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Dionysos, in whom, according to Pausanias, he placed
great confidence.^

V. At the birth of Athene. — Pallas stands on the head
of Zeus, and behind several other figures stands Dionysos,
holding the thyrsos, ivy-crowned, and with long hair and-
beard.^

VI. Conveyed by * Hermes to be brought up by the
Nymphs of NysaJ

Vn. With the Tyrrhenian pirates^ who are changed
into dolphins.^

Vni. With the golden amphora^ which he gave to
Thetis.^

IX. Discovering Ariadne, a constantly repeated sub-

> GerhtadtAuserlesene Vasenbilder. vide Poseidon, xxix.
n. ccvi. Vide inf. IX. vi. Zagreus. « Brit Museum, Vase Cat, No.

3 Horn. Hynrn. ei$ Bern. 228 et 741.
seq. ' D'HancarviUe, Vases, Orecs. iii.

^ Vase Cat. Noe. 466, 640, 717. 106 ; vide tnf. VIH. i. Nysios.

* Vide Birch. Anct. Pottery, 238. « Gerhard, Auserl. Vasen. PI.

* Paua. i. 20; cf. No.^ xxxi. Aa xlix. Vide tn/. VIII. ii. Dolphin.

to the Homerik distinction between * Francis Vase^Florence Museum ;

the hahitual dwelting-phice of Posei- cf. Od. zxiv. 74.
don and tliat of the Aryan divinities,



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332 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

ject, * On the older Vases this incident is depicted in the
most passionless way ; but on those of a later style, Dio-
nysos is introduced by Aphrodite and Eros to Ariadne,
who throws herself into his arms in the most graceful
manner.* ^

X. With Anadne at Naxos? — ^Dionysos and Ariadne
are sitting imder a bower formed by the vine and grape-
clusters ; he holds a thyrsos and kanthar, and she the
pearl-studded crown of gold, made by Hephaistos, given
her by Theseus, and placed by Dionysos in the sky ; a
tympanon or tambourine hangs from the tree to be taken
down at simset"*; when, imder the auspices of the allegorical
Pannychis or personified Night-time, who herself appears
on late Vases,^ the Naxian dance can continue until Acs
(Eos-Aurora) rises from the eastern sea with her dew-filled
urns.* Dionysos appears 'as on all monuments of a late
time, of a youthful form.' Eros flying, bears a fillet or
girdle, * emblem of nuptial and amorous concerns.'^
The girdle, both plain and also dotted or spotted, very
frequently appears on the Vases, and always in scenes more
or less erotic.^

XI. With Ariadne^ in a deer-drawn chariot.''

XII. With Ariadne^ in quadriga.^

XIII. As Dionysos Pekkys on winged car with a^e.^
— The rare and singular representation of Dionysos on a
winged car Hke that of Triptolemos, and armed with the
sacred axe or hatchet, pelekys^ is an occult illustration of
the spirit of kosmic life in his grandest manifestation as
the Storm-god; the axe is the thunderbolt, and the winged

» Birch, Ancient PoUery, 238. • Vide Millingen, And. lined,

^ Millingen, Anct, lined. Mans, Mons. Pb. xii. xxxv. ; Christie, Dia-

Pl. xxvi. mtmtionB upon the Painted Greek

' Birch, Ancient Pottery ^ 260. Vases, 04). xiii. ; inf. VIII. ii. ^kOs,
^ Vide Millingen, And, lined, '' BrongniAit, TraiU C6ramique,

Mans. PL vi. ; cf. Soph. Antig. 1162. « Gerhard, Auserl. Vasen, PL liL

* Millingen, And. lined. Mans. » Ibid. PL xli.

07 J c£ Od. xi. 246.



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DIONYSOS IN ART. 333

car symbolizes its swift descent. Mr. Evans ^ has col-
lected the fects and authorities in illustration of the
ancient belief, ' semper, ubique, et ab omnibus,* that the
celts and adzes or stone chisels were thunderbolts. Thus
in the Eig-Veda we read : * Whet, strong Indra, the
heavy red weapon against the enemies. May the axe
[thunderbolt] appe^ar with the light 1 ' Thus, too, in
various European coimtries the celts are called * thunder-
axes/ * pierre de tonnerre,' * tonderkiler,' ' tordensteen,'

* donnerkeile,' ' thorskeile,' * donderbeitels,' or thunder
chisels ; and similar names prevail in Portugal, Brazil,
Greece, Java, Burmah, West Africa, and various other
coimtries. The Sioux, a tribe of North American Indians,

