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of vine-leaves.^

XLIV. SeUenos swinging a Bakche^ with the motto,
* Eise at pleasure.' ^

» Krch, Anct, Pottery, 242. * Brit Mus. Vase Cat, No. 816.

» Brit. Mus. Tow Cat. No. 526. » md. No. 817.

» Bunsen, Egupe» Piace, I 628, • Birch, And, Pottery, 806. •

Sign No. 349. ^ Ibid. 318.

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XLV. * A group^ often repeated^ is that of a female
seated upon a rock^ holding a basket, fillet, and bunch of
grapes, and approached by a flying figure of Eros, hold-
ing similar objects.' ^

XLYI. * A common subject is EroSj holding grapes,
and flying alone through the air/ The flying, grape-
holding Eros, is the representation of Kosmic Love, the
Uniting Principle of Empedokles, which includes personal
and all other kinds of sympathy and aflection, as wine
and the grape are the types of all passion. He is
naturally represented as flying lynx-like.'

Dr. Birch observes that the most remarkable feature in
the Vase-treatment of Eros * is his Dionysiac character, for
he seems scarcely to be separated from the wine-god.'*
What a testimony is this to the reality of the profound-
ness of the true concept of the latter !

XLVil. The attendants of Dionysos, Nymphs, Satyroi,
etc., in erotic scenes, which need not be fiurther noticed.

XLVin. Bakche, with thyrsos-spear and snake-boimd
hair, holding up a small spotted panther in her left hand.*

XLIX. Bakche, arrayed in *bassaride, a species of
garment said to have been worn by the god in his expedi-
tion into India.' ^

L. The Bakchik Thiasos. — ^An almost infinite number
of examples of this favourite subject occur, e.g., Dionysos,
with embroidered tunic, holding the kanthar in his right
hand and the ivy-branch in his left ; in fi:'ont, the Mainad
Oreithyia, wearing a striped tunic, with the panther-skin
over it, and plajring the castanets ; near her the Satyr

» Birch, And. Pottery, 213. the bird

^ ' The aU-generating powers ancl Makes his heart voice amid tb«

fuial heat * blaze of flowers.'

Nature, when she strikes Tennyson, LucrHius

thro' the thick blood ' And. Pottery, 246.

Of cattle, and light is large, and ^ Smith, Gass. Diet. 225.

lambs are glad ^ Kirk, Hamilton » Vases, PL vii

Nosing the mother s udder, and Of. mp. V. i.

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Dithyrambos, playing on the heptachord lyre; beKnd
Dionysos, the Satyr Komos playing on the double flute :
near him, a Mainad, carrying a fawn, and with a snake
issuing from her garments ; all have flowing hair, and are
crowned with ivy or myrtle.^

LI. The same. — ^Dionysos, ivy-crowned, with flowing
hair and long-pointed beard, in the centre, holding a
kanthar in his right hand, and a vine-branch in his left.
Oinos stands before him, holding the askos or wine-skin,
with hair like a mane, and long and pointed beard ; on
each side of the god a necklace-wearing Mainad, with
flowing hair, one advancing towards him, and the other
looking bark at him.^

TiTT. The same. — Dionysos, with the usual adjuncts,
standing in a quadriga, holding the reins and goad, sur-
rounded by Satyroi and Mainades, running and dancing,
with castanets, panthers' skins, etc.'

TiTTT. Dionysos J between the two symbolical eyes, and
stands opposite a Satyr : the reverse of the cup gives the
same subject with slight variation, Dionysos ofiers the
Satyr the wine-cup.*

LTV. Bakchik Thiasos. — ^Eound the inside of the last-
mentioned cup. Dionysos, as usual, with long hair and
beard, Mainades and Satyroi dancing in grotesque atti-
tudes behind him.^ On the other side, the youthful,
beardless lakchos, on the ithyphallic ass, crowned with a
diadem, and wearing an embroidered tunic, surrounded
by Satyroi and Mainades, the latter with diadems, neck-
lets, embroidered timics and faun-skins.^

LV. Dionysos, seated on the kind of folding stool,
called okladias, holding the keras, or drinking-horn,

' Brit. Mus. Vase Cat. No. 447. grotesque and other dancee in the

3 Ibid. No. 537. Bakchik Isle of Krete connected with

» Ibid. No. 689. Ariadne.

