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8 Pans. X. 32.



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152 THE GREAT DIONTSIAK MYTH.

ditty called the Maneros or Song of Love^ which was
to console the goddess for the death of her husband.' ^
Pausanias also gives an account of linos,^ whose foreign
origin appears in (1) his connection with Thrake ; (2)
his being called a son of Poseidon ; and (3) his unsuc-
cessful contest with Apollon, a divinity who shrank from
entering the lists with his sire,* ' When Linos was dead,
mourning for him prevailed in every barbarous nation,
so that even among the Egyptians there is a song Linos;
and the Egjrptians call the song in their own language
Maneros.^ But the Hellenes, and Homeros, who was
acquainted with the sufferings of Linos, make the song
Hellenik/ He then apphes IL xviii. 570 to Linos,*
and continues, ' Pamphos, who composed the most
ancient hymns for the Athenians, on account of the
excessive grief for Linos, called him Oitolinos, Ill-fated
Linos. And afterwards the Lesbian Sappho, having
learnt the name Oitolinos from the verses of Pamphos,
sings of Adonis together with Oitolinos.' • We have here
a number of lamented personages — ^Dionysos, Zagreus,
Linos, Maneros, Uasar, Adonis, Tammuz, and a common
dirge-like Song prevailing alike in all the countries where
they were supposed to have lived and where their cult
obtained. We have also a kosmogonical basis for the
idea, supplied by the changes of the seasons and the ever-
varying phenomena of the world, the myth at one time
appearing more in a solar, and at another more in a
chthonian aspect. Being torn or cut to pieces is a fate
commonly ascribed to Dionysos and the personages con-

* Sharpe, Egyptian Mythd, 10 ; cf. • Lirumj however, is generally
Bunsen, Ilyypfs Hdce, ii. 66. supposed to mean the flaxen lyrep-

3 Of. «ip. II. iii. 1. chord.

> IL XXI. 462 et seq. " Pans. ix. 29 ; cf. Sappho, F^ag.

* * In Egj-pt they have a tradition cviii. ; Ais. Ag. 121, 139 ; Soph. Aia$,
t'lat their ancient chants are the QSS\EvLT.Herak,M(inom,S4S; Orest,
composition of the goddess Isis.* 1395, where AilinoniB said to be a
(Platon, Laws, ii.) Barbarian word.



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THE DIONYSOS OF THE ATTIK TRAGEDIANS. 153

nected with him, such as Zagreus, Pentheus, Orpheus,^
Uasar,* and others.

Demosthenes is quoted as saying that the ' spotted
fawns were torn in pieces for a certain mystic reason/
which we are informed ' was in imitation of the sufferings
of Dionysos,'* and I have noticed* the statement of Por-
phyrios that men were torn in pieces in honour of the god
in Chios and Tenedos/ Taking the whole facts of the
case into consideration, it may be fairly concluded that,
in addition to the kosmogonico-solar basis of the myth,
there were circumstances connected with the savage
nature of the cult of the god, and with the opposition
which it may at different times and in various countries
have encountered, which formed a secondary or additional
basis for the traditions of the sufferings of its personified
head. The very old notion of martyr and self-sacrificing
divinities, which we find in the writings of Berosos, San-
chouniathon, and other ancient Kosmogonists,^ is doubt-
less also another aspect of the same general idea.

Svhsection IV, — The Kyklops.

In the Kyklops of Euripides we have a solitary sur-
viving specimen of Hellenik satyrical drama ; the story is
taken from the Homerik Kyklopda^ with the introduc-
tion of Seilenos and a chorus of Satyrs who have been
made captives by Polyphemos, and who, after his eye
has been put out, escape with Odysseus. In a former
work® I endeavoured to illustrate in some degree the

* Of. Apollod. i. 3 ; Ovid, Metam. Catal, where Dionysos is represented
id. 1 . as holding in his hands the two halves

» IKod. L 21, 22 ; Plout. Feri Is. of a fawn which he has just torn

xlii. asunder. Cf. Eur. JBak, 734 et seq,

» Souidas and Pholios, in voc. ^ Cf. Bunsen, .E^fj(p^« P/«ee, iv.284

NAridson. et seq.

