Robert Brown.

The great Dionysiak myth online

. (page 30 of 38)
Online LibraryRobert BrownThe great Dionysiak myth → online text (page 30 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


and there were also in Boiotia two Festivals of this name,
the ritual of which aptly illustrates the l^ends of Daidalos
and the introduction of the art of statue-making.^ Plou-
tarchos composed a treatise, fragments of which are pre-
served in Eusebios, on the greater Festival. The Lesser
was held in the great oak-grove of Alalkomenai, where
was a very ancient shrine of Athene,^ in ruins in the time
of Pausanias.^® This goddess is not the Aryan daughter
of Zeus, but the Phoenician divinity Athene-Onka, who
dwelt in the suburbs of Thebai ; ^^ and the ancient Kretan
statue of Athene attributed ta Daidalos was probably a
representation of this goddess. Pausanias remarks that
the works of Daidalos, though rude and inelegant, yet
appeared to have something divine about them.^^ Ancient
statues were sometimes partly of wood and partly of
stone. Thus at Megalopolis was a wooden Aphrodite,
the hands, face, and extremities of the feet of which were
of stone ; also a Persephone, partly j^ooden and partly

1 Bimaf^n, Egyp($ Place, u. 806. the activity of the Attic and Cretan

• Vide inf. ix. iii. artists ' (K. O. Miiller, Anct. Art. 89).
» Paus. ix. 40. • Vide Pans. ix. 8.

• //. xviiL592. • Of. iZ.iv. 8.
» Paus. vii. 4. '^ Paus. ix. 33.

• Ibid. u. 10. " Sup. V. T. 8, 6 j inf. ix. iiL
f * The name of Daedalus denotes ^' Paus. ii. i.



Digitized by



Google



DIONYSOS IN ART. 357

stone.^ We are not now dependent on statue-myths for
our knowledge of the r^ons wliere the art flourished
and whence it was introduced into Hellas, The statuary
powers of Kam, Assur, and Kaldea, are revealed to us ;
and although the arts of the early inhabitants of Syria,
Phoenicia and Asia Minor, are even at present more con-
cealed, yet ample materials exist to confirm the signifi-
cance of the legendary traditions. History when really
known almost invariably corroborates all truly ancient
myths, and the Natural Phenomena Theory is no excep-
tion to this rule, for its teachings are history in the highest
sense.

Descending to the particular, we have next to notice
the statues of Dionysos, and first those of the archaic
period * The eldest Grecian world was satisfied in the
repetition of this god of nature with a phallic herma,' ^ * a
mere piece of wood, a pillar turned with the narrowest
end down, occasionally surmounted by a mark or head,' ^
a circumstance which brings us to the consideration of the
apparent connection of the Aryan divinities Hermes,* and
ApoUon with Dionysos Stylos. The worship of ApoUon
as Agyieus was peculiar to the Dorians, and of great
antiquity at Delphoi, a locality where, as has been noticed,
the Dionysiak element was introduced in archaic times,
from which place it was brought to Athenai at a very
early period,^ partly at the command of an oracle, Hi3
statue was erected in courtyards and before the doors of
houses,^ as a tutelary deity, and to avert evil. The
symbol or image of the god was most simple, being a
conical block of stone, a form manifestly Phoenician,
* The ancients knew not whether to consider it as an altar

' Paufl.yiii. 31. ^ 'The Athenians first worshipped

» MiiUer, Anct, Art, 488. mutilated Hermai ' (Paus. i. 24).

• Murray, Manual of Mythd, 146. • * They worship Hermes as a god,

^ Vide Prof. Max Muller, Ledt, an and place Aguious as a doorkeeper '

the Science of Lantpw^e^ ii. 621* (Clem. Alex. Protrept, iv. 6).



