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GREATER LONDON



Editor's Note to Greater London

The methods employed in the enumeration of the attendance
at places of worship in Greater London differed slightly from those
adopted in London. In the case of smaller churches and mission-
halls an exception was made to the rule, religiously observed in
the twenty-nine boroughs, of one man per door. In certain rare
instances volunteers were accepted; these volunteers, however,
did not assist in the enumeration of the churches to which they
were attached, but were drafted off to neighbouring places of
worship. Each volunteer was placed under a superintendent
belonging to the Census staff. Not more than twenty such instances
of voluntary assistance occurred throughout the whole of our
work in Greater London.

The distance of many of the suburban districts from town
rendered our task one of considerable difficulty. The problem of
getting the enumerators to their destinations in view of the lack
of early trains, of providing food for them in country districts
during their twelve or fifteen hours' absence from home, and of
finding a shelter for them in wet weather between the morning and
evening services, had constantly to be faced and mastered.






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THE RELIGIOUS
LIFE OF LONDON




There is not a hamlet where poor peasants congregate, but, by-
one means and another, a church apparatus has been got together —
roofed edifice, with revenues and belfries ; pulpit, reading-desk, with
books and methods : possibility, in short, and strict prescription,
That a man stand there and speak of spiritual things to men. It
is beautiful ; even in its great obscuration and decadence, it is
among the beautifulest, most touching objects one sees on the
earth. This Speaking Man has indeed, in these times, wandered
terribly from the point ; has, alas, as it were, totally lost sight of
the point ; yet, at bottom, whom have we to compare with him ?
Of all public functionaries boarded and lodged on the industry of
modern Europe, is there one worthier of the board he has? A
man even professing, and never so languidly making still some
endeavour, to save the souls of men ; contrast him with a man
professing to do little but shoot the partridges of men ! I wish
he could find the point again, this Speaking One, and stick to it
with tenacity, with deadly energy, for there is need of him yet !
The Speaking Function, this of truth coming to us with a living
voice— nay, in a living shape, and as a concrete practical exemplar ;
this, with all our writing and printing functions, has a perennial
place. Could he but find the point again — take the old spectacles
off his nose, and looking up discover, almost in contact with him,
what the real Satanas, and soul-devouring, world-devouring Devil,
now is ! Original sin and suchlike are bad enough, I doubt not ;
but distilled gin, dark ignorance, stupidity, dark corn-law, bastille
and company, what are they ! Will he discover our new real
Satan, whom he has to fight, or go on droning through his old
nose-spectacles about old extinct Satans, and never see the real
one till he feel him at his own throat and ours? That is a
question for the world ! — Carlyle.



THE RELIGIOUS
LIFE OF LONDON



EDITED BY

RICHARD MUDIE-SMITH



'And he came to Nazareth, where he had been

BROUGHT up: AND HE ENTERED, AS HIS CUSTOM
WAS, INTO THE SYNAGOGUE ON THE SABBATH DAY."

St. Luke iv. i6.

' Not FORSAKING THE ASSEMBLING OF OURSELVES
TOGETHER, AS THE CUSTOM OF SOME IS."

Hebrrws x. 25,



LONDON

HODDER AND STOUGHTON

27, PATERNOSTER ROW

1904



It is to keep a man awake, to keep him alive to his own soul
and its fixed design of righteousness, that the better part of
moral and religious education is directed ; not only that of
words and doctors, but the sharp ferule of calamity under
which we are all God's scholars till we die. If, as teachers,
Tve are to say anything to the purpose, we must say what will
remind the pupil of his soul; we must speak that soul's
dialect; we must talk of life and conduct as his soul would
have him think of them. If, from some conformity between
us and the pupil, or perhaps among all men, we do in truth
speak in such a dialect and express such views, bej'^ond question
we shall touch in him a spring ; beyond question he will
recognise the dialect as one that he himself has spoken in
his better hours ; beyond question he will cry, " I had forgotten,
but now I remember; I too have eyes, and I had foigot to
use them ! I too have a soul of my own, arrogantly upright,
and to that I will listen and conform." In short, say to him
anything that he has once thought, or been on the point of
thinking, or show him any view of life that he has once clearly
seen, or been on the point of clearly seeing; and you have
done your part and may leave him to complete the education
for himself.— Robert Louis Stevenson.