* Ibid. No. 674 ; cf. No. XL. • Brit Mus. Vase Cat. No. 674.

* Cf. //. xviii. 600-606, as to the

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which, with the kantharos^ is his favourite vessel. The
keramic art fitly commemorates the cult of the homed
god. On the reverse of the same Vase he holds a keras
in each hand, and another lies on the groimd ; and in the
inside of the cup he is similarly represented, Satyroi and
Mainades around.^

LVI. Satyroi and Deer. — ^A deer, standing between
two Satyroi; the one in front running and waving his
hands to drive it back. The reverse almost similar.'

LVil. Artadne-Nymphaia offering a libation to
Dionysos. — ^The god, ivy-tressed, and with long hair and
beard, receives the libation in his kanthar, which he
holds out in his right hand over an altar.' Ariadne,
daughter of Pasiphae the All-shining and the Phoenician
Minos, and granddaughter of Helios the Sun, is non-
Aryan in origin, although the splendour of Hellenik
beauty has been thrown over her. She is also described,
and truly, as the daughter of the nymph Krete, a person-
ification of the island, and, as might be anticipated of the
bride of Dionyso«, belongs to the Phoenician Cycle.

LVm. The Satyr Tyrhas^ the personification of
Joyous-disturbance, pursuing the Mainad Oragie, who
often appears in juxtaposition with him.*

LIX. Bakchik Thiasos. — ^In the centre Dionysos, with
long hair and beard, clad as usual in tunic and robe,
peplos, and holding the kanthar and ivy-branch. Behind
him, a dancing Mainad, with diadem-bound tresses, waving
her hands, and wearing tunic, robe, and panther's skin
round the neck; over her head EVA. Behind her, a
dancing Satyr, and behind him another dancing Mainad,
playing on the castanets, her hair diademed with a snake,
with forked tongue outstretched ; in front of her face
[E]VA. In front of Dionysos another Mainad, holding a

» Brit. Mu8. Vase Cat. 676. « Ibid. 808.

• Ibid. 692. « Ibid. 818.

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snake in both hands, and with a panther's skin hanging
from her shoulders. Behind her an ithyphallic Satyr,
with the keras in his right hand, and another dancing
and castanet-playing Mainad.^

LX. SeUenos and BuU. — ^A crouching Seilenos, with
outstretched hands, advances to meet a bull, which is rush-
ing towards him.^

LXI. The Mainad Opora^ the personification of the
late summer-bloom, holding out a basket of fruit to
another Mainad ; a Satyr near, with keras.*

LXTT. Bakchik Thiasos, — On a vine-shaded couch,
over which is a panther's skin, recline Dionysos and
Ploutos, the former with the thyrsos and usual adjuncts,
the latter with a keras. On the right, a torch-bearing
Seilenos leads forward Hephaistos staggering, as if intoxi-
cated ; on the left a Mainad .and a Seilenos bring fruits to
Dionysos, and a seated female beyond them holds a dish
of fruit. Below the couch is Eros, playing with a swan.
A faun-skin hangs from the arm of the Seilenos on the
left, and the Seilenos on the right holds an axe, pelekys,
in his left hand.^ This instance of the Thiasos affords an
excellent example of kosmic grouping. In the centre
the demiurgic Dionysos, Soul-of-the-world, reclines on his
spotted skin, accompanied by Ploutos, representative of
tiie buried treasures of the earth which are in the power
of the Demiurge. Both are covered by the overshadow-
ing vine, the green earth-mantle of Dionysos Emesipeplos.
A torch-bearing Seilenos, representative of Kfe-heat
vigour, leads towards them the staggering flame-god,^
maimed, limping, and deformed.^ But this only deals
with the Aryan aspect of Hephaistos, as the deformed

' Bnt. Moa. Vase Cat, 815. intoxicated him; and led him heayen-

« Ibid. 9ea » Ibid. 1298. wards.'

* nnd. 1331. « * The fire at its birth is weak,

^ Of. Paus. i. 20 : ' Dionysus, on and its flame puny ' {Mythol, cf the

whom Hephaistos especially relied, Aryan NationSf ii. 104).

