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i fi*~

I



GIFT OF

John H. Mee




CI800 VA



NEW AND REVISED EDITION.



'HISTORICAL ANF MISOELLOfllOLS
QUESTIONS'

FOR THE USE OF YOUNG PEOPLE.

WITH A SELECTION OF

BRITISH AND GENERAL BIOGRAPHY

Ac. Ac.



BY RICHMAL MANGNALL.



A NEW EDITION

REMODELLED THROUGHOUT, ENLARGED, AND IMPROVED.



LONDON
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, LONGMANS, & ROBERTS.

1859

'
'
Price to. 6</.



GIFT OF




PHIXTED BT SPOTTISWOODK AKD CO.
KEW-STBBKT SQUARE.



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE NEW EDITION.



THE rapid progress of events renders it necessary
frequently to revise and bring up elementary
works to the existing state of knowledge, under
the penalty of their becoming obsolete. In former
editions of MANGNALL'S Questions, this has been
done, as far as it could be done, without in-
curring the necessity of* an almost total typogra-
phical reconstruction. But within the last few
years political changes have been so numerous,
and the progress of discovery so rapid, that the
Publishers resolved entirely to reconstruct and
reprint the work, in order to give full scope for
the introduction of every matter of novelty and
importance. With this view, they placed the
work in the hands of an editor on whose practical
knowledge and experience they could implicitly
rely ; and no pains or expense has been spared to
secure for it a greater degree of public favour
than it has even hitherto enjoyed. Besides the
necessary additions and alterations that have been
made in the various branches and divisions of the
subject-matter, great mechanical and typogra-



IV ADVERTISEMENT.

phical improvements have been introduced into
this edition. The Questions and Answers have
been simplified throughout; each Question and
Answer is printed in a separate paragraph ; and
other changes have been made which, it is hoped,
will facilitate the labours both of the teacher and
the pupil

January, 1859.




NOTICE.



A SEQUEL to the present work has been published
by Miss CORNER, containing Questions on the
History of France, Spain, Portugal, Germany,
Poland, Italy, the Apostolic See and the Popes.

A new and greatly improved Edition of Miss
MA NGN ALL'S Geography has lately been pub-
lished.

This Edition has been subjected throughout to
an unsparing care in revision. Besides embody-
ing all the most recent and authentic intelligence,
great additions have been made in the department
of statistics ; but perhaps its most valuable feature
consists in a copious index of the chief places and
names contained in the volume, which thus com-
bines in some measure all the advantages of a
gazetteer with those of a systematic work. By
means jof this index the work will be found to
present a condensed view of all places in the world,
a knowledge of which is indispensable to all who
claim to be well-informed in geographical matters,
and, it is hoped, be entitled to the appellation of
what the publishers have been desirous to make
it a miniature encyclopaedia of geography.







CONTENTS.



Page
QUESTIONS, from the earliest times, comprehending a

sketch of General History .... 1

Questions, containing the most remarkable Events from

the Christian Era to the present year of the Reign of

Queen Victoria . . . . . .15

Europe ... ... 26

Miscellaneous Questions in Grecian History . . 30

Miscellaneous Questions in General History, chiefly

ancient ....... 54

Miscellaneous Questions in Roman History . .75

Questions in English History, from the Invasion of Caesar

to the Reformation . . . . .100

Continuation of Questions in English History, from the

Reformation to the present time . . . 129

Questions relative to the English Constitution . . ISO

Miscellaneous Questions before Christ . . 187

Abstract of the English Reigns from the Year 800 to the

Conquest ...... 203

Abstract of English IJ/igns from the Conquest . . 210

Abstract of the Scottish Reigns .... 223

Abstract of the French Reigns, from Pharamond to

Philip I. . . .231

Continuation of the French Reigns, from Louis VI. to

Napoleon III. . . . . . . 240

Abstract of Roman Kings, and most distinguished Heroes 256
Abstract of the most celebrated Grecians . . . 260

Abstract of a few celebrated Characters from the Third
Century before Christ, to the Sixth Century after Christ,
inclusive ... . . . . 266

Abstract of British Biography .... 274

Sketch of General Modern Biography . . 364



Vlll CONTENTS.

Explanation of Latin Words seldom translated . .461

The Elements of Astronomy . . . .473

Explanation of a few Astronomical Words . .479

The Planetary System . . . . .483

List of Constellations . . . . .485

Questions on Common Subjects .... 489
Abstract of the Heathen Mythology . . .509

Historical Questions on the History of the Old Testament,
chronologically arranged . . . .517



HISTORICAL



AND



MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.



