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destroying its aqueduct.

The population is between thirteen and fifteen thousand souls, including
four thousand Jews, and fifty Christians, who carry on an important
commerce, principally with London and Marseilles. Excepting Tangier, it
is now the only port which carries on uninterrupted commercial relations
with Europe.

Mogador is situate in the midst of shifting sand-hills, that separate it
from the cultivated parts of the country, which are distant from four to
tweleve miles. These sands have an extraordinary appearance on returning
from the interior; they look like huge pyramidal batteries raised round
the suburbs of the city for its defence. The inhabitants are supplied
with water by means of an aqueduct, fed by the little river, or rill of
Wai Elghored, two miles distant south. The climate hereabouts is
extremely salubrious, the rocky sandy site of the city being removed
from all marshes or low lands, which produce pestiferous miasma or
fever-exhaling vegetation. Rarely does it rain, but the whole tract of
the adjoining country, between the Atlas and the sea, is tempered on the
one side by the loftiest ranges of that mountain, and on the other, by
the north-east trade winds, blowing continually. Mogador is in Lat. 31°
32' 40" N., and Long. 9° 35' 30" W.

The environs offer nothing but desolate sands, except some gardens for
growing a few vegetables, and a sprinkling of flowers, which, by dint of
perseverance, have been planted in the sand of the sea-shore. This is a
remarkable instance of human culture turning the most hopelessly sterile
portions of the world to account. These sands of Mogador are only a
portion of a vast and almost interminable link, which girdles the
north-western coast of the African continent, and is only broken in upon
at short intervals, from Morocco to Senegal, like a shifting, heaving,
and ever-varying rampart against the aggressions of the ocean. Both wind
and sea have probably equally contributed to the formation of this vast
belt of shifting sands.

The distance from Tangier to Mogador, by ordinary courier, is twelve
days, but no traveller could be expected to perform the journey in less
than twenty days.

Other courier distances are as follows:

Tangier to Rabat 4 days
Rabat to Fez 2 days
Fez to Mickas 12 hours
Rabat to Morocco 8 days
Mogador to Morocco 2½ days
Mogador to Santa Cruz 3 days
Mogador to Wadnoun 8 days
Santa Cruz to Teradant 1½ days

A notice of the interesting, though now abandoned part of Aghadir, may
not be out place here. Aghadir, (called also Agheer and by the
Portuguese, Santa Cruz) means in Berber "walls." It is the Gurt Luessem
of Leo Africanus. The town is small, but strong, and well fortified, and
is situate upon the top of a high and abrupt rock, not far from the
promontory of Gheer, which is the western termination of the Atlas, and
where it dips into or strikes the ocean.

On the south, close by, is the river Sous, and formerly Aghadir was the
capital of this province.

Aghadir has a spacious and most secure port, which is the last port
southwards on the Atlantic. Indeed, this bay is the finest roadstead in
the whole empire. Mr. Jackson says, that during his residence at Aghadir
of three years, not a single ship was lost or injured. The principal
battery of Aghadir, a place equally strong by nature and art, is half
way down the western declivity of the mountain, and was originally
intended to protect a fine spring of water close to the sea. This fort
also commands the approaches to the town, both from the north and the
south, and the shipping in the bay.

Santa Cruz was converted from a fisherman's settlement into a city, and
was fortified by the Portuguese in 1503. Muley Hamed el-Hassan besieged
it in 1536 with an army of fifty thousand men, and owing to the accident
of a powder-magazine blowing up and making a breach, the Sultan forced
an entrance, to the astonishment of the Portuguese, who were all
slaughtered.