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god passed over into Hellas from Phoenicia^ yet mighty
and irresistible, the natural servant and ally of the solar
Demiurge. Satyro-Seilenoi and Mainades, representatives
of the male and female principles, Kain-like, bring the
fruits of the earth as a fit offering for the Earih-king, and
sportive Love plays before him. But, it may be asked,
is it supposed that the artist in designing the group had
such occult symbolism in mind? In all probability not,
and so much the more valuable is his testimony as that
of an unconscious witness who faithfully reproduced pre-
existing ideas.

An infinite number of examples of Vase-illustrations of
the Dionysiak Cycle might be cited in an almost exhaust-
less and varied monotony ; but the above-mentioned are
sufficient for the purpose, and show that the testimony
of the Vases, like that of all. other branches of Bakchik
evidence, illustrate the Oriental and kosmogonico-solar
character of the god. If we do not find the Mysteries of
Eleusis iully depicted, the fer more important mysteries
of nature are freely pourtrayed.

A few specimens of grotesque Dionysiak Vase art may
be instanced : —

TiXTTT. Cup terminating in the heads of a Seilenos
and Mainad, placed back to back. — On itDionysos, hold-
ing a bunch of grapes ; and on the reverse, the androgy-
nous Erbs, also holding a grape-bunch.^

LXrV. Lekythos (oil-cruse), in the form of a Satyrik
head^ with mask-face, raised brows and wide open

LXV. Lekythos^ in the form of a seated pigmy
Seilenos.^ — ^Vases also occasionally occur in the shapes of
wine-skins, ducks, human bodies and feet, fish, elephants,
Gorgons' and negroes' heads, etc. The Janus-like cup

> Of. Herod, iu. 37. » Ibid. 1479.

« Brit. Mus. Vase (M, No. 1476. * Ibid. 1484.

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symbolizes the chaxacter of the * two-natured lakchos,'
attended by the sexless Eros. Among the recent
Kypriot discoveries of General Cesnola are archaic Vases
of various grotesque and fanciful forms. The grotesque
is contrary to the indigenous Hellenik spirit, and is bor-
rowed from the East, nor can it be found in any instance
in early Hellas, except either within or under the influence
of the Dionysiak Cycle.^ Ancient art also ran riot in the
forms of Lamps, which frequently are of Satyrik shapes,
or have Dionysiak subjects pourtrayed on them, but
which call for no special notice.

LXVL The celebrated karcheaion^ commonly called

* the two-handled cup of St. Denys' — ^Dr. Birch, after
remarking that the shape of the karchesion is not very
intelligible from the descriptions of early writers, observes

* as, however, it was the sort of cup held by Dionysos and
his " wassail rout " in the Pageant of Ptolemy Philadelphus,
it was probably a kind of kantharos.'^ Some critics
consider the cup to belong to the time of Nero, others
place it earlier. * It was presented, in the ninth century, to
the Abbey of St Denys, and was always used to hold the
wine at the coronation of the Kings of France. Its
sculptures represent masks, vases, and other Bacchic
emblems.' ^

Thus the general Vase attributes and adjuncts of
Dionysos are his flowing locks, ivy-wreath, long tunic
peplos, the vine, kanthar, keras, thyrsos, serpent, torn
fawn, or goat, and long beard on the earlier Vases. Of
animals, the panther, goat, bull and mule, or ass attend
him. His train consists of Satyroi, Seilenoi, and Mainades;
such as Oinoa, Wine-personified ; Hedyoinos, Sweet wine;
Komos, Revel ; Dithyrambos, the Dithyramb personified ;

> Of. Wright, Hist, of Caricature * Anct, Pbtt^, 3^0.

and Grotesque in Literature and Arty * Weetropp,flon<i6oo^ ofArchaeoL

cap. I. 279.