* among their varied fancies about thimder birds and the
like, give unusually well a key to the great thunderbolt
myth which recurs in so many lands. They consider the
lightning entering the ground to scatter there in all
directions thunderbolt stones, which are flints, etc., their
reason for this notion being the very rational one, that
these siUceous stones actually produce a flash when
struck.' * Mr. F. C. Lukis ^ gives an instance of a flint
celt having been foimd on the spot where a signal staff
had been struck by lightning, and which was proved to
have been the bolt, by its peculiar smell when broken/ *

* It was from a hatchet that, according to Plutai-ch, Jupiter
Labrandeus received that title ; ^ and M. de Longperier
has pointed out a passage, from which it appears that
Bacchus was, in one instance, at all events, worshipped
under the form of a hatchet' ^ This circumstance also
sufficiently appears from the Vase in question ; and Mr.
Evans notices that on a Kaldean cylinder an offering is
made to the hatchet enthroned, and that the Kamic

^ Ancient Stone Implements of in Caria held in his hand the hattle-

Great Britain^ 61 et seq. axe, instead of thunder ' (R P. Knight,

« Tvlor, Primitive Cuit. ii. 238. Worship of Priapus, 68). See ^,

' lielifwtn/y viii. 208. Coins of 'ifenedos atd Thyatira.

* Anctent Stone ImpiementSf 61. • Ancient Stone Implements^ 64.



^ ' The statue of JupiteratLabranda



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334 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

hieroglyphic for god, Nouter,^ is the figure of an axe.
Mr. Evans and M. Lenormant consider that the flint-axes
were venerated on account of their antiquity, the latter
remarking, * Aussi est-ce k la hache de pierre que se sent
attaches, plus tard le plus grand nombre de superstitions,
parce que son origine par le travail de Thomrae ^tait com-
pletement oubli^/ Their high antiquity gives them a
religious character with many nations. * On les recueillait
pr^ieusement, et on leur attribuait niille propri^t^ mer-
veilleuses et magiques, croyant qu'elles torabaient du ciel
avec la foudre. Au t^moignage de Pline on distinguait
les cerauniae^ qui, d'apr^s sa description meme sont des
pointes de fleches, et les betuli^ qui sont des haches.' ^ The
stones were used as talismans, and were supposed to pos-
sess medicinal virtues ; they were preservatives against
lightning and sweated at storms. The fortunate owner
would ' Fear no more the lightning's flash, nor the all-
dreaded thunder-stone.' Nor does this use seem to be
entirely discarded at the present time, for Mr. Halliwell
notes that in West Cornwall ' rheumatism is attempted to
be cured by a " boiled thunderbolt " ; in other words, a
boiled celt, supposed to be a thunderbolt. This is boiled
for hours, and the water then dispensed to rheumatic
patients.'^ These ' living stones ' appear in the Phoenician
mythology of Sanchouniathon, and fonn the wall of the
wondrous Thebai, mother-city of the Bakchai.^ With the
origin of the celt-betyls we are not concerned, but their
connection with Dionysos shows at once the antiquity and
Oriental character of his cult.

XTV. Drawn by Gryphons^ — I am not aware that any
other Hellenik divinity except Dionysos is represented on
the Vases as drawn by gryphons, ' the dogs of Zeus that

» Natr. Bunsen, Egyp^B FUice, v. ' RafnbUs in Westet-n Cornwall ,

448. 205.

* Les P/'emihres CiviUsattanSy i. * Paus. ix. 5, 17.

170-1. " Pa«*eri, Hd. Et. PL clx.



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DIONYSOS IN ART. 335

never bark,' ^ which are a thoroughly Asiatic concept ;
and although Apollon appears riding on a gryphon,^ it is
only when his cult has been introduced by arbitrary
fancy into the blessed regions of the Hyperboreans
beyond the bitter north wind. Numerous Vases represent
contests between the Amazons, who are said to have
originally Uved near the Kaukasos and migrated thence
to the banks of the Thermodon in Western Pontos, and
the Gryphons.^ But their most famous legendary foes are
the one-eyed Arimaspoi,* who tried to despoil them of
the gold which they guarded, and who inhabited the
north-east of the Herodotean world. So Milton writes, —

As when a gryphon thro' the wildemess
With winged course, o'er hill or moory dale.
Pursues the Arimaspian, who by stealth
Had from his wakeful custody purloin'd
The hoarded gold ; so eagerly the fiend.

— Par. Lost, book ii.