QUESTIONS

FROM THE EARLIEST TIME TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE

IMPERIAL POWER IN ROME:
COMPREHENDING A SKETCH OF GENERAL HISTORY.



And oft, conducted by Historic Truth,

We tread the long extent of backward Time.

THOMSON'S Spring.

WHAT monarchies were first founded after the
Deluge?

The Chaldean monarchy, founded by Nimrod
2221 years before the nativity of our Saviour.
The Chinese, founded by Fohi, B.C. 2207. The
Egyptian, founded by Misraim, B.C. 2188. The
ancient Assyrian, founded by Ashur, the second
son of Shem, B.C. 2059.

What were the first cities built after the
flood?

Babylon, Memphis, Nineveh, fSidon, and
Sicyon.



2 ANCIENT STA'I

AYhat nation first established regular govern-
inent ?

Most .probably the Egyptian; for, long before
Joseph wis carried into Egypt, Menes, or Mis-
raim, had founded tint kingdom.

In what state .was Iv/ypt when the family of
Jacob took refuge there ?

The hierarchy, or sacred government, was in-
stituted: hieroglyphical characters, and chariots
and cavalry for war, were in use among the
tians; and mention is made in the Bible of
their having, at that time, magi, or wise men,
-'ians, cities, temples, and other edifices;
all of which are proofs of advanced civilisa-
tion. N J

To whom did the Egyptians communicate the
knowledge of their discoveries in the useful and
elegant arts ?

To the Greeks, who afterwards made them
known to the Romans, and from them the other
European nations received their first ideas of
civilisation and refinement.

AY hat people introduced the arts of agriculture
and commerce ?

The Egyptians.

AYho improved the state of commerce ?

The Phoenicians, who inhabited that part of

which lies immediately north of Palestine,

on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and

were, even in the time of Abraham, considered a

powerful nation, x

AYhat was the name of their chief city ?



ATHENS. 3

Tyre, which was taken by Nebuchadnezzar,
the proud and presumptuous king of Babylon,
after a siege of thirteen months, B.C. 538.

What king improved the civil and military
establishments of the Egyptians ?

Sesostris : he succeeded that Amenophis (or
Pharaoh) who was drowned in the Red Sea ; and
by the wisdom of his laws and government, his
kingdom became the most civilised and powerful
then known.

In what condition was Europe at this early
period ?

The inhabitants were savage, rude, and barba-
rous, having little or no intercourse with the
jivilised part of mankind. v

What part of Europe was first civilised ?

Athens; founded by Cecrops ; who having landed
here, about 1600 years before Christ, with an
Egyptian colony, introduced order among the
original inhabitants.

What were the Amphictyonies or Amphictyonic
confederations ?

Associations, which from very early times kept
up union among various portions of the inhabitants
of Greece.

By whom were they instituted?

They are said to have been instituted by Am-
phictyon, the son of Deucalion ; but it is far more
probable that, as the word denotes, they were so
named from their consisting of the tribes that
dwelt round some temple at which they wor-
shipped, and which they supported in common.

B 2



4 ANCIENT STATES.

Which was the most celebrated of these Am-
phictyonies?

That winch had charge of the temple of Apollo
at Delphi, and of which twelve of the leading
states of Greece were members. This assembly
met twice a year, in spring at Delphi, and in
autumn near Thermopylae, and was composed of
twelve deputies from the different states belonging
to it. It regulated all things relative to the re-
ligious festivals of the Greeks, and decided on all
political matters of common inter* st.

Which of the Grecian cities first acquired su-
perior power?

Athens : whose king, Theseus, invited strangers
to reside there, under assurances of friendship
and protection, and instituted a common religious
festival, which contributed to unite the popula-
tion by a powerful tie. He also divided the
Athenians into three classes nobility, tradesmen,
and husbandmen; the two latter, from the en-
couragement given to arts and agriculture, had
great weight in the state, and soon became opulent
and considerable.

How long were the Athenians governed by
kings?

Nearly five hundred years, during which period
there were twenty-seven kings.

When did the Athenians change the form of
their government ?

On the death of Codrus, who heroically sacri-
ficed himself for his country, in the year B.C.
1095



ATHENS. 5

What happened contemporaneously with this
event at Thebes and in Judaea ?

The Thebans established a republic; and the
Jews, weary of a theocracy, petitioned to be go-
verned by kings. (1 Samuel, chap, viii.) N/-

What form of government did the Athenians
adopt on the death of Codrus ?

For more than three hundred years their go-
vernment was administered by magistrates called
archons, or rulers, whose office was, at first, for
life, and hereditary ; but the Athenians, thinking
it dangerous to intrust supreme power to the
hands of one person alone, at length decreed that
there should be nine archons, and that they should
be elected annually.