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Opora, Latter-summer-bloom ; Oreithyia, the free fresh
Kfe of the hills ;^ Oragie, mountain wildness; Gelos,
Laughter ; Briachos, a form of lakchos ; Phanope, Bright-
eyes ; Xanthe, Golden-hair ; Dorkis, Large-eyed ; Klyto,
Beauteous; Eros, Love; Himeros, Longing; Pothos,
Desire ; Simos, Flat-nosed ; Tyrbas, Joyous-disturbance ;
Eudaimos, Luck-bringer ; Euoia, a personification of the
Bakchik cry Euoi; Kissos, Ivy; Nais, Water-nymph;
Eirene, Peace; Qalene, Calm; Chora, Dance-and-song ;
and similar concepts. They drink, dance, leap, feast,
play with animals at games, and on kettle-drums and
castanets, chase each other, form processions, and gen-
erally serve and attend upon the god.

As there is no mystery about anything we thoroughly
imderstand, and the conjurer's trick when explained
appears simplicity itself; so the varied figures and com-
plicated incidents of the Great Dionpiak Myth easily
resolve themselves into harmonious order when once the
kosmico-solar and pantheistic character of the divinity is
recognised and admitted. Around the Spirit of Material
Existence, their proper centre, sport the manifestations
of the forces of nature and of man ; and life, heat, soimd,
motion, and passion, find their appropriate representatives
and fitting symbolism in the Bakchik train.


The upright stone preceded the pillar, and the pillar,
the statue. Dionysos, ancient god, is known as Stylos the
Pillar, and Perikionios the Column-twiner ; ' and Pillar-

' Cf. Milton: 'The mountain Oragie.
nymph, sweet Liberty/ Oreithyia, not ^ Vide inf. VIII. i. Perikionios,

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cult, Oriental in origin, is illustrated by the following
instances, among others : —

Jacob sets up a piUar-stone, and pours oil on it.^ A
similar anointing was practised in the days of Theophras-
tos, B.C. 371-287,^ and in those of Amobius, a.d, 300,

Sets up a stone as a witness-pillar and boundary mark.^

Sets up a grave-pillar.*

The pillars of the doomed nations to be destroyed.^

The pillar of Shechenu^

Absalom's piQar/

The two pillars in the porch of the Temple, Jachin
and Boaz.®

The two pillars in the temple of the Tyrian Melqarth,^
and his mythic and other pillars at the Straits of Qades.^^

The god Ouranos makes Baitylia, or hving stones,^^

Inscribed pillars of Uasi and Uasar.^'

Inscribed pillars of Sesostris (Sesortasen), with phallic

Worship of the Ashera, or phallic rod, the thyrsos-
staffof Dionysos, the grove-cult of the Old Testament,
prototype of the maypole.

The monumental stones in the race-course before

The monumental pillar of Sarpedon.^^

Ancient round tower-pillars from India to Ireland.

The great pillars in front of the temple of Atargath
at Bambyke in Syria, bearing the inscription, * These
phalloi Dionysos erected to his mother Here, i.e.^ the
goddess of the country who corresponded with the Aryan
Here.^^ ' Phalloi,' says Loukianos, *the Hellenes raised

' Gen. xxviii. 18. ^ Herod. iL 44. Vide mf, XI. ii.

* Tkewh. Charak, xvi. ^^ Of. Sanchou. ii. 14.
» Gen. xxxi. 46. " Ibid. i. 6.

♦ Ihid, ixxv. 20. ^« Diod. i. 27.

* Deut, xii. 3 ; xvi. 22. " Herod, ii. 102-106.

• Judges ix. 6. »* II. xxiii. 329.
' 2 Sam. xviii. 18. »* Ibid. xvi. 457.

« 1 Kings vii. 21. '® Loukianos, PeritesSy. The. xvi.

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to Dionysos/^ and tJasi in l^end had acted similarly to

