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Osuis. In the presont Work I " Vide inf, VI. ii.

have adopted the first of these forms. " For detailed proof of this the

(Vide Dr. Birch, Names of the Prin- reader is referred to the works of

cyn/ Deities in Bunsen's Egypi^s Aryan comparative mjrthologists.



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178 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

a sense, they are practically identical. But it is difficult
to see even a resemblance between some of the pairs of
divinities unified by Herodotos, e.g. between Artemis and
the cat-headed Pasht.^ Eejecting, then, the proposed
identifications of Zeus with Amen, Artemis with Pasht,
Apollon with Har, Demeter with Uasi, Athene with Neith,
Pan with Khem, Ares with Mandou, Hermes with Tet,
and Herakles with Khons, it will naturally be asked
Why is the identity of Dionysos and Uasar to be accepted?
If Herodotos admittedly errs in so many instances, is it
not probable that here too he is wrong ? To this highly
proper enquiry, I reply that, in the abstract, it was almost
certain fix>m their relative geographical positions the non-
Aryan East would exercise an important influence on
Hellas ; that the requirements of abstract probability are
satisfied by the allotment of the far greater number of
the personages of Hellenik mythology to Aryan sources ;
that an analysis of the histories and cult of some Hellenik
divinities, e.g. Poseidon, Hephaistos, Aphrodite, and Diony-
sos, exhibits and illustrates a distinctly non- Aryan in-
fluence ; that the whole course of the enquiry into the
Dionysiak cult tends, in a great variety of ways, to show
its Semitic character and foreign origin ; and lastly, that
a comparison between the Dionysiak and Uasarian myths
will evidence not only a resemblance, as if they were
merely corresponding members of two distinct Pantheons,
but from its minute and singular agreement, and that
often in obscure and curious points and phases, will ne-
cessitate an identity of origin.^ Thus, two nations may
possess a solar cult, and, in the abstract, each may have

^ As to the singular manner in calls her. Of. Herod, ii. 66.
which the Hellenes bestowed the ^ Of. the previously quoted re-
name of Artemis on most dissimilar mark of Herodotos, ' I can by no
diyinities, vide inf, VI. i. 1. No means allow that it is by mere coin-
personage is better represented in the cidence that the Bacchic ceremonies
british Museum than Ailouros, or in Greece are so nearly the same as
* Le Dieu Chat/ as Montfaucon the Egyptian,'



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 179

received and practised it entirely independently of the
other. Both see the sun, and both are naturally inclined
to adore or reverence it in some way. But if each com-
munity honoured it with similar rites and ceremonies, in
themselves unique and peculiar, we should unhesitatingly
assert that there must have been some contact between
them. To deny this would be an outrage upon all pro-
bability. And, having these considerations before us, we
shall neither rashly say, on the one hand, that the theory
of Herodotos respecting the gods of Kam and Hellas is
correct as a whole ; nor shall we assert, on the other,
that the Hellenes being Aryans must have had divinities
purely Aryan in origin and none others, and so conclude
that any apparent resemblance between Dionysos and
Uasar is only illusory, and merely supported by * the im-
pudent assertions of Egyptian priests'; but, avoiding all
excesses produced by the revenges of the whirligig of time,
let us rather proceed to dissect patiently the complicated
personage before us, knowing that however curious his
structure and composition, he will nevertheless, like some
strange and hitherto imknown beast or bird, ultimately
fall into his place in the natural history of man, and so
perhaps supply a link hitherto wanting in the chain of
ideas.^

Subsection 11. — Dionysos considered by Herodotos as
identical with Uasar^ but the Dionysiak cult not sup-
posed by him to be derived from the Uasarian.

Dionysos, then, is identified by Herodotos with Uasar.
' Osiris, whom they [the Egyptians] say is the Grecian
Bacchus.' * ' Osiris is named Dionysos by the Greeks.' ^

* The view of the identity of Di- guess. Satisfactory illustration of

onysoe and Uasar is of course no the fact is what I shall endeavour to

novelty ; hut, in its usual presentation, supply .
it is nothing more than a correct ^ lierod. ii. 142. * Ibid. 144.



ir



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180 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