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



358 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

or Statue. The Athenians represented their Hermes in
a similar manner. This god, although distinct fix)m
Apollon, was by them invested with the same offices.^
Both were represented by simple columnar statues/ A
* phallic form always distinguished the Mercuries of
Athens.'* First, as to Hermes, a divinity incorrectly
identified with the Latin Mercurius, the god of traffic.'
M. Michel Br^, in a letter to Professor Max Miiller,*
evidently approved by that high authority, well points
out that there is no real connection, but only a verbal
confusion, between the name of the god and * le mot ^fto,
qui d&igne une pierre, une borne, une poteau/ To this
Mr. Cox agrees,^ and indeed there is a consensus of inves-
tigators. Hermes, the Morning Breeze, the cloud-divinity,
the Psycho-pompos, or Soul-leader,^ is not in origin a
phallic god at all, and may be at once dismissed fix)m the
connection. Next, as to Apollon called Agyieus, sup-
posed patron power of Aguia, the Way or Public Place,
and whose image was a block of stone. Here we have
another verbal error, for I doubt not that the name of
this god was Agyibs, the Limbless, and it is to be noted
that guia especially refers to the lower limbs, the feet or
knees, and so the name would also be peculiarly appro-
priate to a terminal statue. We have, then, the same
limbless and phallic divinity introduced from the direction
of Delphoi both at Athenai and Sparta, at the former
place incorrectly called Hermes, being in reality Dionysos
for, as we have seen, the phallic herma was the first
representation of the god ; and at the latter place incor-
rectly called Apollon. But it was the same divinity in

> Of. Thoukyd. vi. 27. Natums, il 237. Note).

' Miiller, Doric Mace, i. 823. * LecU. on the Science ofLanffuoffe,

^ * Mercurius poesessed not a aingle ii. 520.

iftttribute in common witli the Hel- * MythoL cf the Aryan Natiom, ii.

lenic Hermes ; iind the Fetiales per- 237.

sistently refused to admit their ' * Sup, VI. ii. 3.
identity' (JOox, Mythoi, of the Aryan



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



DIONYSOS IN ART. 359

both locaKties, for the supposed Hermes of Athenai was
equally Agyieus and Agyios, whose cult is especially
noticed as obtaining at Achamai,^ and at Athenai this
divinity was in fact Dionysos ; therefore at Sparta it was
Dionysos.^ And this reasoning, in itself conclusive, is
singularly confirmed by independent investigation into
Dorik mythology. ApoUon, the great Aryan Sun-god,
and almost the chief of Dorik divinities, absorbed in him-
self, and covered with his name nearly all solar myths
among the Dorians. But since the non- Aryan element
was strong in many Dorik regions as elsewhere in Hellas,
and for proof of this assertion let the invaluable Itinerary
of Fausanias be carefully studied, so its developments be-
came in many instances attributed to phases in the grand
concept of the overshadowing ApoUon. Now, it may be
laid down as a general rule, numerous illustrations of
which are to be met with in the present work, that
Hellenik divinities whose shapes are grotesque, monstrous,
or similarly unhuman, are invariably not indigenous.*
Apparent exceptions to this canon, such, for instance, as
the Horse-headed Demeter of Phigaleia,* or the Arkadian
Pan,^ on careful examination, sei-ve only to confirm it.®
Mr. Cox, having justly noticed that the Hellenik divinities
have not the monstrous forms of the Hindti, finds an
apparent exception in the case of * the four-armed Lake-

^ Pans. L 81. Derketo-mennaid. commonly but erro-

' 'Agyieus is represented by a neously said to represent Artemis

pillar tapering to a point, whicn is (Pans. yiii. 41). He also remarks that

placed ty the gates ; some say that the statues even of the Erinyes and of

they belong to Apollon, and others other chthonian divinities are not at

to JJionyaoe, or to both alike * (Somdas, ail dreadful in appearance (Ibid. L.

inyoc). 'Aguieus, according to many, 28). Thus, again, at Arffos was an

belonged to Dionysos ' (MiUler, Anc, ancient triple-ejed statue oi Zeus, said

Art, 36), to have stood m the palace of Pria-

* \^de remarks sup, IV. iii. 2. mos, and to have fallen to the lot of

* Vide mf. sec. iv. No. XLV. Sthenelos on the division of the

* Vide w. spoils of Troia (Ibid. ii. 24), so that
^ Vide tne excellent observations it was foreign in origin.

