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simile being taken from a bird in the state of incubation.^
* The terms used depicting the attitude convey to us, with
the most vivid delineation and colouring, that Godlike
love was the motive power,'® that Love, or Heavenly
Eros, which, * rejoices in its works.' * There is yet
another symbol of this multiform chest, i.e. the mystic
Kalathos, or Ba^jket of Demeter the AU-mother,* which
was carried in the Eleusinian Mysteries, and which re-
appears in the hands of Assyrian divinities.*

Vm. They are both connected with ivy. — ^As the gods
of life and immortality, Uasar and Dionysos are connected
with * ivy never sere.' ^ Ivy, Diodoros tells us, is called in
the Egyptian language * Osiris plant.' ^ But it is to be
observed that ' ivy is not a plant of the Nile,' and Sir G.
Wilkinson remarks that * wreaths and festoons of ivy, or
rather of the wild convolvulus or of the Periploca seca-
money often appear at Egjrptian f&tes.' ^ The connection be-
tween Dionysos and ivy has been already sufficiently noticed.

1 Of. IkGlton, Par. Lost, i. 20. ^ The shape of the leaf, in which

* Of. Bey. R G. 8. Browne, The some discern a phallic emblem, has
Mosaic Cogmogonff, 25. been suggested as another link be-

* Ibid. 26. tween them and the plant.

* Of. i^. dv. 31. « Diod. i. 17 j cf. Plout Peri Is.
^ Cf. Eallim. ^mnoa eis Bern. xxzvii.

* Vide inf. VIII. ii. Jar. • Rawlinson, Serodotus, ii. 74.

2



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196 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

DL They are both the youngest of the gods. — ^Accord-
ing to the legend in Diodoros, the inscription on a stele of
Uasar ran, * My father is Kronos [Seb], the youngest of all
the gods, aiwi I am Osiris the king.' ^ ' The Greeks
regard Hercules, Bacchus, and Pan as the youngest of the
gods/ ^ Uasar is the head of the third and last Order of
Kamic divinities, and his son Har is represented as the
last god-king of Kam. •

X. They <Lre both peculiarly connected with spotted
animals and garments. — Diodoros, as already noticed,
mentions that the spotted faun-skin of Uasar was con-
sidered to be symbolical of the stars.* He also says that
the secoad Dionysos was said to have worn a panther's
skin.* ' The thyrsus,' remarks Sir G. Wilkinson, ' is
shown by Plutarch to be the staff, often boimd by a fillet,
to which the spotted skin of a leopard is suspended near
the figure of Osiris; for it is the same that the high priest,
clad in the leopard-skin dress, carries in the processions.'*
Similarly the shrines of the gods, when in procession
'were fittended by the chief priest, or prophet, clad in
the leopard-skin.'^ The divine bull Hapi^ appears also
to have been at times represented as spotted.^ The spots,
their astral connection, and association with suffering,
point to an origin in the Mesopotamian Valley, where we
find a representation of a divinity bearing the Bakchik
branch and the spotted faim,^ whose tearing in pieces was
symbolical of the rending asimder of Uasar.^^

XL They are both vinal divinities. — Thus Uasar is
said to have introduced and nurtured the vine," as ' the

* Diod. i. 27. • Rawlinson, fferodottu, ii. 86.
« Herod, ii. 145; cf. c 62. ' Apis.

» Diod. i. 11 ; cf. «ip. II. iii. 8; » Of. Kitto, Btb. Cffdcp., i. 368.

I^out Peri 1$, xxxv. ' Brit Mus. Nimroud Gallery.