But, although the I^j^tians and Herodotos aflSnn the
identity of the two divinities, yet the latter nowhere asserts
that the Hellenik Dionysiak cult was directly borrowed
from the Kamic. For, admitting the identity of the per-
sonages, their ritual may, in the abstract, have been
severally derived from a third source common to both.
Thus, assuming for the sake of argument, that it had a
starting point in Kaldea, the cult may have passed in a
Dionysiak form into Hellas, and in a Uasarian form into
Kam. And this assumption, so far as historic circum-
stances are at present known, is in substantial accordance
with the facts of the case, for there is no evidence of any
direct introduction of the Dionysiak cult into Hellas from
Kam, and it is generally admitted that the religion and
civilization of the Nile Valley were posterior to, and
derived from or developed out of, the earlier systems of
Western Asia.^ The fact that this same great cult had a
South-western or Kamic branch, and a North-western or
Phrygio-Hellenik branch, which includes its develope-
ments in Asia Minor, also at once accounts for the differ-
ences as well as the similarities of worship of Dionysos
and Uasar. As Zeus and Dyaus, although identical, se-
verally bear the stamp of West and East, so Dionysos and
Uasar, similarly identical, severally bear the stamp of
Hellenik and Kamic adjuncts and associations. But it
may possibly be asked. Does not Herodotos represent the
Bakchik cult as being dbectly derived from the Uasarian ;
does he not say ' Almost all the names of the gods came
into Greece from Egypt? My enquiries prove that they
were all derived from a foreign source, and my opinion is
that Egypt furnished the greater number.'^ True, but he
clearly does not directly derive the Bakchik cult from
the Uasarian, for he says that Melampous ' introduced into

* Vide subsec. v. ^ Herod, ii. 50.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 181

Gfreece the name of Bacchus, the ceremonial of his wor-
ship, and the procession of the phallus,'^ and adds, as
noticed, * my belief is that Melampous got his knowledge of
thomfrom Cadmus the Tyrian^ and the followers whom he
brought from Phoenicia into the country which is now
called Boeotia.'^ Melampous, therefore, according to He-
rodotos, had not been to Kam, but was the first Hellene
to adopt the Bakchik rites practised by the immigrant
inhabitants of the Kadmeis. But Herodotas was well
aware that Kadmos was not a Kamite, but a Phoenician,*
and so plainly asserts that the Bakchik cult was common
both to Phoenicia and Kam, that in the latter country it
took the XJasarian form, but that it was introduced into
Hellas from the former through the medium of Kadmos,
the great founder of Thebai, * mother-city of the Bakchai.'^
Again, he states that originally the Pelasgoi had no dis-
tinct names or appellations for the gods, but that ^ after
a long lapse of time the names of the gods came to
Greece from Egypt, and the Pelasgi learnt them, only as
yet they knew nothing of Bacchus^ of whom they first
heard at a much later date.'* That is, the Pelasgoi did
not receive the Dionysiak cult together with that of the
other divinities from Kam, but at another time, and
through Phoenician agency ; ® and he then relates a
fabulous story how two sacred women were carried away
by Phoenicians from the Kamic Thebai, and that one of
them was sold into Hellas and founded the oracle of
Dodona, a tale illustrative of Phoenician influence in the
West. As to the existence of an individual Kadmos, let
it be remembered that any leader of an Oriental colony
into Hellas would be pre-eminently a Kadmos or Man-of-



> Of. Diod. i. 97. Thtbai.

> Herod, ii. 49. ^ Herod, ii. 52.
» Ibid. iv. 147 ; V. 57-8 ; vu. 91. « Of. m/. X. i.
* Vide ft/. X. ii, Kadmos and



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182 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

the-East. Homeros, the Poet, personifies the divinity of
the Strangers, and relates his adventures ; Herodotos, the
Historian, naturally describes his cult as introduced by the
leader of the colony. Both are in exact agreement with
each other, and with every other writer whose works
have been examined in the course of the enquiry. Diony-
sos, it may be observed, was not the only divinity con-
sidered by Herodotos to be common botfi to Kam and
Phoenicia. A Herakles,^ distinct from the son of A 1k-
mene, is described by him as being worshipped in both
countries,* and he was also well aware of the wide-spread
cult of Hephaistos, the Kamic Ptah.^

Subsection III. — Outline of ike Uasarian Myth.

The great Uasarian myth as exhibited not merely in
the comparatively scanty notices of the Egyptologists of
antiquity, but also in the results of the researches of those
of modem times, presents perhaps one of the most in-
tricate and obscure subjects of investigation which can
possibly engage the attention. The enquirer into the
nature and character of XJasar may be perplexed with
apparently absolutely conflicting statements, that he was
a man, a god, a man-god, a husbandman, a warrior, a
king, a martyr, the judge of the dead, the Nile, the sun,
the principle of reproduction, the world, the Kosmos,
and thus on. We may, therefore, well say with the
Stranger in Platon's Sophistes, * The object of our enquiry
is no trivial thing, but a very various and complicated one.
This is a various and very questionable animal— one not
to be caught with the left hand, as the saying is.' * But
I think it will not fell to occiu: to the reader that any one

> I.e. Melqarth. Vide inf. XI. « Of. Ibid. u. 61. with iii. 37.

i. 2. Inf. X. i.