The Anmaspeiay an epic poem attributed to Aristeas
of Prokonnesos, a poet hidden in nebulous fable, ' treated
in three books of the affairs of the Arimaspians, with
the history and geography of the GriflSns, guardians of the
golden harvest, and of their wars against the Arimaspians, in
defence of the sacred treasure.^ The Arimaspians were
described as a race of Scytho-Cyclops, or one-eyed barba-
rians, covered with hair ; the GriflBins as lions in body, with
the bead and wings of eagles.' ^ ' The griffin has been
found as an ornament in Scythian tombs, the drawing,
however, being Greek. It was the special emblem of
Panticapaeum [Kertch], and is often met with on the
coins. The Greek griffin is curiously like the Perse-

> Ala. From, 803. Herod, iv. 27.

» Brit. Mus. Vase Cat. No. 934. * Of. Herod, iii. 116; Paus. i. 24.

» Ibid. Noil. 1308, 1393-4. « Mure, Hist, of Greek Literature,

* Arima, one, and spu, the eye, ii. 470.



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336 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

politan, and both are apparently derived from the winged
Uon of the Assyrians.'^ In Kam the Asiatic god Set,
who is represented amongst other forms as a gryphon,
was called Nub, or Nubti, which ' means the *' Golden *' or
"Gold God." It is curious, though not conclusive, to
compare this Gryphon form of Set with the Hyperborean
legends of gryphons which guarded the gold.'^ The
palace of Skylas, king of Skythia, was ornamented with
gryphons carved in white marble ; ^ and gryphons are said
to have been spotted Uke leopards,* a further link between
them and Dionysos. The contests of tlie Gryphons and
Arimaspoi are also depicted on the Vases of Pantikapeion.*^
In Assyria the Gryphon appears at times to have been
hostile to the gods, and Canon Kawlinson observes, * We
can scarcely be mistaken in r^arding as either an evil
genius, or a representation of the evil principle, the mon-
ster, half-lion half-eagle, w^hich in the Ninu'od sculptures
retreats from the attacks of a god, who assails him with
thunderbolts.'^ The Gryphon thus belongs to the valleys
of the Nile and the Euphrates, and to the mountains of
Asia ; and in the example before us the Eastern god is
car-drawn by the Eastern monster, who, hostile no longer,
is subdued by the thunderbolts of Dionysos Pelekys. The
Gryphon plays a very important rdle in heraldry and in
mediaeval myth. The Kaldean ' dragon of the sea ' ' is
generally conceived of as a griflSn.' ^ * The form of this
creature, as given on the gems, is that of a griffin or
dragon, generally with a head like a carnivorous animal,
body covered with scales, legs terminating in daws, Uke
an eagle, and wings on the back. Our own heraldic

' Rawlinson, Herodottu, iii. 20. * Birch, Ancient Pottery, 432.

* Dr. Birch, in Bimsen's EgypfB • Ancient Monarchies, ii. 81. This
nace, i. 439. Vide inf, VIII. ii. scene is now known as Bel and the
Gryphon, Dragon.

' Herod, iv. 79. ^ Qqo^ Smith, Chaldean Accowitof

* Pans. viii. 2. Genesis, 87.



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THK (;kyi^ih»n in in:hMAii.



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DIONTSOS IN ART. 337

grifiSns are so strikingly like the sculptures of this creature
that we might almost suspect them to be copies from
the Chaldean works/ ^ Sir John Mandeville reports of
* Bactrie, " In this Land are many GriflSns, more than in
other places, and some say they have the Body before as
an Eagle, and behind as a Lion, and it is true, for they are
made so: but the GrifBn hath a body bigger than 8
Lions and stronger than 100 Eagles, for certainly he will
bear to his nest flying a Horse and a Man upon his Back,
or two Oxen yoked together as they go to plow, for he
hath long nails upon his feet as great as horns of oxen,
and of those they make Cups to drink with/' ' ' Sportive
HeUenik art manufectured gryphon-terminated drinking-
cups.

XV. On a Panther.^

XVI On the ass Eraton} — ^The Dionysiak Ass Eraton,
the Beloved, is another of the countless links between the
god and the Semitic East, the animal having been in very
early times unknown to the Aryans. ' It was introduced
to the Aryans of Persia,' remarks M. Lenormant, 'by
the Semites of Mesopotamia ; thence it passed over into
India, always retaining its Semitic name, proof whence
it sprung. Among the Greeks the ass has been introduced
by a nation speaking a Semitic tongue, probably by the
Phoenicians.'^ The Kamic gryphon-god Set was also the
ass-god.^

XVn. On a bulU

XVni. On a ram vnih Hermes.^

1 Geo. Smithy Chaldean Account No. 690).
of Genetii, 90. » Premihe$ ChUiBatioM, L d20.

» Travela, Ixviii. • Vide w/. Vni. ii. Ass.