of Pausanias on the statue of a



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



360 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

daimonian ApoUon,^ ' at Amyklai, which was also four-
eared, and called Kouridios,* the Wedded, a singular
appellation for Apollon.* Symbolical ideas of omniscience
and omnipotence represented by practical monstrosities
properly belong lo Kam and India, to Phoenicia and
the Euphrates Valley, not to the soil of Hellas. Now the
worship of Dionysos held a very prominent place at
Amyklai,* where he was called Psilas the Winged, a solar
epithet ; ^ and perhaps this statue, with a double comple-
ment of arms and ears, and very likely of other members
also, was that of a male and female joined together or
wedded on the same principle as the Janus-like Bakchik
cups above noticed,® and hke them in this case would
typify the *two-natured lakchos;' the androgynous
Hindii Ardanari-Iswara, a figure male on the right side
and female on the left, presents the same idea. Barde-
sanes, a.d. 220, author of a work called Indikay some
fragments only of which are preserved, says, * In a very
high mountain in the middle of the earth there was a
large natiu-al cave, in which was to be seen a statue 10
or 12 cubits high, standing upright, with its hands folded
crosswise; its whole right side was that of a man, its
left that of a woman ; and the indissoluble union of these
two incongruous halves in one body struck all who saw
the statue with wonder. On its right breast was engraved
the sun, on its left the moon/ ^ On its arms were gen-
eral representations of the phenomena of the Kosmos.®
If, however, the Lakedaimonian statue represented a single
figure it would doubtless symbolize Dionysos-Iakchos the
Time-king, in his aspect as Lord of the four seasons,* with

> Mythol, of the Aryan Nations, i. * Vide inf. VIII. i. PsUnB,

870. • Sup, sec. i. Vase, No. LXIII.

' Hesvch., in voc. Kouridion ; ' ' BardesaDes, apud Priaulx, Apol"

MuUer, i)orM? Bace, i. 876. lonius of Tyana, 161-2.

• This curious statue appears to ® Viae a representation of the an-
have been unknown to Pausanias. drojrvnous Demiurge noticed infra.

♦ Faas. iii. 19. • Vide $up. n. iii. 2, 3.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



DIONYSOS IN ART, 361

whom Movers^ well compares the Four-faced Kartha-
ginian Baal and the four-faced image of Zeus (Baal),"
which Manasseh is said to have set up in the House of
the Lord.^ Manasseh, the Minase of the Assyrian Inscrip-
tions, was peculiarly devoted to the Baalic, sidereal and
phallic-grove cults. The statement in Souidas is in eicact
accordance with those of the writers of the Books of
Kings and Chronicles.* The king apparently introduced
various monstrous gods, for his son * sacrificed unto all
the carved images which Manasseh his father had made.'
This particular carved image * receives the somewhat un-
usual name of semel^ which some regard as a proper name,
and compare with the Greek Semele.'* Semely the
Assyrian Samulli and Akkadian Sir-gal^ means * image.'
It is quite possible that Semele may be really an Oriental
name, to which, as in many other cases, an Hellenik deri-
vation suitable in itself has been attached, and may mean
' the image of the sublunary world,' as a Neo-Platonist
would say.

That this foiur-armed, four-eared Baahc image of the
all-penetrating, all-hearing Sun should have had some
connection with bovine symbolism or idea would seem
very probable; and, without unduly anticipating any
remark on this latter phase of the god,^ I may notice a
curious indication that the so-called Apollon and actual
Dionysos was not unconnected with the Bakchik ox.
Hesychios calls kynakias * leather thongs ; the four hands
from the hide of the slaughtered victim ; the prize of an
ox devoted to Apollon. ' The ox is an animal pecuKarly

1 Phimmer, i. 541. had made in the house, of which the

* * Having desecrated the House Lord said to David etc.' 2 Chron*

of the Lord, he set up the four-faced xxxiii. 7 : * He set a carved image,

image of Zeus in it' (souidas, in voc. the idol which he had made, in the

Manasses). It is especially noticed house of God.'

that the Attik Hermes-statue was ^ Canon Rawlinson in loc.iSJpeffA:6r'«

quadrangular (Paus. iv. 33). Commentary , iii. 869.