* Sup. subsect ii. ^ Od. ix.

* Cf. Vase No. 788 a, B7it. Mm. ^ Poseidon^ viii.-xiv.



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154 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

history of the obscure family of the Kyklopes, to explain
the name, and to shew the real connection between the
three great branches of the Family — the Builders, the
Pastors, and the Metallurgists. I am glad to observe
that Mr. W. W. Lloyd confirms my view that Homeros
places the Kyklopes on the Libyan coast,^ and not in
Sikelia, though as he truly observes, 'later traditions
agreed very unanimously that the Cyclops dwelt about
Aetna.' * Mr. Lloyd offers another explanation of the
story, i.e.^ ' that this tribe of Cyclopes, each with a single
eye, dwelling in hollow caves on moimtain summits round
about Polyphemus himself, were originally personifica-
tions of the clustered cones and craters that surround
and make up Mount Aetna.' * ' The burnt-out eye of
Polyphemus' is 'the suggestion of the crater of the
bellowing mountain in violent eruption amidst blazing
forests ; ' and the rocks cast at Odysseus are ' masses
ejected by the volcano.' But if the Kyklops lived on the
Libyan coast, what is the connection between him and
Aetna? 'The Cyclops of Homer,' remarks Mr. Lloyd,
* it need scarcely be mentioned, knows nothing of the
thunder-forging function assigned in other mythology-
palpable expression of the electric phenomena of a vol-
canic outburst.' Then, of course, the ' Cyclops of Homer'
was not a personification of Mount Aetna, and his story
is indej)endent of any explanation based on the load
geography of Sikelia.

The phiy commences with the customary Euripidean
Prologue, which is spoken by the captive Seilenos. -The
following extracts will illustrate the connection between
him and Dionysos. ' The heavenly powers become gods

* Mr. Gladstone, after alludiDg to satisfaction the hahitat of the Ku-

his previous opinion that the Ky- klopesonthecoastof Afnca.'(J2bwifrtc

klopes * inhabitt>d the south-eastern Synchronismj 242-3.)

coast of Italy/ obstTves, *But Mr. "^ Hist, of Sici^t/, 16.

Blown, soon after, established to my ' Ibid. 16.



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THE DIONYSOS OF THE ATTIK TRAGEDUNS- X55

of the earth, and it was reasonable that the co-ordinate
natural causes of productiveness should also have their
representatives, who would form the attendants of the
personified primal causes of the same effects. The Sun-
god therefore, when he roamed the earth, was properly
attended by the Sileni, the deities presiding over running
streams/ ^ ' The name of Seilenos as a water sprite sug-
gests to Preller its affinity with the ItaUan Silanus, a word
for gushing or bubbling water. As the dweller in the
fertilising streams, he can bestow draughts of wonderful
sweetness ; and the wine which his son Evanthes gives to
Odysseus is pronounced by Polyphemos to be more
delicious than honey. As such, also, he is the guardian
and teacher of Dionysos, for from the life-giving streams
alone can the grape acquire its sweetness and its power.' ^
*0 Bromios, on thy account I have ten thousand
labours, both now and when in youth my frame was
strong. First, when maddened by Here you departed
from your nurturers the mountain nymphs.' * The Aryan
goddess Here, wife of Zeus, is naturally hostile to the
Semitic Dionysos his illegitimate offspring,* whom she
afflicted with madness,* and whose mother Semele had
perished by her artifice.^ Mythic hatred between divini-
ties is generally illustrative of early opposition between
the supporters of rival rituals, and as Here is an un-
doubtedly Hellenik personage the circumstance, like a
thousand others, illustrates iucidentilly the non-Hellenik
origin of the worship of Dionysos. Thus, Grote notes
from Ploutarchos that ' there was a standing antipathy
between the priestesses and the religious establishments
of Here and Dionysos;'' and similarly Argos, the



» Theatre of the Greeks, 26. * Of. Bak, 286.

^ Mythoiogy of the Aryan Nations, * ApoUod. iii. 5.

ii. 318 ; cf. 9up. 11. iii. 5, IV. iu. 2. « Of. Bak, 9 j Ovid, Mett

» Vs. 1-4; cf. sup. U. i. 6, IV. et seq.
I 3. ' HtBt. of Ch-eece, i. 34.