' Millin. v. i. 60. '' Gerhard, Auterl Vasen, PI.

* Tiflchbein, Vases Qrhcs, ii. 42. zlyii. Vide inf, IX. iii. Tauro-

Another Vase repreeents Dionysos heros,

riding on the ara between two aym-^ ^ Ibid. ArchSohgischo Zeitung.
bolical eyes (Brit. Mus. Vase Cat,

Z



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338 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH,

XIX. On a camel^ as the subduer of India} — ^ffis beard
ifi long and dress spotted ; attendant Mainads bear tam-
bourines and male followers thjo'sosHspears. *At Mr.
Beckford's sale the late Duke of Hamilton gave 200/. for
a small Vase with the subject of the Indian Bacchus/*

XX. In orgiastic state^ teanng a kid} — ^He holds the
two halves of the kid he has just torn asunder : hair
ivy-crowned and long, as is his beard; a panther-skin
knotted around his neck.

XXI. Dancing vnA a Baehche — ^He is bearded, and
both are clothed in the spotted bassaris^

XXn. Warring with the Indians}
XXTTT. At the marriage of Thetis}
XXrV. presenting the vine?

XXV. Teaching Oinopion to make trnW * — The god
is long-haired, bearded, and ivy-crowned; in his right
hand he gives the kanthar to Oinopion, and in his left
holds four vine-branches.

XXVI. Visiting Althaia. — ^A comic scene.^
XXVn. Received by Ikarios, an Athenian, who,

according to the myth, wefcomed him on his first arrival
in Attike.i^^

XXVlii. As the inventor of Tragedy }^ — ^The god, as in
later representations, is youthful and beardless, and holds
in his left hand a tragic mask : Nike crowns him with a
wreath, and behind her stands Pan, youthful, beardless,
and with little horns on his forehead, caressing the Ijmx
or Wryneck. This mysterious bird of love was peculiarly



' Birch, Andent FctUry, 438. • Brit Mus. Vase Cktt. No. 811.

Vide mf, IX. vii. Indoktee. » Passeri, Pict. JSt. PL cciv.

« Ancient Pottery^ 437. * Brit Mus. Vase Cat. No. 654.

» Brit Mus. Va$e Cat. No. 788. » Brit Mus. Vaee Cat. No. 1438.

Videtn/. IX. vi. Zaareua. '« Ibid. Nob. 665, 677; cf. Paus,

* Kirk, HamiUon'e Vasee, PI. i. 23.

Ivii. ; cf. No. XLIX. >i Brit. Mus. Vaee Cat. No. 1293.

» Revuf ArchSoloffique, 1863, 348.



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DIONYSOS IN ART. 339

connected with the Semitic Aphrodite and with Adonis.

So Pindaros : —

The Cyprian queen, whose hand
Points the resistless arrow, from above
Her mystic lynx brought, the maddening Bird of Love/

Ijrnx, according to onel^end, was a daughter of Pan,
who therefore is represented on the Vase in question as
caressing her. She is also said to have been the daughter
of Echo, or of Peitho (Persuasion), and to have been
changed into a bird by Here, for having aided the loves
of Zeus and lo.^ Another Vase • represents Adonis hold-
ing out the lynx in his right hand to Aphrodite, who is
seated. The bird, which was so named fix)m its cry, is
described by the Scholiast as hairy, with a long neck and
tongue, and possessing the power of rotating its head and
neck. It is also said to have been tied to a wheel and
whirled round to assist amorous incantations. * There
exists an ancient picture of the magic wheel, formed by
fixing the bird by the extremities of its neck, tail, and
two wings at equidistant points within a circle, of which
it thus constitutes the spokes.' * Pindaros calls it * pied,'
an epithet which, as applied to birds, corresponds with
' spotted,' which is appropriate to beasts only, and this
forms a link in its Dionysiak character. * Damis,' records
Philostratus, *saw four lynges suspended from the ceiling
of the Parthian King Bardanes, which was covered wili
lapis-lazuli, embossed with figures of the gods in gold.' ^
Bearded in the Aryan aspect of the story, Ij^x, daughter
of Pan, the purifying Breeze, or of Echo, is the free love-
lorn wind of night that shrouds lo the Moon from * great
Here's angry eyes,' while the Aigicide slays the ever-
watchfid guardian. But the wild bird of love, in Hellas

* Pyth. iv. 214. * King, Antique Oems and Emgs,

« Schd. in Find. Nem. iv. i. 381.