» Of. 2 KingSj xxi. 7 : * He set * Vide inf, IX. iil Taurokeroe,
a graven image of the grove that he



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



362 THE GREAT DIONYSlAK MYTH.

sacred to the sun ; ^ and the flayed-off hide with the four
feet of the beast still attached to it apparently answered
in symbolism to the four arms, ears, or faces of the images,
so that the ox or bull thus devoted became a representa-
tion of the solar Time-king in his four changing seasons.
Strange as it may seem, this monstrous fourfold divinity
actually appears in Athenai itself, though still in the dis-
guise and imder the name of Hermes, in the exact Phoe-
nician form in which Manasseh introduced him into the
Temple. In the Kerameikos, at a place where three ways
met, stood a four-headed Dionysiak statue, the work of the
sculptor Telesarchides.* It has been firequently said that
Hekate and Hermes derive their occasional triplidty,* and
other imanthropomorphic adjuncts, from presiding over
places where three roads met and the like. But although
in later times these ideas were to some extent connected,
and though the statue of a trikephalik or tetrakephalik
divinity might indeed with much propriety be erected
where three or four roads met ; yet liie previous supposed
character of the personage would occasion the act, the
idea of many heads would not spring from that of cross-
roads. That the heads in origin were quite independent
of the roads is well shown in the instance before us, in
which the /{wr headed god presided where three yif2iys
met. Close to Amyklai was Brysiai, another Bakchik
locality, where stood a temple of the god with statues in
its arcane recesses, which the profene were not allowed
to behold, possibly on account of their repulsive, i.^., un-
anthropomorphic character. Behind the town rose the
heights of Taygetos, on the highest peak of which, Taletos,
sacred to Helios, horses were sacrificed to the Sun,* whose

^ Vide in/* VHI. li. Bull, Triceps, Tergeminus, etc She is also

• Hesych. in toc. Hermes Trike- Trioditw, lit Trivia, because the

phaloa; Eustath. ad B. xxiv. 333; triple-formed goddess is fitted, like

Pbotios. Lex. in toc. Hermes Te- Hermes Trikephalos, to preside at

trakephalos. three cross-roads.

» Thus Hekate is styled Triformis, * Paus. iil 20; cf. 2 Jftw^,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



dionYsos in art. 363

statue stood in the open air by that of Paphia, i.e.^ Astarte,
near Oitylos, a place not far distant on the Messenian
Gulf.^ In Elis, too, their statues stood side by side ; that
of the Moon-Goddess or Astarte was horned, and that of
the Sun had the * caput radiatum,' ^ in fact, was Apollon
Kameios, the Horned-sun, which, as we have akeady
seen,^ was another non-Aryan phase of the great Dorik
solar divinity, another aspect of the multiform and ever-
changing lao. This horned and non-Aryan Sun-god
appears at Tarsos, a kind of half-way house between
Hellas and the East, in forms that yet further illustrate
his real origin. Though still called Apollon he is here
rayed and winged ; in fact, is the winged Sun of Kam
and the Orient. One fine radiate head * Mr. Birch has
recognised as the same as that upon the coins of Ehodes.*
It is Helios, or the Sun, and a copy of the Colossus at
Bliodes. This radiation was not usual with the Bomans
and Greeks; but in the present case it admits of an
easy explanation. Tarsus, bordering upon Phoenicia, and
having ready access to Egypt, would have its mythology
tinted with that of its neighbours.' Another point about
this so-called Apollon is very significant. * There hangs
upon the wing a cluster of grapes ; grapes were used in
the decoration of the great temple of Baalbec, and on the
images of Baal grapes are hung round the neck. The
grapes, therefore, show the Syrian cast of the mytiiology
of Tarsus.'*

To recapitulate. — ^The following solar and kindred
phases introduced from Thebai and Delphoi do not in

xjdii. 11. The reforming Josiah Kyrop. viii. 3 ; Anab, iv. 5.

takes away the horses of the Sun^ per- ^ Paus. ill. 26.

haps dedicated, hut at all eyents used, * Ihid. yi. 24

hy the four-mced-Baal-introduciog ' Sup, IV. iiL 2.