* HtTod. ii, 43-4. * Mackay's Tranalation.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 183

a^nizant of the nature and character of Dionysos, or
even of only such part of it as has been illustrated in the
previous course of the present enquiry, possesses great
advantages for the study of the Uasarian myth ; in fact,
that the two divinities, intricate and obscure as they are,
mutually explain and illustrate each other, that each is to
be studied in the light afforded by the other, and is, in
fact, a master-key to the solution of the diflSicidties which
they mutually create. For instance, it is perfectly simple
to the Dionysiak student that Dionysos is not simply the
sun, and yet that, at the same time, he has an exceedingly
important solar phase. In the same way Uasar was
identified with the sun,^ of which, ' on a hieroglyphical
tablet in the Louvre, he is stated to be the soul and body.' *
But to suppose that he is merely the solar god would be
as erroneous as to entertain such a theory respecting the
developed Hellenik Dionysos, as e.g. in the tablet just
referred to * Osiris is also identified with Atimi, the pre-
siding deity of the air, and the judge and chastiser of
souls.' Noticing, then, the various and apparently con-
tradictory aspects and manifestations of Uasar, how shall
we ascertain what he really is, or represents? Let us
proceed philosophically to compare the opinions, * to set
aside as more or less discrediting one another those various
special and concrete elements in which such opinions dis-
agree ; to observe what remains after the discordant con-
stituents have been eliminated ; and to find for this
remaining constituent that abstract expression which holds
true throughout its divergent modifications.' * Thus, as
the greater includes the less. What concept of Uasar wiU
include all other narrower and derivative concepts, and
hold true throughout their divergent modifications ? And
here Dionysos promptly steps in to oiur assistance, for as

> Biod. i. 11 ; Plout Peri 1$. lii. Tiaccy I 43a

' Dr. Birch in Bunsen's Egyp^9 * H. Spencer, Firtt PrmcipleB^ ii.



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184 THE GREiLT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

we have seen/ he is Phanes, the spirit of material visi-
bility, a Kyklops giant of the universe with one bright
solar eye, the growth-power of the world, the all-pervading
animism of things, son of Semele, * the beginnings of
nature,' and Harmonia, the starry universe existing ' in a
wonderful order.' * And XJasar is no less. I noticed * that
Dionysos and Adonis were brought forth from chests in
which they had been concealed or preserved, and that
these mythic chests were arks or kosmic eggs from which
the powers of growth, heat, and life-beauty, come forth
in the procession of existence ; and so, similarly, Uasar is
described as the egg-born.* He is the egg-sprung Eros
of Aristophanes,* whose creative energy brings all things
into existence ; the Demiurge who made and animates the
world, a being who is a sort of personification of Amen
the Invisible God, as Dionysos is a hnk between man-
kind and the Zeus Hypsistos. Uasi or Isis is merely
che female reflection of Uasar;* 'the two deities are
always inseparable,' ^ and * Isis and Oshis, alone and
united, and Isis, Osiris, and Horus combined, can be
shewn to comprise in themselves the whole system of
Egyptian mythology, with the exception perhaps of Am-
mon and Kneph.'® Uasi is the sister, the wife, the
daughter, the mother, of Uasar, who is her brother, hus-
band, son, or sire. This is merely the creating, energising,
and vital force of nature, conceived under the natural
idea of a male and female dualism. Dionysos, also, had

^ Sup, II. iii. 3. the uniform manifestation of the gods

* Vide inf, X. ii. and spoddeeses ; who govern by my nod
' Sup. lU. i. 1. the Imuinous heights of heaven, the

* Diod. i. 27. ealubrious breezes of the ocean, and
^ Omith. 095 et seq. Of. Plout. the anguished silent reabns of the

Peri Is. Ivii. shades below : whose one sole divi-

® Her address to the votary in nity the whole orb of the earth

Apuleius is very fine : — * I am nature, venerates under a manifold ' form,

the parent of all things, the mistress with different rites, and under a

of all the elements, the primordial variety of appellations* (ApuL De

offspring of time, the supreme among Asino Aweo, xi.).

divinities, the queen of departed ' -§7KP^'* Place, L 431.

