snake-Star, ....
Development of a Sea-Urchin (Stages 1-8),

(Stage 9), .

(Stage 10), .
Young Sea-Urchin,
Brood-Pouch of Sea-Urchin,
Beak of Cuttle-Fish,
Common Octopus, .
Shell of Female Argonaut,
Male Argonaut,
Common Squid,
Sepiola,

Shell of Spirula, .
Section of Shell of Pearly Nautilus,
A Ceratite, .
An Ammonite,

Shell-Bearing Slug (Testacella\ .
Glass-Snail and Amber-Snail,
Black Slug,
Clausilia, .

Agate-Snail (Achatina\
Pythia scarabceus, .
Earlet Shell (Auricula), .
Embryo of River- Limpet, .
Teeth of Snails, .
Common Pond-Snail (Limncea), .



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XIV



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



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Various Forms of Limncea, . . 351



Online LibraryRichard LydekkerThe royal natural history (Volume 6) → online text (page 1 of 63)