Blocks of wood and stone were the earliest represen-
tations of the gods, for in old time ' the temples were
without carved images/' and Themistios affirms that
until the time of Daidalos, i.e. the age when the sculptor's
art was introduced into Hellas from the East, all Hellenik
images were shapeless.* There are various notices of
rude stone divinities in the mythologies Itinerary of
Pausanias. Thus at Pharai in Achaia were thirty square
stones, each called after the name of a god, and venerated
by the inhabitants ; and Pausanias observes that all the
Hellenes formerly reverenced rude stones, instead of
statues.^ Near Sikyon was a pyramidal statue of a
divinity, who was called Zeus Meilichios {i.e. Melqarth)
or the Appeased, as Hekate was euphemistically styled
Meilione ; and also a pillar-statue of Artemis Patroa,
identical with the Taurik Artemis.^ In Phoenician
r^ons sacred stones occupied a most prominent place.
Thus Tacitus describes the statue of the celebrated Aphro-
dite of Pappa (Paphos) as coniform ;^ and Lajard remarks,
' In aU Cyprian coins, from Augustus to Macrinus, may be
seen where we should expect to find a statue of the god-
dess, the form of a conical stone.' ® Maximus Tyrius
records, * The Paphians worship Aphrodite, whose statue
is like a white pyramid,' ® Thus, again, a coin of Chalkis,
bearing the head of the Phoenician Poseidon with his
trident, has on the reverse a temple with two columns
and a conical stonebetween them ; ^® and * Melkarth was
adored in the great temple at Tyre, in the form of a

« Of. IMod. iv. 6; 1 Cm-, xii. 28. ^ Higt. ii. 8.

s Diod. i. 22. ^ RechercheswrlaCuitB de Vhms,

* Loukianoe, Peri te» Sy. The. m. S6.

* Themist. Orat. xv. • Dissert, xxzviii. ; cf. Servius in
» Pau8. viL 22; cf. Tylor, JVmw. Aen. i. 720; PhiloetratoB, Fiia

CuU. ii 161. ApoOan. iii. 58.

« Paus. ii. 9. »o Eckhel, Doc. Num. V^. ii. .323.

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luminous stone.' ^ These stones, like the * thunder-axes '
of Dionysos Pelekys, were generally supposed to be
ouranopipt,^ or heaven-fallen ; ^ and so the inhabitants of
the Hauran worshipped Katsiu, the Aerolite.*

To these instances may be added the prehistoric,
megalithic, and other stone structures and erections, into
the design of which it is unnecessary to enter further
here. That many of them are connected with religious
uses I do not doubt, for the fact that human remains
have been found interred within stone circles in no way
proves that these places were only used as burying
grounds. We might as well contend, from the existence
of graves in a ruined abbey, that the only services ever
held in the building had been of a funereal character.

Let us examine some part of the symbolism and
ideas connected with this Ebenezer or Stone- of-Strength.
Amongst ourselves the letter I, the upright pillar, denotes
the Ego, and also One, the first of numbers, the number
sacred in monotheistic symbolism to the Deity. Now, as
it is given to man alone ' to walk upright and to behold
the heaven,' and as man can never practically conceive of
God, except anthropomorphically, so the pillar and pillar-
stone, on account (1) of its uprightness, a word of sug-
gestive double meaning ; (2) strength, both in substance
and phallically considered ; (3) as connected with the
serpentine and aspiring flame ; and (4) among lower races,
through the principles of Fetishism, became even a
divinity, or the supposed seat of supernatural influence.^
In addition to these considerations, there is also to be
taken into account (1) the curious and suggestive natural

' Lenormant, And, Hid, of the * * The Dacotas would pick up a

Eadf ii. 221. round boulder, paint it, and then,

* Of. Rabelais, iv. 49. addressing it as grandfather, make

* Of. Ad$ xix. 85. offerings to it and pray to it to de-
< Lenormant, And, Hid, of the liver Uiem from danger.* (Tylor,

Bad, ii. 221. Primitive Culture, ii. 147).


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shapes of many stones and of specific stones. Thus Mr.
Phen^ considers that the Sphinx before being sculptured
into its present form had a human similitude, a circum-
stance which suggested the artistic effort.^ (2) The
value of certain kinds of stones, more especially of those
called precious^ and the medicinal and other virtues
attributed to them; and (3) the beUef in the aerolitic
nature of many ancient stones and kinds of stones. In
our own Sacred Books the similitude of the Deity to a
stone is equally familiar to both Testaments. Thus He
is *the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel,'^ the heavenly
aerolite whose descent is to destroy the kingdoms of this
world,' the * Chief Comer Stone ' in the mystic temple.
The sacred stone belonged in idea to the three worlds ;
it fell fix)m heaven,* was on earth, and, as in the case of
the celts, was found under the earth. It was equally
connected with life and the Upper-world, and death and
the Under- world ; being the symbol of life-vigour, and yet
marking the place of the dead. In its character as a god,
Terminus, its site was a place for treaty and agreement,
for covenant and invocation of divinity. As man civilised
makes his statue of Zeus after the ikshion of a man and
of a magnificent specimen of a man, for he can do no
more ; so man, barbarous, having similar wants and feel-
ings, gets him a statue of his Zeus, if statue it may be
called, on which nature alone has worked,^ for he can do
no less, and by slow degrees makes it more like a god by
making it more like a man.