spirits, the first of the celestials, and ^ IM, 427.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 185

his attendant Uasi in the person of the Axiokerse of Samo-
thrake, who in another phase appears as ' the Phoenician
Athene, t)nga, Onka, who was also worshipped by the
Thebans and Gephyreans ; ' ^ but on Hellenik ground she
became incorrectly identified with the great daughter of
Zeus, and it is Demeter, the Earth-mother, of whom as
we have seen Dionysos became the Associate, who in the
Hellenik Pantheon corresponds, although she is not iden-
tical, with Uasi. This broad deep concept of Uasar will
include all * special and concrete elements ' in the myth,
and hold *true throughout its divergent modifications/
Does he represent the growth-power in nature? then
derivativeLy, he easUy becomes a phallic personage, the
all-fertilising Nile, the Sun, as the great vivifying and
procreative power of the world, and Euemeristically, a
nurturing king, who fosters arts, sciences, and civilization
generally, developing them out of pre-existing barbarism.
Are the principles of change and decay, death and resur-
rection, good and evil, rewards and punishments, mir-
rored and reflected alike on the face of nature and in
the heart of man? Uasar answers in character to all
these analogies and behefs.^ He dies to five again;
he wars with aggressive evil, is slain on account of it,
and finally overcomes it. He as god, and as the good
god, according to the principles of eternal justice which
are reflected fi:om the Unseen in the mirror of the
human soul, rewards virtue and punishes vice, for Amen,
the Invisible Father, has committed all judgment to
him the sufiering and triumphant son. And this judgment
is necessarily placed as occurring in the invisible world,
where Uasar, in resurrection splendour, possessed of
the keys of Death and Kerneter,* as Khotamenti or

* Egypes Fiace 393 ; cf. Aia. Bepi. in voc. Onga).

^' The, 152. 496. SchoL in Find. 01 > The reader should study in this

11. 89. 48 ; Schol. in Eur. PAot. 1069; connection the names and titles of

Tzetzesin Lykoph. 1 225; Paus. ix. 1 2. Uasar {Fimereal Ritwd, cxlii.).

^ Onga is Athena at Thebai ' (Hesych. ' Hades.

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186 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

King-of-the-Under-world, the Ehadamanthos of the Hel-
lenes, rewards every man according to his works, and
permits to see his face, makes like, or even* in some
mysterious way incorporates with, himself, those who, like
him, overcome the snares, seductions and opposition of
the Great Serpent, adversary and accuser of the brethren,
and the powers of evil, and appear at last as just men
made perfect, weighed in the balance by Har and Anupu,^
and not foimd wanting. This is he who makes numerous
captives, whose majority or multitude * is continually in-
creasing, the chthonian Dionysos, £a the Sun, at times
identified with the primal Amen, HeUos shining in the
Under-world,* Zagreus, * the many-guest-receiving Zeus of
the Dead.** Thus the Uasarian cult is no mere observa-
tion of, and childlike deductions from, the external phe-
nomena of nature; the sun is not simply regarded as
a bright being who is born each morning of the dark-
ness, and is slain each evening by the arrow of night.
The spiritual and psychical element is everjrwhere pre-
dominant. God and the soul both exist ; God not only
is, but he is also a rewarder of them that diligently seek
him ; eternal life is no phantom, the resurrection of the
dead is both probable and credible.* ' Osiris is the Sun-
god, without ceasing to be the real Lord, the Self-created,
the God of the human Soul.' • Thus, although essentially
kosmogonic in development, he is far more than a mere
pantheistic spirit of nature. Through all the elaborations
and corruptions of Kamic mythology, through all the
apparent intricacy of idea involved in the union and con-
nection of, and in the distinction between, the shadowy

> ' The dog Anubifl ' (Milton). Anct. JBKrt. of the JEast, i. 322-3. No

* Of. Dan, xiL 2. opponent of the doctrine has ever

* Of. Od. xii. 383. been able to answer S. Paul's subtle

* Ais. Iket, 146. question. What is the abstract pro-

* As to tiie Kamic belief in the babilit j against it P (Acts xzyi. 8.)
resurrection of the body, cf. Buusen, • £ffyp^8 Place, iv. 326.
Egyp6% Place, iv. 641 ; Lenormant,



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THE MONYSOS OF HERODOTOa 187

groups of indistinct and oftentimes grotesque divinities of
Kam, we may learn their belief that hfe, however de-
veloped, is greater and more glorious than inanimation,
that 'mind is first and reigns for ever,' that all things
come from God and go to God, that probation will in the
case of the righteous be followed in due time by perfection,
and that whatever is, exists for * the glorification of God
in time/ Solar, astral, phaUic, kosmogonic, chthonian,
and psychical, Uasar links together in one the various
elements of nature and of religious idea. He stands between
man and the far-oflT Primal Cause ; and when the history
of his worship shall be fiilly known, its various phases
thoroughly understood, and its marvellous similarities
with the teachings of our own Sacred Books duly appre-
ciated, we shall unhesitatingly assert, with the philosophic
Apostle, that * the invisible things of God become distinctly
visible when studied in the things that He hath made/ ^



Subsection IV. — Identity of the Uaaarian and Dionysiak

Myths.