In the reign of Muley Ismail, Santa Cruz was the centre of an extensive
commerce carried on between Europe and the remotest regions of Africa,
which obtained for it the name of Bab-el-Soudan, (Gate of Soudan.) The
inhabitants became rich and powerful, and, as a consequence which so
frequently happens to both the civilized and the barbarian, insolent and
rebellious. In 1773, Sidi Mohammed was obliged to march out against the
town to crush a rebellion; and this done with great slaughter, he
ordered all the European merchants to quit the place and establish
themselves at Mogador. The father of this prince had sworn vengeance
against the haughty city, but died without accomplishing his sanguinary
threats. The son, however, did the work of blood, so faithful to vows of
evil and violence is man. Since that period, Aghadir has dwindled down
to nothing, six hundred inhabitants, and others say only one hundred and
fifty. The greater part of these are Jews, who have the finest women in
all the country. Mr. Davidson says the population of Aghadir is
forty-seven Mohammedans, and sixty-two Jews. At Fonte, the port, are
about two hundred Moors. Were any European power to conquer Morocco,
Aghadir would certainy be re-established as the centre of the commerce
in the south. To a maritime nation like England, the repair and
re-opening of its fine port would be the 6rst consideration, and
doubtless a lucrative and extensive commerce could be established
between Aghadir and Timbuctoo. The city is seven leagues south of Cape
Gheer, in latitude 30° 35'.

I shall now give some further details illustrative of the state of negro
slavery. The Fniperor has an entire quarter of the city of Morocco
appropriated for his own slaves, the number of whom, in different parts
of the empire, amounts to upwards of sixty thousand. This is his, the
lion's share. His Imperial Highness, who was accepting presents from
various governors, lately received five hundred slaves from the Sheikh
of Taradant. The trading Moors, believing me to be sent by the British
Government to purchase and liberate all their slaves, have calculated
the whole of the slaves in Morocco to be worth twenty-seven millions of
dollars.

A Moor observed, "I hope to see any calamity befall the country rather
than that of the slaves being liberated," He observed: "God shews his
approbation of slavery by not permitting slaves to rise against their
masters, or the free negroes to invade Morocco, who are infinitely more
numerous. The reason why the English abolished slavery is because the
Queen of England has a good heart, but Mussulmen treat their slaves
well, and do not fear the anger of God." When I mentioned that the Bey
of Tunis and the Imaum of Muscat had entered into treaties for the
suppression of Slavery, the traders observed, "Amongst the Mohammetans
are four sects, but the only orthodox sect is that of Morocco."

There is, however, one class of abolitionists in this country - the
women, or Mooresses. The rumour that a Christian had come to purchase
all the slaves of Mogador soon penetrated the harems. The wife of one of
the most distinguished Moors of Mogador informed a Jewess of her
acquaintance, that she was very happy to hear a Christian was come to
purchase all her husband's slaves, for she was tired of her life with
them. The truth is, respectable Moorish females detest this system of
domestic slavery, and wish to see it abolished, notwithstanding that
they are bred in it, and are themselves little better than slaves. They
see themselves gradually abandoned by the husbands of their youth for
the most ignorant and degraded negress slaves, whom their husbands
purchase one after another as their caprice or passion excites them,
until their houses are filled with these slaves.

The artful negress absorbs all the affection of her master, whilst the
legitimate wife is left as a widow, and is obliged to wait upon these
pampered slaves, whose insolence knows no bounds. The negress slaves
besides, when they bear sons, are treated with great respect; their
children are free by the law, and cannot be disposed of, although the
Moors do sell them when hard pressed for money. Yet even these negresses
are beginning to chatter and clatter about the Anti-Slavery mission,
expressing their satisfaction to our Jewish neighbours. A negress slave
on hearing that a person had come from England to liberate all the
slaves, jumped up and called on God to bless the English nation.

This excitement in the domestic circles of Mogador raises the bile of
the slave-dealers. A fellow of this sort beckoned me to come to him as I
was passing in the street, and thus began: "Christian, if you dare
attempt to go to the south, we shall cut you up into ten thousand little
pieces."

Traveller. - "You will not lay a finger upon me, nor throw a handful of
sand in my face unless it please God."

Slave-dealer. - (Taken aback at this reply, he drew in his horns), "Well,
how much will you give us apiece for our slaves."

_Traveller_. - "I shall give you nothing; you have no right to sell a
man, a brother, like yourself."

_Slave-dealer_. - "It's our religion."

_Traveller_. - "It's not your religion to sell Mussulman; you sell the
children of your own slaves, born in your houses, and who are
Mussulmen?" The slave-dealer, puzzled and angry, was silent a few
minutes, and then said, "Ah, well, all's right, all's from God."