Who first gave the Athenians written laws ?

Draco, one of their archons : but the atrocity
of his code rendered it incapable of execution ;
and it was soon afterwards revised by Solon.*

What benefit did Solon confer upon his coun-
try?

He divided the people into four classes accord-
ing to their property, instituted a senate of 400
(afterwards increased to 500), and revived and
augmented the authority of the Areopagus (a
court instituted by Cecrops), famed for the jus-
tice of its decrees.

Who were honoured with a place in the Areo-
pagus ?

In the time of Cecrops, such citizens as were
eminently famed for virtue were constituted
judges therein; but Solon ordained that none



6 ANCIENT STATES.

should be allowed to preside who had not passed

the office of archon.

\ How was Sparta governed at this period?

By two kings who reigned jointly; but their
power was very limited, and their chief use was
to head the army in military expeditions.

\Vhen were the Spartan laws new-modelled?

Eight hundred and eighty-four years B.C., l>v
Lycurgus.

AVhat was remarkable in his 1;

He effected an equal division of lands among
the Spartans, banished the use of gold and silver,
trained the youth in military discipline, and
ordered that particular respect should be paid to
the aged.x^ c^"

In what light ^ere the Spartans considered?

Entirely as a warlike nation; but they were
forbidden to attack or oppress their neighbours
without provocation, and were only allowed to de-
fend themselves against the inroads of oil:

What was the great defect in the Spartan !

Lycurgus directed his attention to form a nation
lolly neglecting the culture of the
mind; thus the sciences were banished, and the
Spartans, owing to their roughness and aust
were little esteemed by their more polished i;
bours. .

How long did the laws of Lycurgus continue
in force?

More than five hundred y

How were the Egyptians, during that period,
governed ?

By a succession of weak king?, till the monarchy



SPARTA. EGYPT. 7

was quite overthrown by Carnbyses, king of Persia,
B.C. 525. Egypt continued annexed to the
Persian dominions 200 years more, when Alex-
ander made it part of the Macedonian empire.

How did the Egyptians become such an easy
prey to the Persians?

They had long been accustomed to a luxurious
life; their manners had become effeminate, and
their courage was diminished by long disuse of
arms; while the Persians, just emerging from
barbarism, brave and warlike, pushed on their
conquests with ardour and rapidity.

What remarkable events had befallen the king-
dom of Babylon before this time?

Nebuchadnezzar had overthrown the Jewish
monarchy, and led the Jews into captivity; (
the Great, in the reign of Belshazzar, grandson of
Nebuchadnezzar, had besieged Babylon with a
powerful army; the city, as the prophets had
foretold, was taken, and Belshazzar killed in his
palace. (Daniel, chap, v.)

What happened to the Grecian states upon the
death of Cyrus?

The succeeding Persian monarchs continued
the war with the Greeks, who, in many hard-
iought battles, had opportunities for the exercise
of that fortitude and patriotism which the freedom
of their government inspired. ^

Which side proved victorious?

During the reigns of Xerxes and Darius, the
Contest was doubtful, but the Greeks at length
prevailed.

Did they improve these victories?

B 4



8 ANCIENT STATES.

: they had many divisions among themselves,
which ultimately resulted in the famous Pelopon-
nesian war, and weakened both their virtue and
military force. Philip, king of Macedon, an artful
and enterprising prince, embraced this favourable
opportunity to enlarge his own power; and, by
bribery and promises, gained such numbers to
his interest, that, after the battle of Chasronea,
{"HiLfht against him by the Greeks (as the last
effort of expiring liberty), they fell entirely into
his hands.

What put an end to Philip's ambitious schei

His death by assassination.

Who succeeded Philip?

His son Alexander, whom all the Grecian
states, except Thebes and Athens, had chosen
general of their united forces against Darius: in
three pitched battles, the Granicus, Issus, and
Arbela, he conquered the Persian monarch, and
established the Macedonian empire upon the ruins
of the Persian.

^Yllat became of Alexander?

He died in the prime of life, in the midst of a
rapid career of victory, at Babylon, in the year
:)23.

AVhat progress did the Greeks make in the arts r

From the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander,
they were gradually improving: warriors, states-
men, philosophers, poets, historians, painters, archi-
. and sculptors form a glorious phalanx in this
golden age of literature; and the history of the
Greeks, at this period, is equally important and
instructive.



ROME. 9

Name the chief Grecian poets.

Homer, Hesiocl, Archilochus, Tyrtaeus, Alcaeus,
Sappho, Simonides, ^schylus, Euripides, So-
phocles, Aristophanes, Anacreon, Pindar, and
Menander. ,.*-

Name the chief philosophers.