» Brit Mus. Vase Cat. No. 1366. » Ibid.

z2



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340 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

identified with the wryneck, is also Semitically connected
with the myth of Astarte-Semiramis of Askalon, the
dove-nurtured ^ and voluptuous,* that Sammuramit who
was changed into a dove, * Semiramis in columbam,' * a
bird sacred to Aphrodite, and whose nature was supposed
to be shewn in its name ; and hence belongs to the cycle
of the Syrian Adonis,* who is identical with Dionysos.
* On a beautiful Etruscan gold ring, a winged Venus,
seated upon a myrtle-twined altar, holds forth by the tip
of its wings this wonder working-bird.' ^ Psyche Breath,
is Anima the Soul, the true bride of Eros-Cupido ; and the
cluster of soul-words, spiritus, animus the mind, anima
air, thyella storm wind, and thymus the soul, are from
roots which in Sanskrit mean to blow, rush, and shake ; ^
and Platon truly says, in the Kratylo.% that the soul is so
called * from its raging and seething.' The soul, ' the seat
of the passions,' is thus depicted as the disturbed air
troubled by joy or sorrow ; and the transition in idea to
the bird, and thence to the soul-bird, and the bird of
passion, is most easy if not necessary, for 'passionate
music is wind music,' ^ and the bird ' is the air incarnate.' ®
So the soul and soul-passion are represented as a bird. In
Kam, the Ba or Soul, ' for Bai is the Soul,' ^ was repre-
sented by a hawk with human head and arms ; ^^ and
when in the Funereal Eitual the exhausted Uasarian
recruits his failing energies with the water of life supplied
by the goddess Nii, while he drinks his soul depicted as a
hiunan-headed bird, ' the usual emblem of the soul,' ^^
drinks eagerly with him.^* And the human soul-bird is

» Of. Olem. Protrept. ii. S9 ; ' The ' Quem of the Air, i. 41.

Syrians who inhabit Phaenicia, of * Ihid, 43.

whom some revere doves.' ® HorapoUon. i. 7.

» Diod. ii. 4. ><» Buneen, Egypt's Place, v. 136.

* Ovid. ATe^am. iv. 47. " Lenorman^ Ancient Hist, of the

* ApoUod. Frag. xix. Easty L 311.

• King, Antiqtue Gems, 361. ** Cooper, Serpent Myths of Ancient

• Of. Cox, MytJtol. of the Aryan Egypt, 43.
Nations, i. 31.



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DIONYSOS IN ART. 341

accompanied, in Kamic idea, through the Under-world
by the divine soul-bird, the Bennu-Phoinix, who *i8
Oteiris,' ^ ' We see sometimes on a sarcophagus the soul
figured by a human-headed hawk, holding in its claws
the two ring symbols of eternity, and beneath, as an em-
blem of the new life reserved for the deceased, the rising
sun,' ^ * the great Bennu which is in Annu ' ^ or Helio-
polis, the City of the Sun. And the idea of the soul-
bird is found equally in Hellas. Thus on a Vase * repre-
senting the death of Prokris, the departing soul hovers
over the body in the form of a human-headed bird.^ The
soul flies in all religions. Thus the Assyrian prayer for a
sick man is, ' May his soul fly up to heaven. Like a bird,
may it fly to a lofty place.' ^ . So the bird of passion held
out by Adonis to Aphrodite is the infinitely-yearning soul,
* greatest of things created,' ^ eager to fly as a bird to its
moimtain ; ' the soul of the turtle-dove,' as the Hebrew
poet expresses it, longing to flee away, and be at rest
with the beloved object, the all-conquering and all-per-
suading, lynx, daughter of Peitho. In Neo-Platonism the
lynges are apparently regarded as being somewhat equiv-
alent to the Platonik ideas, and we are informed that
they constituted the first division of the * Intellectual
Triad.' The Pseudo-Zoroastres states that : —

The lynges, objects of perception themselves, perceive from the

Father,
Being moved by ineffable counsels so as to perceive.®

XXIX. Allied mtli Poseidon.^

XXX. With the Eleusinian Goddesses^ Demeter and
Kore.^<>

1 FunerealHittuU, xvii. ^ JPunereal BituaLrx,

« Lenormant, Ancient Btst, of the ® Frag. liv. apud Oory.