' R K



PREFACE

" Men need the experience of the past to help them in
practical endeavours, to enable them to understand the
position of actual questions with which they and their
age are engaged. For this purpose accurate facts are
needed — not opinions, however plausible, which are unsus-
tained by facts." These words, taken from the late
Bishop Creighton's "Introduction" to the Cambridge Modern
History, justify, if any justification is necessary, the
publication of this book. The one aim of those responsible
for its appearance is to stimulate the Churches to renewed
activity by presenting them with accurate facts in place
of plausible opinions. In order that the statistics might
prove of immediate practical utility, various writers,
specialists in their own respective departments, were asked
to interpret their significance. It will be observed that
there is not entire agreement in the conclusions at which
they arrive. This, however, was neither expected nor
desired, — it was not expected, since each writer was given
cm^te blanche; it was not desired, since vigorous individu-
ality of utterance was preferred to an apparent uniformity,
which might have been obtained by means either of
emendations or additions. The editor is indebted to
Mr. H. J. B. Steele for valuable assistance in preparing
these pages for the press, and to Mr. Wm. Scott Durrant,
M.A., for kindly reading through the final proof-sheets.






What greater calamity can fall upon a nation than the loss of
woi-ship? Then all things go to decay. Genius leaves the temple
to haunt the senate or the market. Literature becomes frirolous.
Science is cold. The eye of youth is not lighted by the hope of
other worlds, and age is without honour. Society lives to trifles;
and when men die we do not mention them. — Emerson.

If for eveiy rebuke that we utter of men's vices we put forth
a claim upon their hearts ; if for every assertion of God's demands
from them we could substitute a display of His kindness to them ;
if side by side with every warning of death we could exhibit proofs
and promises of immortality ; if, in fine, instead of assuming the
being of an awful Deity — which men, though they cannot and dare
not deny, are always unwilling, sometimes unable, to conceive — we
were to show them a near, visible, inevitable, but all beneficent
Deity, whose presence makes the earth itself a heaven, I think
there would be fewer deaf children sitting in the market-place. —

RUSKIN.



I



CONTENTS



PAGE

T. Methods and; Lessons of the Census 1

The Editor, Superintendent of the Census.

II. The Results of the Census 15

The Editor.

III. The Problem of East London 19

Percy Alden, M.A., Hon. Warden, Mansfield House, Unirersity
Settlement.

IV. The Ideal Church for East London . . . . .43

Percy Alden, M.A.

V. The Problem of West London , . . . . , .69
Arthur Sherwell, Author of Life in West London.

VI. The Problem of North London 127

Walter R. Warren, LL.B., Author of The History of Private
Property {The New Party).

VII. The Problem of South London . . . . . .187

Charles F. G. Masterman, M.A., Fellow of Christ's College,
Cambridge, Author of From the Abyss.

VIIL Facts and Forces not Enumerated 273

The Rev. Henry Mann, Religious News Editor of The Daily News.

IX. The Daily News Census of 1902-3 Compared with the British

Weekly Census of 1886 280

Jane T. Stoddaet — " Lorna," of Tlie British Weekly.

X. The Settlement Ideal 29'!

P. Whitwell Wilson, B.A., Author of The Distributio7i of Industry
{The Heart of the Empire').



viii CONTENTS



PAGE



XI. Men's Services in the Church of England .... 302

The Kbv. J. E. Watts Ditchfibld, Vicar of St. James the Less,
Bethnal Green.



XII. Week-Evening Services ........ 307

Charles T. Bateman, Author of G. F. Watts.

XIII. Missionary Efforts in the Metropolis 314

Charles T. Bateman.

XIV. The P.S.A. Movement 320

The Rev. E. Goold, M.A., Editor of Tlie P.S.A. Leader.

XV. The Children op the Slums : Their Relation to the Churches 324

The Kev. Henry T. Meakin, Superintendent of the Wesleyan
Methodist Great Central Mission, Bermondsey.

XVI. The Adult-School Movement ....... 331

William C. Braithwaite, B.A., LL.B., President of the National
Council of Adult- Schools Associations.

XVII. The Problem of Greater London 337

George Haw, Author of No Room to Live, Britain's Homes.



I



TABLE OF STATISTICS

COUNTY OF LONDON

EAST

Returns for the Borough of Poplar .

„ Stepney.
J, „ „ Bethnal Green

„ Shoreditcu .
„ Hackney

WEST

„ ,, „ „ Marylebone .

„ Paddington .
jj „ City of Westminster

,, ,, Borough of Kensington .