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156 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

favourite abode of the goddess,^ who is represented aa
being ' a deity of all others the most exclusively and
intensely national,'* 'for a long time wholly abstained
fix)m the worship of Bacchus.' ® Euripides represents the
Tyrsenik pirates * as having attacked Dionysos at the in-
stigation of Here.*

'And afterwards being thy companion in arms on thy
right hand in the battle of the spear against the earth-
bom race, having struck Enkelados on the midst of his
target, I slew him with the spear.'* The prowess of
Dionysos in the Gigantomachia, or Battle-with-the-Giants,
has already been alluded to.^ Vase No. 788, BriU
Mus. Catalogue represents Dionysos, spear-armed, with the '
kanthar, ivy-branch, and panther's skin, attacking the
giants Eurytos and Ehoitos. The story of the Giants
seems to have been confused with that of the Titanes.
*Tatans,' or *Tutuns,' according to Bunsen, 'is the
Egyptian designation for every kind of Demiurge or
creative divinity.'^ Homeros and Hesiodos are both
quite ignorant of any contest between the Giants and the
Gods ; ^ and the Giants of the former are described as
savage, godless tribes living in the Outer-world.^^ It
would be somewhat beyond the present subject to speak
of the Titanes, and therefore observing that the Ggaiito-
machia is a comparatively late myth, and a mere repeti-
tion of the War between Zeus and Titanik powers, we
may conclude, with Professor Euskin, that the Giants,
whether the legends relating to them have a further
meaning and foundation or not, represent ' the troublous
powers of the earth,' ^^ volcanic or otherwise. But the
true early Hellenik portrait of the god is not Dionysos

» Of. 11 iv. 8, 52; Paus. ii. 22. ^ Sup. subsec. ii.

« Juv, Mtmdi, 234. « God in Hist. ii. 36.

« MiiUer, Done Race, i.418. » Cf. Thex)ff. 186.

* Sup. II. i. 4. ^^ Cf. Od. vu. 69, 206.

* V. 11. " Vs. 6-8. " Queen of the Air,l 16.



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THE D10NY80S OF THE ATTIK TRAGEDIANS. 157

fighting successfiilly on the side of Aryan divinities
against opposing Giants, but the timid Being, nymph-
nurtured, flying from the infuriate Lykourgos. When,
however, his cult becomes established, and he himself is
received into the anthropomorphic family of Zeus, and
when the fierce phases of the DionysiaJc concept are
understood and appreciated, he can be enrolled not un-
fitly in the army of the Olympik King, from whom his
prowess in the fight is said to have drawn the exclama-
tion, * Well done, son I ' Seilenos, the faithful attendant
of Dionysos, is naturally his assistant in the struggle, but
considered in his degraded form as a drunken old satyr,
his tale would necessarily appear to be a mere idle boast,
and is here ridiculed as such, in the same way that
Dionysos in his efieminate and voluptuous character
appears to be eminently unwarlike, and by the CJomic
Poets is held up to derision for his cowardice.^

Chorus of Satyrs. * These things [i.e.^ Kyklopean
servitude and its adjuncts] are not Bromios, these things
are not choric-dances and thyrsos-bearing Bakchants, not
the clang ^ of tambourines . . . not Nysa * with a Nymph,
lakchos, lakchos,* I sing a lay to Aphrodite/ ^ Alalagmos
is derived from Alale^ a loud cry or shout, usually the
shout of battle, a word seemingly akin to numerous
familiar terms.*

Od. Not gold, hut the drink of Dionysos I bear*

And in truth Maron gave the drink to me ; son of the
god.

' Of. Aristoph. Bat. 283 et seq, other things, to Dionysos as the Sun

' Alalofftnos, of the Under-world. The Dionysos

* Of. sec. ii. 1. of Aristophanes, when the latter is

* Cf. the invocation of the Ohorua eerious, exactly corresponds with the
of the Initiated in the Batrachoi, god as he appears in the Tragics.