* Diod. iv. 4. '<> Sup. IV. iii. 8; vide inf. VIIL
^ Rawlinsoiiy Herodotus, ii. 74 ; ii. l^itoU.

cf. Wilkinson, Ancient Egypiians, " Diod. i. 16.
iv. 341, 36a



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 197

Offspring of Semele discovered the liqxiid stream of the
grape.' ^ Wine, it may be observed, has several aspects
in a Dionysiak connection. Thus it has a phallic aspect,
as a stimulant ; and a kosmogonic and pantheistic aspect,
as connected with blood the life and life-power of the
world. Ploutarchos^ notices a strange Kamic legend
that the vine sprang from the blood of some who had
fought against the gods, and that intoxication rendered
men confused and irrational because they were thereby
filled with the blood of their ancestors. Wine becomes
a fitting sacrifice to Dionysos the martyr divinity of life-
heat, whose blood was shed to benefit the world. Thus
it by no means follows that even the Wine-god should be
only a patron of innocent, or boisterous and unmeaning,
rustic merriment.*

Xn, They are both tauric divinities. — ^TJasar and Uasi
being inseparable and even identical, as male and female
symbols of the same idea, the characteristics and adjuncts
of the one in reality appertain equally to the other. As
TJasi is habitually represented with horns, we should fi:'om
that circumstance alone be justified in regarding this form
as connected with Uasar, and in hct he is at times thus
pourtrayed."* Again, Uasar is a tauric god on account of
his connection with the sacred bull Hapi, who ' was bon\
of a cow mysteriously impregnated by lightning descend-
ing from heaven. The divine bull was not allowed to
live more than a determined number of years, and at the
end of that time if he did not die a natural death he was
killed. The dead Apis was embalmed and deposited in
the magnificent caves of the temple called by the Greeks
'* the Serapeum." He then became the object of a new
worship. By the very fact of his death, he had become

> Eur. Bak. 278. * Bunsen, Effyp^s Hace, i. pi. 5,

' Feri Is. vi. ^. 4.

' Vide inf. IX. ii. Theoinos,



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198 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

assimilated with Osiris, the god of the Lower- world, and
received the name of Osir Hapi, converted by the Greeks
into Serapis/ ^ * The living Apis was called the Hapi-
anch or ** Living Apis ; " he was the second life or incarna-
tion of the god Ptah supposed to be visibly present in
I^ypt At his death he was canonised, and became the
Osor-Hapi or " Osirian," that is deceased Apis. This word
the Greeks made Serapis, but the types of the Greek
and Egyptian deities were always distinct, Serapis being
represented in the form and with the attributes of Pluto
or Hades;* Osor-Hapi was figured either as a bull or
a man vnth a btUTs head.' * Another remarkable figure
in the tauric group of the Kamic Pantheon is Hat^har,*
* ei-t^Hor, Horns' mundane habitation, often substituted
for Isis.'* * She ordinarily appears with the cow's head,
wearing the sun's disk between the horns. Even when
represented in the human form she is rarely without the
sun and horns.' • Hat-har and Uasi are in reality iden-
tical.^ Each of them is the mother of Her-her, Aniens
or Horos the Strong,^ and also of Har, Horos the Yoimger,
Her-pa-chrut, Harpokrates, or Horos the Child ; each of
them is the cow-horned, kosmic, goddess mistress of
Amenti, the Lower-world, and each of them is called
par excellence Maut, the Mother.^ The primitive Kamites,
according to a legend preserved in Diodoros, thought that
there were two eternal divinities the Sun, Osiris or
Dionysos, and the Moon, Isis, who accordingly is repre-

1 Lenormant, And. Hist, of the like the Bacchautes ' {Ibid. 446).

JEast, i. 326. . * Athor.

* Of. Plout. Peri Is. xxviii. * Sir G. WiUdnson in Rawlinson'a

' Dr. Birch in Bunsen's EgypCs Herodotus, ii. 347.

Place, i. 446. ' The solemnities at ® Bunsen, Bgyp^s Place, i. 413.

the burial of Apis were entirely ' Of# Peri Is. Ivi. Ixix. ; Bunsen,

Bacchic. It is true that the priests Bgyp6s Place, L 433.

did not wear the deer-skin (n^tris), ^ Ibid. ^0.

but they wore the panther-skin, * Of. Sharpo, Egyptian Mythology,

carried staves like thyrsus-staves, and 6.