East, i. 321. ' Funereal lifttuu,xyu, ^ Lenormant and De Witte, Elite

* Brit. Mu8. Vase Cat, No. 1269. des Monumem C^amographtques^
A Millingen, Anc. Uned, Monuments, iii. 4.

PI. xiv. ><> Birch, Anct, Pottery, 232. Vide

• Trans, Sac, Bib. Archaeol, ii. 29. sup, VI. ii. 2, 3.



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342 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

XXXT. With Hephaistos^ who ascends to heaven at
his instigation.^ Another Vase represents Hephaistos re-
turning to heaven on the Dionysiak ass.*

XXXII. As lakchos} — * Sometimes he is presented
mider the form of lacchos.' *

XXXTTT, ' With Eumolpua and Iaccho8:^^WX!^eu,
incorrectly, states that the figure of the mystic lakchos,
whom he vainly attempts to distinguish from Dionysos,
was imknown,^

XXX IV. Pursuing Ariadne.''

XXXV. In a galley-shaped car.^ — ^Dionysos, seated in
the centre of the car, holds an overshadowing vine ; at
each end of the car sits a satyr, playing on the double
flute ; the galley terminates at the prow with a boar's,
and at the stem with a goose's, head. Dr. Birch remarks
that * the sacred ship of Dionysos ' was one of the religious
matters represented on the Vases.*

XXXVI. Female offering a goat to Dionysos Stylos^ or
the Pillar.^^ — ^'The most remarkable and evident [religious]
incidents represented are the offerings to Aphrodite,
sacrifices to Hermes, to Dionysos Stylos, Phallen, or Peri-.
kionios.' ^^

XXXVII. Dionysos with PanP — ^The god, seated in a
chair, holds his thyrsos ; Pan, with two goat's horns stands,
before him, holding the two-handled cup.

XXXVm. With Briachos and Erophylle}^— The ivy-
crowned Dionysos stands in the centre, his long hair flow-
ing down his back, and clustered in curls on the forehead
in imitation of grape bunches, according to the fashion

» Birch, Anct, Pottery, 235. « Brft. Mus. Vase Cat. No. 687.

> Brit. Mu8. Vaee Cat. No. 527. • Anct. Pottery, 277. Vide inf.

' Archdologitche Zeitwng, 1848, VIII. ii. Boat.

220. »<> Kirk, HamOton's Vaees, PI xv.

* Birch, Anct. Pottery, 237. Vide mf. sec. ii.

* Ihid. 242. " Birch, Am^. Pottery, 277.

« Anct. Uned. Mans. 6. »« Brit Mus. Vase Cat. No. 154a

7 Vide Birch, Anct. PoUery, 238. >» Ibid. Na 790.



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DIONYSOS m ART. 343

bostrychoeides ; his beard is long and pointed ; he wears
an embroidered peplos over a tunic, and holds the
kanthar in his right hand : Erophylle advances towards
him, holding in her right hand a snake with raised head
and darting tongue, and in her left a branch: behind
Dionysos is the Satyr Briachos, gathering grapes from the
vine-branch on the god's shoulder.

XXXTX. With KomoSj Ariadney and Tragoidia}

XL. With the symbolical eyes? — ^The head of the god,
with full face, long hair, beard, and vine branches appears
between the two eyes, symbols of the nocturnal and diur-
nal sun, itself a type of tiie sentient soul of the world.
In Kam the symbolic eye is sometimes represented as
held by an ape.*

XTiT. With the spotted snaked — ^The god in the centre
boimds along, brandishing in his right hand the spotted
snake, and in his left the thyrsos; he is ivy-crowned,
timic-dad, with hair and beard in ringlets, and wears
panther-skin buskins, endromidesy reaching to the knee :
the Mainad Oreithyia accompanies, a panther-skin de-
pending from her shoulders.

XTiTT. In the faun-skin.^ — ^The god stands between
two Satyroi, and stretches out his arms, from each of
which hangs a faun>skin; the skirt of his tunic is en-
circled with a row of dots.

Among other Vases relating to the Dionysiak Cycle
are: —

XTTTT- A very fine kanthar from Melos ; subject a
Bakche, with Oriental robes and thyrsos-spear, surrounded
by the symbolical spotted girdles, and an elegant border



Online LibraryRobert BrownThe great Dionysiak myth → online text (page 28 of 38)