* lakchos, O lakchos ! Raise the * Vs. 63-70.

flaming torches shaking them in your • Of. Eleleu, Ais. Prom. Des. 806.

hands, lakchos, O lakchos! of nightly Dionysos Eleleus the Shouter ; Hallili,

mvstic rites, ligbt-biinging star.' the hunting rthout ; Ilallelu-jah.
(A<rf. 3.*iy-41.) An allusion, amongst



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158 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

Sei. He whom once I nursed in these enfolding arms.
Od, The son of Bakchios.'

*I had a goat's skin of dark wine/ says Odysseus,
* which Maron, son of Eiianthes, gave me, priest of Apollon,
who presided over Ismaros/^ Ismaros is a town on the
southern coast of Thrake close to Maroneia, in the region
inhabited by the Homerik Kikones, and renowned from
the most ancient times for its wine-producing character.*
Maron is probably a personification of the place, like
Boiotos and Tirynthos, and becomes a son or descendant
of Dionysos from his connection with wine. Professor
Mayor in his note on Od. ix. 197, has collected various
references to him,* and he is represented by Diodoros as
being a companion of Uasar.' • ' Many centuries after
he used to appear to the Thrakian vinedressers, young
and delicate, redolent of wine, tending their vines.* •

Subsection V. — Dionysiak Allusions in the Apospasmatia.

There are several Dionysiak allusions in the Apospas -
matia, or Fragments of Euripides, which may be briefly
noticed. In the Antigone^ we read, * Dionysos, in no
wise endured by mortals.' This may have formed part
of some protest against the cult of the god, but the sense
of the passage is doubtful. In the Archelaos? the god
is invoked as 'Kisseus, King of the fruitful land,* t.^.,
Boiotia, always proverbial for fertility ; ' the champaign
gleams with fire.' The latter line is illustrated and ex-
plained by Aristophanes, who writes, similarly, Hhe
meadow shines with flame,' ^ when describing the torch-
dance of the Initiated in the sacred field. In the

' Vs. 139-43. » Diod. i. 18.

« Od. ix. 196-8. • Of. Philostratos, HeroOca, iii. Id

* Of. Niebuhr, Aiteient Ethnog. i. Nonnos, ix. 121.
2.33 ; gup. II. i. 1. " ' Fi'ag. xviii.

< Of. Narrative of OdtfMms, i. 108. » j^.^^ -^ 9 ^^^ 344



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THE DIONYSOS OF THE ATTIK TRAGEDIANS. 159

Likymnios^ the god is addressed as * laurel-loving King
Bakchos, Paian Apollon, skilled-lyre-player/ which is
quoted by Macrobius*^ to illustrate his theory of the
identity of the two divinities,^ which, however, it by no
means necessarily implies, and which the context would
probably have rebutted. The connection of Dionysos
with ApoUon and Delphoi has already been noticed.
Porphyrios* has preserved a curious passage from the
Kretes^ addressed by the Chorus to Minos : —

* Son of Phoinikian-sprung Tyre, child of Europe and
of the great Zeus, King of hundred-citied Krete • ... we
strive after a holy hfe from the time when we have
become a mystic of the Idaian Zeus, and having fulfilled
the life of the night-wandering Zagreus, and the raw-flesh-
eating feasts, and holding up torches to the mountain
mother [Kybele], and having been purified, Bakchos of
the Kouretes I invoked. And clad in white, I fly the race
of mortals and a tomb not approaching them, and I have
been guarded against the eating of hving food.'

Here again, as before, we note the joint ritual of
Kybele, Dionysos, and the Kouretes ; ^ and- Zagreus and
Bakchos, nocturnal divinities, appearing together like a
double star. There is also a clear intimation that the
Mystics enacted the legendary history of the Eape of
Persephone, according to which lakchos assisted Demeter
in her search for her daughter, and lighted her way with
a torch kindled at Mount Aetna. Demeter having, as
was noticed, become identified with Kybele, the Mystics
who personate lakchos and his companions,® are de-
scribed as holding up their torches to the latter, while
they appear also to have imitated Dionysos in his raw-



' Frag.iv. * Frag.'il.

' Sat'.'i, J 8. • Cf. i/.ii. 64a

* Sup. II. iii. 2. ' Snp. eiibsec. ii,

* I\n Aptyh. iv. 10. » Cf. Aristopb. Baf. 340 rf seq.