„ Chelsea
„ „ „ „ Hammersmith

„ Fulham
„ „ City of London

NORTH
„ ,, Borough of Stoke Newinqton

„ „ Hampstead
„ Islington
„ St. Pancras

„ HOLBORN
„ FiNSBURY

SOUTH

» 5, M n Wandsworth

„ Lambeth

„ „ ,, „ Camberwell

„ Lewisham

„ Deptford

„ Greenwich

„ Woolwich

„ „ „ „ Battersea

„ „ •, „ Southwark

„ „ ,, „ Bermondsey

Table showing Attendance at Jewish Synagogues in London
„ „ Ratio of Attendance for each Borough .

„ „ THE Attendances of Men and Women in the Estab

LISHED, THE NONCONFORMIST, AND THE RoMAN CaTHOLIC

Churches ......•••

„ „ State of Weather for each Borough on Day of

Enumeration, Population of each Borough, Total
Attendances, and Ratios ....••



267



268



TABLE OF STATISTICS



Table showing Contribution of each Church in each Borough to
Total Attendances .......

„ ,, Contribution of each Borough to Total Attendances

Denominational Totals for Inner London .



GREATER LONDON

Returns for the District of Acton .

„ Barnes .



Barnet, East .

,, Friern

„ High .
Beckenham
Brentford
Bromley
Carshalton .
Chislehurst .
Chiswick

CooMBE, see Malden
Croydon, C.B.*

„ RD.* .
Dittons, see Esher
Ealing, M.B.*
Edmonton
Enfield .
Esher and the Dittons

FiNCHLEY

Greenford
Ham (Surrey)

„ East

„ West, C.B. .
Hampton

,, Wick
Hanwell

Harrow-on-the-Hill
Hendon .

Heston and Isleworth
hornsey, m.b.
Ilford .

Isleworth, see Heston
Kingsbury
Kingston, M.B.
Leyton .

Malden and Coombe
MoLESEY, East and West
Norwood (Middlesex) see Southall
Pbnge ......



269
270
271



388



C.B. lepieaents County Borough. K.D. represents Rural District. M.B. rejiresents Municipal Borough.



TABLE OF STATISTICS



XI



















PAGE


Returns


FOR THE


District


OF


Richmond, M.B 345


j>


55


55


55


SOUTHALL AND NoRWOOD (MiDDLESEX) . 433


))


55


55


)5


SOUTHGATE 398


»


55


55


55


SURBITON








. 379


55


55


55


5)


SUTTON .








. 349


55


55


55


55


Teddington








. 374


»5


55


55


15


Tottenham








. 404


55


55


55


5)


Twickenham .








. 439


55


55


55


55


Walthamstow








. 367


55


55


55


55


Wanstead








. 363


55


55


55


55


^YEALDSTONE .








. 420


55


55


55


)5


Wembley








. 423


55


55


55


55


Willesden








. 414


55


55


55





Wimbledon








. 377


55


55


55


55


Woodford








. 370


55


55


55




Wood Green .








. 402



Table showing Ratio of Attendance for each District . . .441
„ „ the Attendances of Men and Women in the Estab-

lished, the Nonconformist, and the Roman Catholic

Churches ......... 442

„ ,, State of Weather for each District on Day of

Enumeration, Population of each District, Total

Attendances, and Ratios ...... 443

„ ,, Contribution of each Church in each District to

Total Attendances ....... 444

,, „ Contribution of each District to Total Attendances 445

,, „ Denominational Totals for Greater London . . 446
„ „ Percentage Contributed by each Church to Total

Attendances for the Census Area .... 447

„ ,, Total Number of Places OF Worship in THE Census Area 447

APPENDIXES

A. Table showing Proportion of " Twicers " 449

B. ,, ,, Specimen Attendances at Early Communion Ser-

vices . . . . . . . . .451

C. „ „ Attendances at every Service in the Borough of

Chelsea on a certain Sunday ..... 456

D. ,, ,, Attendances at Adult Schools .... 458

E. ,, ,, Specimen Attendances at Afternoon Services . 459

F. „ „ Specimen Attendances at Open-Air Services . 460

G. ,, „ Specimen Attendances at Week-Evening Services 461
H. ,, ,, Specimen Attendances at Week-Morning Services 461
ADDENDA AND ERRATA 462

INDEXES

I. Index to Articles ......... 463

II. „ ,, Places of Worship in Inner London .... 475

III. „ ,, ,, ,, ., „ Greater London . . . 504



I then in ignorance and weakness,

Taking God's help, have attained to think

My heart does best to receive in meekness

That mode of worship, as most to his mind,

Where, earthly aids being cast behind.

His All in All appears serene

With the thinnest human veil between,

Letting the mystic lamps, the seven.

The many motions of his spirit,

Pass, as they list, to earth from heaven.

For the preacher's merit or demerit.