Thales, Solon, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Anax-
agoras, Socrates, Empedocles, Epicurus, Plato,
Aristotle, Zeno, and Diogenes.

Name the chief lawgivers.

Cecrops, of Athens; Cadmus, of Thebes;
Caranus, of Macedon ; Lycurgus, of Sparta ;
Draco and Solon, of Athens. ^

Name the chief historians^

Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon.

Name the chief Grecian painters.

Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Timanthes, Apelles, Polyg-
notus, Protogenes, and Aristides. ^^^

Xamc the chief Grecian sculptors.

Ctesiphon, Phidias, Myron, Scopas, Lysippus,
Polycletus, Agesander, Polydorus, Athenodorus.

Whun was Rome founded?

About 753 years B.C., by Romulus. This city,
the fame of which extended through the known
world, was, at first, only a mile in circumference,
and peopled principally by persons who fled
thither from other places, for refuge from slavery,
oppression, or deserved punishment.

What was the character of Romulus?

He had great military talents; and as he and
his followers drew their subsistence from war,
his plan was, after conquering the surrounding
states, to unite them to Rome, adopting their

B 5



10 ANCIENT STAT!

improvements in arts or arms: thus, from every
successful war, his city gained fresh strength,
power, and reputation.

How long did the regal power subsist in Rome?

T\vo hundred and forty-three years; when
Tarquin the Proud incurred the hatred of the
Romans for his vices, and was ignominiously ex-
pelled.

How were the Romans then governed?

By two annual magistrates, called consuls:
their power being of such short duration, each
endeavoured to distinguish himself by some war-
like action, and the people were perpetually led
tut against some new enemy.

What powerful state contended with Rome ?

Carthage, which had been settled by a colony
of Pha'iiiciaiis, under Queen Dido, five centuries
before the building of Rome ; and, animated by
the spirit of its founders, was now become of the
first commercial importance. ^* y

When did the famous Puuicwars begin between
the Romans and the Carthagini;

Two hundred and sixty-four years B.C. ; after

long and frequent struggles. Carthage was taken

Destroyed by the Romans, under Scipio, B.C.

146, in the same year that Corinth was burnt by

the Roman general Mummius.

How were the principal parts of the known
world occupied at that time ?

While Rome and Carthage were contending for
empire, Greece, Egypt, and Asia, were agitated
by the quarrels of Alexander's successors, upon
whose death the extensive dominions acquired by



ROME, GREECE, ETC. 11

him were portioned into four shares, and the mode
of dividing them occasioned continual disputes.

How were the conquests of Alexander ulti-
mately divided?

Into twelve provinces, the governors of which
appear to have depended upon four chief rulers ;
namely, Ptolemy, who had possession of Egypt ;
Seleucus, who reigned at Babylon and in Syria :
Cassander, to whose lot fell Macedonia and
Greece; and Antigonus, who held under his
dominion Asia Minor. S

How did the Romans acquire dominion in
Greece?

The ^Etolians(a Grecian state ) invited them to
assist in lessening the power of Philip, one of the
donian kings; the Romans accordingly com-
pelled himtoresign to them the torts lie had erected,
and the Grecian cities were again declared free.

Wore the Greeks then really I

No; their liberty w;:s no more than a name;
for Philip becoming tributary to the Romans, the
Grecian states, dependent upon him, were so too.

\Vhat were the terms of this alliance?

Rome allowed them the possession of their own
territories and form of government; and under
the specious name of allies, they were obliged to
comply with the most humiliating conditions.

When were Macedonia and Greece reduced to
the condition of Roman provinces?

Macedonia, in the year B.C. 148 ; Greece, two
years after, by the name of Achaia.

What monarch yielded last to the Romans?

Mithridates, king of Pontus, in Asia Minor:

B 6



12 ANCIENT STATES.

lie was vanquished successively by Sylla, Lucullus,
and Pompey ; and at length bereft of his domi-
nions and his life. ^- -

AY hat general, at this period, delivered the
Roman empire from formidable enemies?

Marius, who defeated the Cimbri and Teutones
invading Italy, in a vast multitude; and over-
threw Jugurtha, king of Xumidia.

Who stretched the Roman power to its utmost
limit ?

Julius Caesar: he conquered Egypt, Asia,
Spain, France, and invaded Britain.

AYhat befell Ca3sar?

Owing to the constant divisions of the senate
and people, and his own excessive thirst of power,
he was assassinated by those who called themselves
the friends of the people ; and Octavius Cresar,
his kinsman, by a train of fortunate events, ob-
tained that supreme power, the desire of which,
too openly manifested, had cost Julius his life.