cried out and convulsed themselves



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 199

sented as horned, and also because the ox was sacred to
her.* According to the legend preserved by Ploutarchos,
when Horos, enraged with his mother, tore the crown
fix)m her head, Hermes ^ placed an ox-headed helm on
her brow.* The moon was called by the Kamites * Mother
of the Kosmos,* * an excellent illustration of the kosmo-
gonic character of Uasi. * But according to the monu-
ments the Egyptian moon' is always masculine.'* But
the koemic Uasi, identical with the male Uasar, is Uke
Adonis * male and female,' a ' two-natured lakchos ' or
Dionysos.^ Uasi and Hat-har aq kosmogonic goddesses
might therefore be connected with the moon, as the kosmo-
gonic Uasar is with the sun, without interfering with or
unduly impinging on Ka-Hehos, the Sun-god, or the
mysterious Aah, the Moon-god, who seems to be con-
nected with Tet.* Uasar thus stands at the head of a
complete group of tauric Kamic divinities, all most closely
connected with him and with each other. Another im-
portant horned, but non-tauiik member of the Kamik
Pantheon is Khnum, the ram-headed god of Apt, Tape,
Thaba, Thebai, the * Head ' or * Capital,' ^ No-Ammon, or
Thebes. The Hellenes and Eomans confounded together
the two primal gods of Apt,^^ Amen and Khnum, con-
sidering each of them as Zeus, Jupiter, and the combined
divinity is the ' contortis comibus Ammon.' Homed ser-
pents were kept in what Herodotos calls the temple of
Zeus at Apt, and were buried in it, being sacred to the
god.^^ According to a Euemeristic legend preserved in
Diodoros, Ammon was a king of Libye and the sire of

> Diod. i. 11. Culturef ii. 271 et seq,

2 Tet-ThoUi. • Bunsen, J^t/p^s Place, i. 420.

» Peri Is. xix. ; cf. ibid. lii. ' Sup. II. iii. 5.

< Ibid. xliiL » Of. Bunsen, Egt^'s Place, i. 407.

^ Like the Phrygian M^n, and the ^ Rawlinaon, iterodotvSf ii. 3.

Kaldean Moon-god, Sin or Ilurki, »« Of. Herod, ii. 42.

and the lunar divinities of yarioufi ' *• Ibid, il 74.
savage tribes. Cf. Tylor, Primilioc



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200 THE GREAT DIONTSIAK HTTH«

Dionysos.^ The horned divinities are thus brought into
contact. Diodoroa also notices that Sabazios, whom he
calls a more ancient DionysoB, and the son of Zeus and
Persephone, and who, as we have seen,' is identical with
Dionysos, and whose sacreds and sacrifices were in secret
and at night, yoked oxen, and was therefore represented
with homs.^ The homed and taiuic Dionysos has already
been referred to.^ He sometimes appears on coins wit^
the horns of a bull or ranu' The general subject of
homed divinities will be subsequently noticed when con-
49idering the special phase of Dionysos as Taurokeros/

XML They are both solar divinities. — ^According to a
legend of the primitive Kamites there were two eternal
gods, Uasar the Sun, and Uasi the Moon, and Diodoros
tells us that ^ some of the ancient Hellenik mythologists
named Osiris Dionysos, and by a slight change of name
Seirios,' ^ the Hot-one, i.e. the Sun,^ not ' Ku6n Seirios,' ^
Sothis the Dog-star. According to the tale in Ploutarchos,^^
Uasar was the son of Helios, or Ea the Sun. * An eso-
terical explanation ' of his character * has been discovered
on a hieroglyphioal tablet in the Louvre. On this Osiris
is associated with the Sim, of which he is stated to be the
soul and body, the soul residing in the solar disk, the
body reposing in the r^on of Suten-khen,' ^^ or Bubastis.
Sol Inferus, the ' Subterranean Sun, especiaUy took the
name of Osiris.' ^' * The Sun, personified^ by Osiris, was
the foundation of the Egyptian Metempsychosis. From
a god who gave and preserved life, he had become a
retributive and saving god.' ^ Uasar, as the Sun of the

> Diod. iiL 68. " Of. Hes. J^g. ktd Hem., 416;

* Sup. sec. iL * Seirios Ast^.' ArchiL jFWi^. tIij

* Diod. iv. 4. • Ais. Ag. 967.

* Sup. rV. iii ; Plout Peri Is. ><> Peri Is. xii.