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160 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

flesh-eating propensities.^ Graves are avoided, because
death causes a temporary, or at least an apparent, ex-
tinguishment of the flaming torch of life, a fragment of
natural symbolism which has continued even to our own
times, as shewn by the reversed torches sculptured on
modern tombs. One of the first questions asked the
candidates for initiation in the Mysteries was whether
they had fasted, the state of abstinence being considered
most suitable for the reception or supposed reception of
flupernatural communications/^



SECTION IV.
EIKON OP THE TRAGIK DIONySOS.

The Dionysos of the Tragics is a homed stranger,
whose original home is the mysterious Nysa, deep in
the Outer-world. He is a solar divinity, Chrysomitres
the Golden-crowned and Chrysopes the Golden-faced,
the vivifying sun whose warm beams cause the earth to
bring forth life and loveliness. He is a phallic, thyrsos-
bearing, and serpent-crowned god, connected with the
goat and the bull, the latter an especial emblem of vigour
and productiveness. He is fierce and savage in origin,
and to opponents has something of Ares in him, and
appears as Omestes the Eaw-flesh-eating and ferocious.
He is master of prophetic power, of fiirious inspiration,
and of that phrensied mind which can pierce the secrets
of futurity. And, above all, he is the kosmogonic Demi-
urge, leader of the aerial chorus of the starry hosts, lord
of the earth- life and reproductive power of nature ; who,

* Vide giip. 8ubf*ec. ii.

* Of. Acts. X. 10; Porphyrios, Pert Ajtoches,



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THE DIONYSOS OF THE ATTIK TRAGEDIANS. 161

although he may die and be torn to pieces, yet, as Kisseus
the Ivied, arises sun-like to immortal life, and reappears
as the face of nature reclad in the green mantle of spring.
He has arrived in Hellas as a stranger from the regions
beyond, and first of Hellenik cities comes to Thebai, the
metropolis of Bakchanals; and is made king of the fruitful
Boiotia, where his cult is established in the mythic era of
Pentheus. As many of his phases correspond with those
of the two great Aryan divinities, ApoUon and Demeter,
he is by turns their rival and associate ; and, at length,
when firmly established in his new home, is enthroned
with them in the joint rituals of Delphoi and Eleusis, in
the latter of which he appears as lakchos the Torch-
bearer. So closely are Semitic and Aryan mythologies
intermixed, that while ApoUon assumes a Semitic phase
as Karneios the Homed Sun, Demeter becomes identified
with Kybele the Great Goddess of the East. As the god
of the wandering Phoenicians, the Axiokersos or Worthy-
homed-god of tne mystic Samothrakian ritual, the sacred
Bull of EUs, Dionysos is himself a wanderer ; the associate
of such Oriental brings as the Kabeiroi, Kouretes and
Korybantes, connected with the fatness of the earth
beneath, with Seilenos and the Satyroi. As he sufiers,
so is he lamented in the Linos-Maneros dirge through-
out all the countries adjoining the Eastern Mediterranean.
The faun-skin, the thyrsos, the pine-cone, the wheel, the
flowing locks with their mystic symbolism, are portions
of his cult and illustrate his nature ; in which the first
principles, attributes, and adjuncts of materiaUty, light,
heat, sound, motion, change, vigour, decay, and renewal
are signified and displayed. Savage and sensuous, his
human sacrifices, repugnant to Aryan instincts, are by
degrees abolished in Hellenik regions ; and his orgiastic
revelry, gross and boisterous though it may be, yet never

M



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162 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

reaches in his new home the monstrous excesses of his
Phoenician devotees.