These being some of the root-ideas connected with
the sacred stone and the pillar, let us next notice the

* Vide Paper read before the from heaven' (Paua. ix. 38).
Sritiah AMSocuOion at Belfast , 1874. ^ ' The primitiye memorial erected

* Oen, zlix. 24. ^ to a god aid not eyen pretend to be
' Dan, u. M; S, Matt, zzi. 44. an image, but was often nothing more

* Thus near the temple of DionjsoB than a pillar, a hoeord, a shapeless
at Orchomenos in Boiotia were cer- stone or a post' (Grote, Hut, of

tain reyered stones said to.haye fallen Greece, iy. 132),

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rc^on whence the statuary's art emerged into Hellas ; and
this we find clearly indicatted by a triple legendaiy myth
in the stories of Hephaistos, Pygmalion, and DaidaJos.

It is the Semitic Hephaistos, who formed self-moving,
golden maidens to aid him in his forge,^ and who made
the wondrous dogs of Alkinoos.^ It is the Kypriot King,
Pohem-Elyon, or Pygmalion, who made the ivory maiden
into whom at his prayer Aphrodite-Astarte breathed the
breath of life, and by whom he became the father of
Paphos, one of the myriad creatures representing a
personified locaUty. Lastly, it is Daidalos, the Cunning
Worker, the personification of the statuary's craft,' who
in Phoenicia, Krete, and then subsequently westward,
introduces a development of art hitherto unknown. * He,
according to tradition,^ first wrought his figures with
separate feet, and so was credited with having, Hephaistds-
like, made living statues.^

Some legends represent him as a Kretan,^ others as an
Athenian ; nor is the latter view unjust, for the glory of
sculpture belongs to the Hellenes, who soon outstripped
their teachers. Krete was a great centre of Semitic
influence in the West;® the labyrinth was Kamic in

^ II, xTiii. 417. Man was first worshipped as a spear

a (K vii »2. {Protrept. iv. 1).

* Of. the statement of Pausanias, * Themistios^ Orat, zv.

that Daidalos received his mune from * Palaiphatos, Peri Apigton. The

the statues, not they from him (Pans. Delianshadawooden statue of Aphro-

ix. 3). dite, which marks exactly the transit*

^ Olemens asserts that andentlj tion between the^ conical stone of

the Skythians worshipped their Paphos and the finished work of later

swords, the Arahs stones, and the times. It was small, and terminate4

Persians rivers; and that some still in a square block, instead of feet (Paus.

more ancient races * set vtp blocks of ix. 40). There was a similar Hermes

wood in conspicuous situations, and at Phigaleia (Ibid. viii. 89), and

erectedpillars of stone, which were there is also a similar Aplqrodit^ ]|>

called Aoana, from the carvings of the the British Museum,

material.' He mentions an Artemis ^ As to early sculpture among the

of' unwroughtwood,' a Here 'merely Eretans, vide Miiller, Dmic liace^

a tree trunk ; ' another Here ' at first i. 377.

a plank ; ' and quotes Varro that ' Vide PwMmy xxx-xxxi.

A a2

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design as in name/ and the monster it contained Fhoe«
nician.2 In the time of Pausanias there were still four
statues existing which were traditionally ascribed to
Daidalos, a Britomartis, the Eretan Artemis, in Olos ; and
an Athene at Knosos in £rete ; a statue of Herakles at
Thebai; and another of Trophonios at Lebadeia in
Boiotia.^ He was an assistant of the fair-haired Ariadne,*
and by degrees, i.e.^ as the arta he typified extended, his
fame was widely spread throughout all SikeUa and Italia.^
The ancient wooden statues of Hellas, and at one time
probably all carved statues, were wooden,^ coloured, and
covered with real drapery, were called after him Daidala ; ^

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