\Yhen did Octavius Cxsar obtain complete au-
thority over the Roman commonwealth?

In the year of the Republic 723, B.C. 30, when
he assumed the name of Augustus Caisar. The
Carthaginian, Persian, Macedonian, and Grecian
glory was now no more; all nations courted his
alliance, and, conqueror both by sea and land, he
closed the temple of Janus for the third time
since its erection by Numa Pompilius. ,

State the leading events in the history of Egypt
down to the present time.

This country was subdued by the Saracens in
the sixth century, and afterwards by the Turks,
from whom it was wrested by the Mamelukes,



GREECE, PERSIA. 13

the brave and warlike Mahometan descendants of
Christian slaves from Georgia and other places,
whom the Turks had settled here. After a rule
of many years the Mamelukes were, in their turn,
dispossessed, and the country again fell under the
dominion of the Turks, being governed by a vice-
roy or pacha of the first dignity. But at length
the Turkish governor, Mohammed Ali, after long
contests with the Sultan, obtained the dignity of
hereditary pacha, and made himself entirely inde-
pendent. V""*"*^

- Selate the chier" events in the history of Greece
since the dissolution of the Roman empire.

Several of the Grecian states fell under the
dominion of the Venetians ; but the whole of them
were in the year 1360 subjugated by the Turks,
who exercised over them the most despotic sway
for four centuries and a half. In 1821, the
Greeks, re-aniinated by the spirit of liberty, once
more asserted their independence. Being sup-
ported by the chief Christian powers of Europe,
they emancipated themselves from the tyranny of
their oppressors in 1827, and established an inde-
pendent kingdom under Otho, second son of the
king of Bavaria, who assumed the title of King
of Greece.

What fate befell the kingdom of Persia ?

It became first a prey to the Saracens, then to
the Tartars. ^^

Who were the Saracens ?

The Saracens were originally the Mahometans
who invaded France, and settled in Sicily ; but
in the course of time the term became the general
name of all the Arabian tribes who embraced the



14 MODERN ROME.

religion of Mahomet, and spread their conqueste

the greater portion of Asia and Africa.
What revolutions has Rome experienced ?
From the time of Augustus Caesar it was go-
verned by a succession of emperors till the year
of our Lord 410; it was then plundered by the
Goths, afterwards by the Vandals; at length,
Charlemagne, king of France and emperor of
Germany, having given t ; to the popes,

they fixed upon it as the seat of their power. In
\~>'21, Rome was taken by storm by an army
osed of Germans, Spaniards, and Italians,
commanded by the brave but unprincipled duke of
Bourbon; and suffered great misery from the ra-
paciousness of the victors. From that period
till ti> of the eighteenth century, Rome

not exposed to any politi'-al revolution.
Mention the principal events, in the more mo-
dern historv of iiomc.

In 1798, the French army took possession of

', and carried IVpe i'ius VI. prisoner to

France, where he died. I; .he new pope,

VIL, recovered possession of Rome ; but a

and troubled period then began, which only

d upon the downfall of Xapoleon Bonaparte

in 1815. In 1848, the present pope, Pius JX.,

who at his accession had displayed very liberal

tendencies impelled to flee in disguise to

Gacta, and a republic was proclaimed ; but in the

following year the French government despatched

an expedition to Rome, which, after a protracted

nice, entered the city, and soon afterwards

reinstated the pope.

^



15



QUESTIONS



CONTAINING A SKETCH OF THE MOST REMARKABLE EVENTS
I l:oM THE CHRISTIAN -ERA TO THE BEGINNING O!
TEENTH CENTURY.



XAME some of the principal events in the first
century.

The foundation of London by the Romans :
the persecution of the Druids in Britain : Koine
burnt in the reign of Nero, and the Christians
first persecuted by him: .JeL-u.-uK-m iU-.-troyed by
Titus; and the New Testament writ;

AY hat learned men flourished in the first cen-
tury ?

JL<iy^ Ovid, Strabo, Phaidrus, Persius, Quintus
Curtius, Pliny the Elder, Seneca, Lucan, Joscphus,
Quintilian, and Tacitus.

Name the chief events in the second century.

The Romans, under the conduct of Aglicola, a
generous and noble warrior, restrained the wild
fury of the Scots, and nearly subjugated South
Britain, erecting many fortresses, and founding
many towns therein.

Name some distinguished characters in the
second century,

I Martial, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius, Plu-
| tarch, Juvenal, Ptolemy, Justin, Lucian, and



16 '-lAKKABLE EVENTS.



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