XXXV. " Dr. Birch inl^M^«i«oc«,L 488.

* Inf. VU. iii " Lenormaiit, Anct. Hist, of the

* JtwT. IX. iii. East, i. 320.

» Of. Rout. Peri Is. Iii. >» Ibid. 322.



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THE DiONtSOS OF HERODOTOS. 201

Under-world, is inseparably connected with his office as
the Judge of the Dead, a point of contact between the
two divinities which remains to be noticed. The Funereal
Bitual ^ describes how the Soul of the Uasarian, having
passed through the gates of Kerneter,' is filled with
wonder and delight by the majestic apparition of the sub-
terranean Sun, and exclaims, ^ Hail I Sun, Lord of the
sunbeams. Lord of eternity ! Hail I Sun, Creator, self-
created I Perfect is thy light in the horizon, illuminating
the world with thy rays I All the gods rejoice when they
see the Elng of Heaven/ The solar phase or aspect of
Dionysos has been already frequently referred to, and is
witnessed and illustrated by his many solar epithets. ' ^

JU.V. TTiey are both chthonian and telluric divinities.
— As r^ards Uasar, several distinct ideas combine to
produce this phase of character. He is chthonian (1)
as the sinking sun traversing and illuminating the Under-
world during the houra of darkness; (2) as the germ-
power of life and vitaHty buried in the earth, his mystic
chest or coffin, from which the vegetation of the world
springs according to the ordinary resurrection of nature ;*
(3) as Bhot-Amenti, King of the Under- world, and Judge
of the Dead who people the subterranean Amenti, Sheoul,
Hades;* (4) as the representative of the psychical ele-
ment, that soul of the world and of individual things
which is hidden and enclosed in the ' visible mantle ' of
materiality, as man's soul is in his body. And although
the simile prerogatives of Dionysos are, to a great extent,
usurped or rather obscured by other and Aryan divinities,
such as father Zeus, the far-darting ApoUon, Aidoneus,
and the shadowy Ehadamanthos, this latter personage

> Gap. XV. * Of. Plout Pert 1$. xv.; 1 Ow-.

» Hadee. xv. 86-38.

' Sup. n. iiL 2; mf. VIIL i., * Of. 1$. xiv. 0, 10; JBSb. xxxiL

iX. iv. ChyBopes. 18-32.



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202 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

being an Hellenik reflection of the great Kamic god, yet
he too, on analysis, appears as a chthonian and telluric
divinity for reasons similar to those which cause and illus-
trate this aspect of Uasar. Diouysos, as Erikepeios the
soul of kosmic life, is buried and concealed in the embrace
of the Earth-mother. As Adonis he is the Sun sinking to
Amenti, the chthonian region Df the West, and when there,
he is ' Zagreus the many-guest-receiving Zeus of the dead,'
before whose awful tribimal, as before that of Uasar, the
trembling mortal who has entered the regions of Kemeter,
must stand, that the * highest of all gods,' the natural Asso-
ciate of * Venerable Earth ' the Demeter or Uasi-power,
may pronounce on his dooni.^

Such, then, being some of the principal points of
resemblance between the two divinities, it is suflSciently
evident that they are too closely alike in character and in
cult to have developed independently as distinct concepts.
Either therefore one was borrowed from the other, or
they both must have originated from the same common
source. But it would be preposterous, as Herodotos was
well aware, to suppose that Kam was a borrower in the
transaction. Hellas, therefore, obtained her Dionysiak
Eitual, or its more remarkable features, either from £am,
or from some other foreign r^ion ; and if she imported
it from Kam, it was obtained either, according to the
opinion of Herodotos, many hundred years before his
time, or in a comparatively modem age subsequently
to the period when Psammetik the Great first, to some
extent, threw open the country to foreigners. That
many of its most remarkable features were introduced
into Hellenik regions in comparatively modem times is
the opinion of the greatest English historian of Greece.
Grote, after alluding to the obscurity of the subject,
observes, * We see enough to satisfy us of the general feet,