Identical with the grim and shadowy night- wandering
and chthonian Zagreus, highest of divinities, he is inferior
to none of the gods; and is to mortals at once most
terrible and most mild. Lastly, and perhaps least, as the
lord of material enjoyment, he is a nymph-chaser and
patron of the vineyard. Such, in brief, is the Dionysos
of the Tragiks ; and the attempt to dwarf him down into a
mere wine-god becomes, under the analysis, a hopeless
impossibility. How exactly this portraiture agrees with
that given by the Theologers and the Lyric Poets may be
easily perceived. Hellenik genius and imagination un-
doubtedly added vastly to the Dionysiak concept, which
would never in Semitic regions alone have grown into
such elaborate variegations, and assumed such phases of
dehcate beauty; but the original idea and root of the
matter came, as we shall see still more plainly in the
sequel, across the empire of Poseidon and from the birth-
place of the Sun-god : and he who is wearied with the
familiar aroma of the Aryan field of research may stimu-
late and refi:-esh his jaded senses with new perfumes
wafted from the shores of the Euphrates and the Nile.



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163



CHAPTER V.

THE DI0NY808 OF HEB0D0T08.



SECTION I.
DIONYSOS AND THRAKE.

The connection between Dionysos and Thrake has already
been partially noticed,^ as illustrated in the episode of
Lykonrgos, in the vine-growing character of the country,
and in the links between Orpheus, Mousaios, Eumolpos^
Linos, and other similar personages of Thrakian origin or
associations and the Dionysiak myth. It is not, therefore,
surprising to find this connection illustrated by the
writings of the earliest of Hellenik historians who, when
describing the manners and customs of the Thrakians,
' the most powerful people in the world, except, of course,
the Indians,' • states that they worship three gods * Ares,
Dionysos, and Artemis.'* The first point for consideration
is. How is the statement to be understood, and what
divinities are represented by these Hellenik names ? The
Thrakians mainly, or perhaps entirely, belonged to the
Indo-European family of nations, and were a kind of
coarse copy of the Hellenes. It is therefore extremely
probable that their Ares was identical with the Hellenik
divinity of that name, who from the earliest times is

> Sup. n. i. iii. * Herod, v. 3. > ftid. v. 7.

M 2



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164 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

represented as connected with Thrake.^ 'In Thrace
clearly was his home. Thrace appears to have been
known by the name of Aria. Berkel connects the two
names together.'* But if the rude savage Ares, the
' Crusher/ * is a suitable divinity for the warlike and bar-
barous Thrrkians, it will not be supposed that such a
delicate and pecuUar concept as the Hellenik Artemis
would obtain amongst them ; and accordingly we find
that the real name of their so-called Artemis was Beudis,*
apparently a darker featured and more savage counterpart
of the chaste huntress-queen, but yet probably a divinity
of Aryan origin. Besides these two Aryo-Thrakiaa
personages, we find a third, called by Herodotos Dionysos.
Are we to understand by this appellation some divinity of
the Thrakian Pantheon who was supposed to correspond
with the Hellenik Dionysos, or the god himself? We may
in this case, I think, consider that Herodotos was un-
doubtedly correct in his identification, and for the follow-
ing reasons: (1) The Thrakian Ares seems to have been
identical with the Hellenik god of that name, and Bendis
is practically a coarser Artemis ; the probability, therefore,
is that the Thrakian Dionysos was identical with the
Hellenik. (2) As Homeros expressly notices the introduction
of the Dionysiak cult on the northern shores of the
Aigaion, we are not surprised to find it there in the time
of Herodotos. (3) The important non-Aryan element in

» Of. Od, viii. 361. Thus Gray, » Of. Mythd.of the Atyan Nations,

with his usual classic propriety — i. 32.

' On Thrada's hills the Lord of War * HesycL in voc. Bendi$,So Strabo

H«.c«rbedtbefuryof hiscar.' ^'^^of thej^^^ „t« ^c.Jd

^ Juv. Mtm, 297. Oanon Raw- was introduced at Athenai towards

linson seems somewhat incUned to the close of the Peloponnesian War.

connect the name Ares with Aria, a ' I wanted to see in what maltmer

Semitic title of Nergal, the Kaldean they would celebrate the festival of

Mars {Anct, Mms. i. 1.38) ; but, on Bendis, which was a new thing. The

the wliole, the weight of evidence is procession of the inhabitants . . . was

most decidedly in favour of the . . . exceeded in beauty by that of the

Aryan origin of Ares and his nanie. Thracians * (Platon. Repub, i.).



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THE DIONYSOS OP HERODOTOS. 165

Hirake, which contained Phoenician colonies, 'such as



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