It were to be wished the flaws were fewer

In the earthen vessel, holding treasure

Which lies as safe in a golden ewer;

But the main thing is, does it hold good measure ?

Heaven soon sets right all other matters.

Browning {Christmas Eve).

He that loves God's abode, and to combine

With saints on earth, shall one day with tliem shine.

George Herbert.

Though private prayer be a brave design.

Yet public hath more promises, more love ;

And love's a weight to hearts, to eyes a sign.

We all are but cold suitors; let us move

Where it is warmest. Leave thy six and seven ;

Pray with the most ; for where most pray is heaven.

George Herbert.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



The Diagrams have been designed and p?'epa?'eo? by W. Harold Klosz



Metropolit


^N Boroughs ....


Frontispiece




EAST


FACING PAGE


ATTENDANCE,


Poplar


. 48


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, PoPLAR




. 48


ATTENDANCE,


Stepney ....




. 54


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, StEPNEY




. 54


ATTENDANCE,


Bethnal Green




. 58


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, BeTHNAL GrEEN




. 58


AllENDANCE,


Shoreditch ....




62


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, ShOREDITCH




. 62


ATTENDANCE,


Hackney ....




68


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, HaCKNEY .




68


ATTENDANCE,


TOTALS FOR EaST LoNDON




68


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR EaST LoI


JDON


68




WEST




ATTENDANCE,


Marylebone




100


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, MarYLECONE




100


ATTENDANCE,


Paddington ....




104


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, PadDINGTON




104


ATTENDANCE,


Westminster




108


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, WESTMINSTER .




108


ATTENDANCE,


Kensington . . . . .




112


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, KENSINGTON




112


ATTENDANCE,


Chelsea




116


ANALYSIS OF


ATTENDANCE, ChELSEA .




116



XIV



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS



FACING PAGE



Diagram shewing attendance, Hammersmith

„ analysis of attendance, Hammersmith

,, „ attendance, Fulham.

J J „ analysis of attendance, Fulham

jj „ attendance. City of London .

^, „ ANALYSIS of ATTENDANCE, CiTY OF LoNDON

^^ ,, ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR WeST LoNDON

,j „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR WeST LoNDON

NORTH

„ „ ATTENDANCE, StOKE NeWINGTON .

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, StOKE NeWINGTON

„ „ ATTENDANCE, HaMPSTEAD .

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, HaMPSTEAD

„ „ ATTENDANCE, ISLINGTON

„ „ ANALYSIS OP ATTENDANCE, ISLINGTON .

„ „ ATTENDANCE, St. PaNCRAS .

,, „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, St. PaXCRAS

„ „ ATTENDANCE, HOLBORN

„ ,, ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, HoLBORN .

„ „ ATTENDANCE, FiNSBURY

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, FiNSBURY ,

„ „ ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR NoRTH LoNDON

„ ,, ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOE NORTH LONDON

SOUTH

„ „ ATTENDANCE, WaNDSWORTH

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, WaNDSWORTH

„ „ ATTENDANCE, LaMBETH

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, LaMBETH .

„ „ ATTENDANCE, CaMBERWELL .

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, CaMBERWELL

„ ,, ATTENDANCE, LewISHAM

„ 5, ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, LkWISHAM .

„ „ ATTENDANCE, DePTFORD

„ „ ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, DePTFORD .



120
120

124
124
126
126
126
126

164
164
168
168
174
174
180
180
182
182
186
186
186
186

224
224
230
230
236
236
240
240
244
244



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



XV



FACING PAGE

Diagram shewing attendance, Greenwich 248

ANALYSIS OF attendance, GREENWICH . . . 248

attendance, Woolwich 252

analysis of attendance, woolwich . . .252

attendance, Battersea ...... 256

ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, BaTTERSEA .... 256

attendance, Southwark ...... 260

analysis of attendance, southwark . . . 260

ATTENDANCE, BeEMONDSEY 264

ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, BeRMONDSEY . . . 264

ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR SoUTH LONDON . . . 264

ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, TOTALS FOR SoUTH LONDON 264

ATTENDANCE, InnER LoNDON ..... 272

ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCE, InNER LoNDON . . . 272
ATTENDANCE OF MeN, WoMEN, AND CHILDREN',