That the Uasarian and Dionysiak myths were, at a
certain period, identified is beyond all contradiction ; but
on the fact whether they were originally identical or not,
practically depends the important question, Is Dionysos
non-Aryan in origin, or is he merely a simple Aryan
divinity overlaid with Semitic incrustations? I will
therefore notice various features and points of similarity
which constitute the parallel between, and identity of, the
two personages, and consider the deductions which may
be legitimately drawn from these facts. The identity of
Dionysos and Usar is illustrated by the following circum-
stances: —

I. The consensus of ancient Authors. — Herodotos, as

1 For further considerations on this subject, vide inf, XII. i. 3.



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188 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

we have seen/ identifies the two, and considers that the
Uasarian or Dionysiak cult was introduced into Hellas,
through the instrumentality of Phoenicians, by Melampous
many hundred years before his time. The deliberate con-
clusion of the great historian and investigator on this
last point, the time of the introduction of the cult into
Hellas, is deserving of the greatest weight, and must, I
think, carry conviction to an unprejudiced mind that the
Bakchik worship was brought into Hellenik regions long
anterior to the era of Onomakritos and the Peisistratids,
to the reign of Psammetik the Great, when Kam was first
partially thrown open by law to Hellenes, to the Oljrmpiad
of Koroibos, that wonderful epoch when, according to
some moderns, by virtue of a mysterious Jiat lux we pass
at a bound from fiction to history,* and to the Herodo-
tean era of Homeros and Hesiodos, some 400 years before
his own time. Sir G. Wilkinson ingeniously suggests that
if Melampous * be an imaginary personage,* his name,

* Blackfoot,' was invented to show the origin of the rites
he was said to have introduced as coming from Kim, the

* Black Land/'

Diodorus is equally clear on the point. He states*
that the first men in Aigyptos thought that there were
two eternal gods, the Sun, Osiri overturned by the terrific struggles of
Apepi, the great serpent of evil ; but which ultimately
' attains the extreme limit of the horizon, and disappears
in the heavenly region of Amenti." ^ Apuleius,' in de-
scribing the procession of Uasi, states that one of the
priests held * a golden lamp of a boat-like form,' and
that * the chief priest dedicated to the goddess a very
skilfully built ship, pictured all over with the curious
hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, after having most carefully
purified it with a lighted torch, an ^g, and sulphur/
Nor was the mystic chest absent, for * another priest
carried a chest containing the secret utensils of this stu-
pendous mystery/ ' Some of the sacred boats or arks
contained the emblems of life and stability, which, when
the veil was drawn aside, were partially seen ;' * and, as
Mr. Cox well notes, * these ships, chests, or boats, are the
kistai mustikai of the Mysteries,* and we see them in the
chest or coffin of Osiris.** One suggested derivation of
the name Thebai is tebah, a box or chest, the name given
to Noah's ark, the Kibotos of the LXX. ; so that in this
connection the Phoenician city, whose kosmogonic char-
acter has already been alluded to,^ becomes ' an image of
the mighty world,' of the kosmic egg itself, and is thus a
suitable abode for the cult of the manifold and all-animat-
ing Dionysos. But whether presented in the form and
under the symbol of chest or coffin, ark or egg, ship or

1 Afythol, of the Aryan Nations, ii. ^ Sir G. Wilkinson in Rawlinson's

118. Herodotus, u. 86,

« Cooper, Serpent Myths of An^ * Vide inf VI. i. 1.
dent B^ffit, 41 ; Of. Funereal MUual, * Mythol, of the Aryan Nations, ii.

xcriii. 119, Note.

* De Asino Aureo, lib. xi. ^ Sup, IV. ilL 1.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 195

boat, and whethet in connection with a male or female
divinity, the idea is one and the same. XJasar or Diony-
sos, as Erikepeios the vital force and life-heat of the vast
visible world, acted upon by the infinite creating power,
burst the egg of darkness and chaos, and produced in
grand procession the generation of heaven and earth and
all things animate and inanimate. Darkly, and indeed
sensuously, the myth throughout all its concealments and
obscurity endeavours confusedly to set forth the subhme
truth that ' In the beginning God created the heavens and
the earth. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face
of the waters,' that is, brooded dove-Uke over them,* the



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