I received a visit from a Hajee under peculiar circumstances. Passing
through Tunis on his return from Mecca last year, his slave, hearing
that all the slaves were liberated in the country, ran away. In vain his
master attempted to catch him. There were no Christians in the country
of the Mecca impostor, who kept _manhunting hounds_. This is the
peculiar glory of Christian lands. Tunis is not so "go a-head" as Yankee
freedom-land. The consequence was the pilgrim left without his slave. He
then, strange to say, applied to me to procure him back his slave.
Thinking this a good opportunity to agitate the authorities here OR the
question, I recommended him to apply to the Governor, who should write
to the Emperor, and also to the Bey of Tunis, and so forth. I had
visitors daily who asked me when I should be ready to purchase the
slaves and liberate them. Arabs from the remotest districts came to me;
and I was told that there is not a town or district of the empire, but
has heard of the English going to liberate all the slaves of Morocco.

I have studiously avoided giving details of the cruelties and hard
bondage of slavery in and around Morocco. On the contrary, I have stated
it to be the opinion of the Europeans and Consuls in Tangier, that
slaves are well treated in this country. Such an opinion ought to weigh
with all. [31] At the same time, in self-defence, as an abolitionist,
and occupied with a mission for the extinction of slavery in this
country, I must partly uplift the veil, however disgusting it may be to
my readers. A portion of the dark side of the picture must be exhibited.
Of the march of slave-caravans over the Sahara, I shall say
nothing - that is fully reported in my previous publication. When the
slaves arrive in Morocco, they are inarched about in different
directions of the country for sale. During their passage through a
populous district like this, where the females are exposed to the brutal
violence of ten thousand casual visitors, or agents of police and
government, it is the ordinary and revolting practice to adopt means one
cannot describe for the purpose of preserving their honour. Private
punishments are frequent; to my certain knowledge, a female slave was
tied up by the heela, head downwards, and, after being cruelly
flagellated, was left for dead by her, pitiless master. She was at last
cut down at the intercession of her mistress whose humanity got the
better of her hatred and jealousy. While I was at Mogador, a negress had
two of her children torn away from her to be sold at Morocco, to pay the
debts of her master, who was a Moor. The children were sons of the man
who sold them into bondage! The mother was inconsolable, ran about
distracted, and probably will never recover from the blow. These facts
are enough, and with any human man they will out-weigh all other
instances, however numerous, of alleged good treatment on the part of
Moorish slave masters. [32]

I took a ride with Mr. Elton on the sandy beach. There is a fort in
ruins, at about half an hour's distance, illustrating most emphatically
the parable of the man who built his house upon the sands.

This fort, which was to command the southern entrance of the harbour, is
supposed to be of Spanish construction, and built about the same time as
the city.

It was once of considerable size and height, but is now a fallen and
ruined mass, its foundations "upon the sands" having given way. Storms
along this shore are often terribly destructive, we passed a portion of
the hulk of a vessel completely buried in the sand. [33]

Notwithstanding the sober and taciturn character of the Moor, he can
sometimes indulge himself in pleasantry and caricature. The Moors have
made caricatures of the three last emperors, assisted by some Spanish
renegade artist: these Princes are Yezid, Suleiman, and Abd Errahman.
Yezid is represented as throwing away money with one hand, and cutting
off heads with the other, depicting his ferocity in destroying his
enemies, and his generosity in heaping favours on his friends. Suleiman
is represented as reading the Koran, in the character of a devout and
good man. The present Sultan is hit off capitally, with one hand holding
a bag of money behind him, and with the other stretched out before him,
begging for more.

H B could not have better caricatured the three Shereefian Sultans. The
Moors affirmed that Muley Abd Errahman will keep faith with no one where
his avarice is concerned, and, when he can, he will sell a monopoly
twice or thrice, receiving money from each party. Of his meanness and
avarice, I adduce two anecdotes. Four years ago, Muley-Abd Errahman
ordered some blond for his Harem from Mr. Willshire. Just when I was
leaving Mogador, his Imperial Highness graciously returned it to our
merchant with the message - "It's too dear." Not long before, a man was
murdered upon the neutral land of two adjacent provinces, and a thousand
dollars were taken from his baggage. In such cases, the Governor of the
district is mulcted both for the murder and robbery. The Emperor claimed
two thousand dollars from one of the provinces, for the father of the
murdered man. This province escaped upon the plea that the murder had
not been committed within its territory. The other province refused to
satisfy the demand for the same reason. His Imperial Highness then made
both provinces pay 2,000 dollars each, keeping one two thousand for
himself, for the trouble he had of enforcing payment.