' Inf, IX. vi. /^greu*.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 203

that during the century and a half which elapsed between
the opening of i^ypt to the Greeks and the commence-
ment of their struggle with the Persian kings, the old
religion was largely adulterated by importations from
Egyptf Asia Minor, and Thrace/^ Dining this period
there may have been, and doubtless were, some religious
importations into Hellas from Asia Minor, and Thrake,
but what were those from Kam ? What Kamic divinity,
or what portion of the elaborate Kamic Eitual, was intro-
duced into Hellas by the rude and semi-barbarous Karian
and Ionian mercenaries who, somewhere about the year
B.C. 660, enabled Fsanmietik to overthrow the Dodek-
archy ? What single Kamic story or myth was carried
back across the Great Sea by the Hellenik citizens of
Naukratis, which was founded, or perhaps rather re-
founded, or enlarged,^ cir. B.C. 550, during the prosperous
reign of the Philhellene Aahmes,' and which was for
many years the only place in the country where Hellenes
were aJlowed to reside and trade ? * Amasis,' sap Hero-
dotos, *was partial to the Greeks, and among other
favours which he granted them, gave to such as hked to
settle in Egypt the city of Naukratis for their residence.' *
* la ancient times there was no factory but Naukratis in
the whole of Egypt ; and if a person entered one of the
other mouths of the Nile, he was obliged to swear that he
had not come there of his own free will,' * and take his
goods to Naukratis, * which had an exclusive privil^e.'
Grote well observes : ' It is the general tendency of
Herodotos to apply the theory of derivation from Egypt

> Hid. of Greece, L 28. near the coast Of. Herod ii. 97^

* Of. Bunsen, Egypti Fiace, iii. 179. Sir G. Wilkinson observes,

611, ^0. Bunsen considers that 'The exact position of Naukratis is

there was an Old Naukratis on the unknown.'

coast and a New Naukratis inland. ' Amasis.

1 do not see sufficient proof of this, * Herod, ii. 178.

and it is evident that the Naukratis ^ Ibid. 170.

of the time of Herodotos was very



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204. THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

far too extensively to Grecian institutions : the orgies of
Dionysos were not originally borrowed from thence^ diough
they may have been much modified by connexion with
Egypt/ ^ First, we are told that, during the period in ques-
tion, ' the old religion,' including, it is presumed, the cult of
Dionysos * wa^ largely adulterated by importations fix>m
Egypt ; * and next, we learn that the Dionysiak Bitual^
though not Kamic in origin, * may have been modified by
connexion with Egjrpt.' Of course, in the abstract, it may
have been so modified, but, as a fact, was it ? One Diony-
siak myth only is distinctly asserted by Grote, following
Lobeck, to have been borrowed from Nilotic r^ons.
* The remarkable mythe composed by Onomakritus re-
specting the dismemberment of Zagreus was founded
upon an Egyptian tale very similar respecting the body
of Osiris, who was supposed to be identical with Diony«
sus/ ^ ' It is distinctly stated by Pausanias that Onoma-
kritus was himself the author of the most remarkable and
characteristic mythe of the Orphic Theogony — ^the dis-
cerption of Zagreus by the Titans, and his resurrection as
Dionysus/® Let us examine this statement Onoma-
kritos the Athenian, B.C. 520-485, collected and arranged
or, as we should say, edited^ certain ancient verses tra-
ditionally attributed to Orpheus, Mousaios, and others;
and tradition also states, rightly or wrongly, that he to
some extent tampered with and made additions to them,
or to some of them. The statement of Pausanias to
which Grote refers is as follows : ' Homeros first intro-
duced the Titanes in his Poems. And Onomakritos
having received ftx>m Homeros the name of the Titanes
combined \i.e.^ put together in orderly manner] the
Dionysiak Eitual, and made out the Titanes to be the
authors of the sufferings of Dionysos.'*

» HiU. rf Greece, i. 32. ^ Ibid. » Ibid. 21. * Paus. viiL 27.