Inner London ....
Composite Diagram shewing attendance. Inner London



272
272



GREATER LONDON

Map of the Suburbs of London ........ 335

Diagram shewing total Church attendance. Greater London . . 448

,, ANALYSING TOTAL ChURCH ATTENDANCE, GREATER LONDON . . 448



A flourishing churcli requires a vast and complicated organi-
sation, which should aflord a place for everyone who is ready to
work in the service of humanity. The enthusiasm should not be
suflered to die out in anyone for want of the occupation best
calcuhited to keep it alive. Those who meet within the church
walls on Sunday should not meet as strangers who find them-
selves together in the same lecture-hall, but as co-operators in a
public work, the object of which all understand, and to his own
department of which each man habitually applies his mind and
contriving power. Thus meeting, with the esprit cle corps strong
among them, and with a clear perception of the purpose of their
union and their meeting, they would not desii-e that the exhorta-
tion of the preacher sliouk' be, what in the nature of things it
seldom can be, eloquent. It might cease then to be either a
despairing and over-wrought appeal to feelings which grow more
callous the oftener they are thus excited to no definite purpose,
or a childish discussion of some deep point in morality or divinity
better left to philosophers. It might then become weighty with
business, and impressive as an officer's address to his troops before
a battle. For it would be addressed by a soldier to soldiers in
the presence of an enemy whose character they understood, and
in the war with whom they had given and received telling blows.
It would be addressed to an ardent and hopeful association who
had united for the purpose of contending within a given district
against disease and distress, of diminishing by every contrivance
of kindly sympathy the rudeness, coarseness, ignorance, and im-
prudence of the poor, and the heartlessness and hardness of the
rich ; for the purpose of securing to all that moderate happiness
which gives leisure for virtue, and that moderate occupation which
removes the temptation of vice ; for the purpose of providing a
large and wise education for the young; lastly, for the purpose of
handing on the tradition of Christ's life, death, and resurrection,
maintaining the enthusiasm of humanity in all the baptised, and
preserving, in opposition to all temptations to superstition or
fanaticism, the fdial freedom of their worship of God.— SiB
John Seeley.



The Methods and Lessons of the Census

BY THE EDITOR

The results recorded in this volume represent the first scientific
attempt in the history of this country to discover the number of
those who attend places of worship in the Metropolis. In stating
this I do not forget either the Census of 1851 or the Census of 1886.
The former, instituted by the Goverment acting through Mr. Horace
Mann, is, however, of little value, owing to the fact that the
churches themselves furnished the returns.* For the latter we
are indebted to the enterprise of Dr. "W. Robertson Nicoll, who in
1886 started the British Weekly, the first issues of which journal
contained the results of his enumeration. The worth of these
results is incomparably greater than that of the results of 1851. The
fatal defect of Mr. Horace Mann's figures was recognised and
avoided. The principle of counting the worshippers as they
entered the various places of worship was adopted ; for this, I need
hardly say, is the only way by which to obtain accurate data.
But, although the Census of 1886 was conducted on this scientific
principle, it had certain drawbacks which I will briefly point out.
First, the enumeration of the whole of London, with the exception
of mission-halls, took place on one day — a heroic, gigantic, and,
in view of accuracy, well-nigh impossible task. Secondly, by re-
stricting attention to one day you only discover the attendance
under conditions of weather peculiar to that day If it is fine
you get an over, if wet an under, estimate. In the third place,

* On the first appearance of this statement in print, I received several indignant
letters from incensed correspondents charging me with gross unfairness to the
churches. It cannot be denied, however, that interested witnesses are biassed
witnesses, and though I should be quite ready to admit that the majority of
church members who acted as enumerators were, as regards honesty, above
suspicion, the fact remains that the presence of one "black sheep" would be
sufficient to vitiate the value of the returns.

I 1



2 THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF LONDON

the Census in question took no account of any services, eitlier
Masses of the Roman Catholic Church or early Communions of
the Established Church, preceding the 11 a.m. service; neither was
any attempt made to differentiate the sexes, nor to distinguish
children from adults; and, moreover, in the case of mission-halls,
"the returns were furnished by the parties in charge of the
haUs."

These are the considerations which lead me to speak of the
Daily News Census as the first "scientific attempt to discover the
number of those who attend places of worship in the MetropoHs."
The British Weekly returns are, nevertheless, most valuable for
purposes of comparison. Without them it would be impossible
for us to tell whether we are advancing or retreating in the matter
of social worship. On a later page it will be seen that Miss Jane T.
Stoddart has dealt in detail with this question.

As the value of figures depends upon the methods employed
in obtaining them, I will briefly describe those adopted in the
present instance.

I.— THE METHODS

Our first task was to get enumerators. For this purpose we
approached the Arm}'- and Navy Pensioners' Employment Society,
the Bessbrook Homes for Men, the Keates Advertising Agency,
and kindred organisations. By means of these and by advertising



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