The people of Sous not long ago had a quarrel, which the Emperor
fomented. Its Sheikhs fought; his Imperial Highness sent troops to turn
the balance of the fray, and to pacify the country. Then, he made the
belligerents pay each 40,000 dollars, as pacification-money, the value
of which he levied on slaves. In this politic way, the Imperial miser
replenishes his coffers, and "eats up" his loving subjects.

I made the acquaintance of Mr. Treppass, the Austrian consul, and
Chancellor of the French consulate. Mr. Treppass has been upwards of
twenty years in this country, and was himself once an Imperial merchant,
but sold his business, preferring a small stipend and his liberty, to
being a vassal of the Emperor, fed in luxury and lodged in a fine house.
We had a long conversation upon the various topics connected with this
country.

Mr. Treppass says, the present system of the court is resistance to all
innovation, to all strangers. But the pressure of the French on the
Algerine frontier is agitating the internal state of this country.
Money, which in other countries goes a long way, will almost do every
thing with the Government of Morocco. It will also effect much with the
people. Some fifty years ago, a Geneose merchant, resident in Mogador,
had the two provinces of Hhaha and Shedma under his control, and could
have made himself Sultan over them; this he effected solely by the
distribution of money. The Sultan of the time was in open war with a
pretender; his Imperial Highness begged for the assistance of the
all-powerful merchant. The merchant bought the affections and allegiance
of the people, and firmly established the Sultan on his throne.

The influence of the merchant was now prodigious, and the Sultan himself
became alarmed. Not being able to rest, and being in hourly dread of the
Genoese, the Sultan ordered his officers to seize the merchant secretly,
and put him on board a vessel then weighing anchor for Europe. When the
merchant was placed on board, this message was delivered to him - "Our
Sultan is extremely obliged to you, sir, for the great services you
rendered him, by establishing him on his throne! but our Sultan says,
'If you could place him on the throne, you could also pull him off
again.' Therefore you must leave our country. Our Sultan graciously
gives you a portion of your wealth to carry away with you!" The officers
then shipped several chests of money, jewels, and other valuables to be
placed to the account of the merchant, and the Sultan-making Genoese
quitted Morocco for ever.

The Moors reported to me that the French were building some factories,
with a fort, upon some unclaimed land along the coast, equidistant
between Aghadir and Wadnoun. It is probably near Fort Hillsboro of the
maps, and which Mr. Davidson calls Isgueder. A Moor was accused by the
authorities of Mogador of being mixed up with the transaction, and
immediately sent to the south, where he has not been heard of since.
Another report is that the French are only building a factory. The spot
of land has near it a small port and a good spring of water; quantities
of bricks and lime have been deposited there; French vessels of war from
the Senegal have been coasting and surveying up and down, touching at
the place.

The new port is called Yedoueesai. I inquired particularly respecting
this project; but Mr. Treppass stated positively, that the French had
wholly abandoned the idea of establishing commercial relations with the
Sheikh of Wadnoun, or any tribes thereabouts, whatever might have been
their original intentions. Vessels of war have frequently visited the
coast of Wadnoun, finding it the worst in all Africa. They, however, now
maintain friendly relations with the Sheikh, in the event of shipwrecks
or other disasters, happening to French vessels.

Nevertheless, it was at the particular request of the French Consul of
Mogador, that his Government broke off all communications with the
Sheikh, the Emperor having repeatedly complained to the Consul against
this intercourse assuming a commercial or diplomatic character. [34] The
whole coast, from the port of Mogador to the river Senegal, has been,
within the last few years, surveyed by the French vessels of war,
particularly by Captain E. Bouet; and there is sufficient evidence in
the reports of the people, and the remonstrances of the Maroquine
Government, to prove that the French did attempt a settlement on the
part of the coast above stated, but that it failed.

The French took the idea of the undertaking from Davidson, who proposed
to Lord Palmerston to enter into communication with the Sheikh of
Wadnoun, and establish a factory on the coast, somewhere about the river
Noun, just below Cape Noun. A British vessel of war was sent down with
presents for the Sheikh, and to ascertain the whereabout of the fine
harbour reported to exist there by the Sheikh and his people. This
attempt of our government was as fruitless as that of the French
afterwards. Indeed, at the very time an English brig of war was
searching about for this port, and seeking an interview with the Sheikh
of Wadnoun on the coast, Davidson was murdered on the southern frontier
just as he was penetrating the Sahara.