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THE DIONYSOS OF HERODOTOS. 205

Here the innovation of Onomakritos is evident. He
did not compose^ in the sense of inventing, the Dionysiak
Ritual, which had been in existence centuries before ; nor
did he invent the story of the sufferings of the god which,
as noticed,^ was sung at Sikyon more than a century at
least before his time. But he, according to the assertion
of Pausanias which may or may not be correct, j&rst
introduced the Titanes, who names had been handed
down from the time of Homeros,^ into the myth, and
described them as the murderers of Zagreus. Another
passage from Pausanias will further illustrate this subject.
^ Methapos was an Athenian, an arranger [Sunihetes^ as
opposed to PoieteSj a maker or author] of the celebration
of mjrsteries and of secret rites of all kinds. The same
man arranged for the Thebans the Ritual of the Kabei-
roi.' • Methapos, hke Onomakritos, was or pretended to
be an ecclesiastical expert ; and he was retained by the
Thebans to codify and set in order the foreign Kabeirik
Ritual of which they were ignorant.'* No one would
venture to assert that the obscure Methapos invented that
wonderfiil Kabeirik cult which was wide-spread along the
shores of the Eastern Mediterranean ages before his time.
Such was the office and position of men like Onomakritos
and Methapos ; they were simply rearrangers and re-
modellers, not inventors or even introducers, of great
dogmas and mystic rituals. Their tamperings (if any)
with the rehcs of antiquity were for poUtical, not religious,
pmrposes. Thus it is both possible and probable that
Onomakritos, who was an adherent of the Peisistratids,
may have forged an oracle or two to induce the Persian
king the more eagerly to invade continental Hellas ; * but
that he was ' a setter forth of strange gods,' or of new

» 8up. rV. iii. 8. * Vide m/. X. i.

« OLB. xiv. 279. » Of. Herod, vii. 6.

» Ftm. iv. 1.



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206 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

and startling theories about the gods, there is absolutely
no evidence whatever. Herodotos was firmly persuaded,
and with good reason, of the identity of Dionysos and
Uasar, and of the great antiquity of the Dionysiak cult in
Hellas. He was, moreover, well acquainted with the
sufferings of Uasar ; and also, both of necessity and as
appears from his notice of Kleisthenes and otherwise,
with those of Dionysos, for if Dionysos had never endured
sufferings he could not have been identical with Uasar.
Speaking of the circular lake at Sa,^ the god-feannff
historian writes : * On this lake it is that the Egyptians
represent by night his sufferings whose name I refrain
from mentioning, and this representation they call their
Mysteries. I know well the whole course of the proceed-
ings in these ceremonies, but they shall not pass my Ups.' *
Is it to be believed for a moment that the notion of the
sufferings of Dionysos Zagreus had been introduced into
Hellas from Kam little more than fifty years before the
time of the visit of Herodotos ? If such had been the
case, must he not have known of it, and how could this
most careful and truthful of historians have described as
having existed for centuries, t.^., since the remote era of
the mythical Melampous, that cult which, if sprung from
Onomakritos, would have been to him the child of
yesterday? Again, what connection is shown to have
existed between Onomakritos and Kamic regions ? Was
he ever there, and when, and what did he learn there ?
The priests told but very little to strangers.* It is
palpably evident that Herodotos, with all his painstaking
and advantages derived frx)m being on the spot, knew but
very little and fer less even than he supposed. But it is

' Sais. greatest of mysteries ; do not let the

' Herod, ii. 171. eye of any one see it; that is de-

' At the close of the Funereal testable. L»Eum it, hide it.'
Eitwd is written, < This Book is the



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THE DIONYSOa OP HERODOTOS, 207

tmnecessary to pursue the subject further. The only
specific myth or portion of Dionysiak Eitual which is
stated by Grote to have been introduced into Hellas from
Kam during the period in question, i.e.^ from the era of
Psammetik the Great to the visit of Herodotos, proves on
examination to have not been thus introduced ; and it is
idle to embarrass ourselves with attempts to support a
negative proposition such as, No religious rite was intro-
duced during this time. The theory, therefore, that the
Bitual or all its more remarkable features (for what is
left when the Semitic element is removed ?) was borrowed
from Kamic regions since the era of Psammetik, falls to
the ground for want of evidence in its favour, and as
being contrary to existing evidence.^ We are reduced,
therefore, to fall back upon the only two other possible
suppositions, either the Eitual was obtained from Kam in
very early, almost in prehistoric times, or it was obtained



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