It is not improbable, however, that the knowledge of this recommendation
of Davidson, which, from the Sheikh's people themselves, would naturally
reach the court of Morocco, might have excited that jealous court to
compass in some way his death, or at any rate thwart his expedition to
Timbuctoo, for the Emperor is exceedingly jealous of any European
holding communication with the south. The Sheikh Barook is, in spite of
all this, very anxious to begin an intercourse with Europeans; and not
long ago, a messenger arrived with a bag of money for the Jew, Cohen,
telling him to take some out of it, and to go to the Sheikh who wished
to see him. But Cohen would not expose himself to the displeasure of the
Emperor, although he has English protection.

Wadnoun is a quasi-independent Sheikhdom of the empire. The Sheikh of
Wadnoun pays no tithes nor other imposts, and only sends an annual
present as a mark of vassal-homage to the Emperor. Sous, which adjoins
this province, is more immediately under the power of the Sultan of the
Shereefs, but the tithes are not so easily collected in the south as in
the north. Much depends on the ability of the governor, who rules the
whole of the district in the name of the Emperor. The imperial authority
is maintained principally by prompting disunion amongst the Sheikhs;
Sous being divided into numerous districts, each district having an
independent Sheikh.

By confusion and divisions among themselves, the Emperor rules all as
paramount-lord. When will people learn to be united, so that by union
they may win their freedom and independence? Alas! never. Wadnoun is
treated, however, very tenderly; for if the Emperor were to attempt the
subjugation of this country, the malcontents of Sous would join the
Sheikh, and his authority would probably be overthrown in all the south.

Sous is the richest of these provinces, and equal to any other of the
northern districts. Its trade in dates, ostrich feathers, wax, wool, and
hides, particularly in gums, almonds, and slaves, is very great. All the
Saharan caravans must pass through this country, except those proceeding
_viâ_ Tafilett to Fez. Teroudant, its capital, is a very ancient city,
and was built by the ancient Berbers. It has a circumference of walls
capable of containing eighty thousand people, but the actual population
does not exceed twenty thousand. Its inhabitants are very industrious,
and the Moors excel in the art of dyeing.

Noun, or Wadnoun, as this country and its capital are sometimes called,
Mr, Davidson briefly describes as a large district, having many clusters
of inhabitants. The town where the Sheikh resides, is of good size, and
has a millah, or Jew's quarter, besides a good market. It stands on the
river (such as it is) distant twenty two miles from the sea.

The river Noun rises in the mountains above Souk Aisa or Assa, and is
there called Wad-el-Aisa; and, passing through the district of Wadnoun,
it takes the name of Assaka. The ancient name of this river was Daradus.
The territory around is not very fertile on account of the neighbourhood
of the Desert, but produces gum, wax, and ostrich feathers in abundance.
The inhabitants are mostly Arabs with a sprinkling of Shelouh, estimated
by Gräberg [35] at 2,000. The population is somewhat thickly scattered;
there are at least twenty villages between the district of Stuka and
Wadnoun.

The annexed is a sketch of Wadnoun after the design left by Mr.
Davidson.

[Illustration]

Wadnoun is an important rendezvous of caravans. Many Timbuctoo caravans
break up here, and some Saharan. Several Saharan merchants come no
further north, disposing of their slaves and goods to Maroquine
merchants, who meet them in this place.

It is safe travelling through these countries, provided no extraordinary
plot be laid for taking away a traveller's life, as in the case of
European explorers attempting to penetrate the interior. Mr. Treppass
thinks that, notwithstanding the ill-will of the Moorish Government,
Davidson could have succeeded in his attempted journey to Timbuctoo had
he been more circumspect. He gave out to all persons whom he met that he
was going to Timbuctoo. This insured his being stopped and murdered _en
route_ by some party or other, more especially as he at last abandonod
the idea of protecting himself by a caravan-party, and started alone.
But I am not altogether of this opinion. Too much publicity is certainly
injurious to a journey of discovery, and far and near awakens attention


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