Maoasseh, and hums the soli^ ^ Of. inf, sec. iii. Coins of BhodoB,

chariots. The dedication of solar * Barker, CUicia and its Oovemors,

horses, as Pausanias ohseryes, was 161-2.

also a Persian custom. Vide Xen.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



364 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

reality belong to the Aryan, but to the Semitic, Sun-god,
who is also a kosmogonical divinity :— (1) Agyieus, the
Lord-of-the-Way, otherwise Agyios, the Dmbless ; image,
a block of stone : (2) Kouridios, the Wedded, or of-ripe-
age; image, a four-armed, four-eared figure: and (3)
Kameios, the Horned-sun ; image, a himian figure, with
rays around the head.

The earliest Hellenik statues of Dionysos, then, were
conical or columnar stones ; then terminal pillars, with a
head on the top ; then busts, in which the human figiu-e
was represented sometimes as far as to the waist ; and,
lastly, the whole human form divine or statue proper : the
entire series forming a chain of evolution in stone. This
series, be it observed, is the Hellenik statue-treatment of
the god, and does not include the symbolical and mon-
strous forms which he assumed under other hands. And
with respect to these latter, it is most instructive to remark
that, in accordance with the principle above laid down,
the anthropomorphic feeUng of the Hellenik sculptor
never permits the Horned-god to appear as such ^ in his
compositions, though Coins, more faithful to the truth and
to his origin, constantly so exhibit him.^ The following
are instances of statuary representations of the god, show-
ing the early ideas : —

I. Female offering a goat in sacrifice to Dionysos
Stylos^ represented as a column.'

n. Dionysiak Festival. — In the centre the terminal

* ' Ptolemy the Fourth was called prised not to find commonly m Mb

Dion jsoe ; and Mithridates of Pontus statues^ and tliat is, his horas. Even

was also called Dionysos ; and Alex- the^e were little and pretty, and

ander wished to be considered the son Ariadne, in Ovid, mentions them as

of Anmion, and to have his statue one reason why she loved this god.*

made horned by the sculptors— eager * Vide inf. sec. iiL ' The bull*

to disgrace the beauty of the human Dionysos naturally gave less occasion

form by the addition of a horn' to the formative art than to the

(Olem. Alex. Protrept. iv. 9). Of. mystic ceremonies' (BL O. Miiller^

Spence, Polymetis, 129 : * There is And. Art. 489).

one thing which the poets generally » Sup. sec.i. No. XXXVI.
attribute to BacchuB^ which lam sw-



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



WONYSOS IN ART. 366

figure of the god clad in tunic and robe, with long and
pointed beard, long curly hair bound with ivy and
crowned with a diadem. Above him a mass of ivy, and
before him a female figure making a libation from a
kanthar : before her a tripod table, on which are round
cakes and a piece of flesh : a thyrsos, with an ivy branch
fastened, to the narthex, leans against the table.^

in. A terminal bearded DionysoSy with flowing hair,
the upper part of the column spotted.^

IV. Dionysos was represented at Thebai as a column^
overgrown with ivy.*

V. At Kyllene in EliSy as an upright Phallos} — ^This
latter is called a statue of Hermes, but the mistake which
connects that god with similar statues has been already
noticed.^

VI. The various phallic and other hermai^ which, in
reality, are statues of Dionysos. — One Prokleides is said to
have made an image of a trikephalik Hermes in Ankyle,
an Attik village, which statue we are distinctly told was
so formed for the express purpose of * shewing the road,
bearing a direction whither one way led and whither
another.' ^ The idea of many-headed hermai having been
once received, it is applied in piu-ely Hellenik hands in
the simplest manner possible, without any occult symbol-
ism, or underlying meaning. No Hellene would ever
reverence this image as a representation of divinity ; it
seejns to have been an imique work, and as such to have
attracted much notice.

Vii. Head of Dionysos Kephallen7

VJLLL. Bearded head on pillar: before it a large

^ Brit. Mus. Vase Cat. No. 743. shamelessness, as if thej were the

• Ohristie, Diaquisifions, 97. images of your gods.*

» K. O. MUller, And. Art. 36. •Vide Philochoroe, Frag. Ixix. j

^ Pans. yi. 26. Souidos, in voc. Trikephahs,

* Of. Clemens Alex. Protrqa. iy. ' Vide nip. VL i. 3.
16: ' Conseorating these pillars of



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



366 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

amphora, behind which, and fronting the pillar, a cock.*
A very interesting representation, as illustrating the con-
fusion in the mind of the artist between Hermes and
Dionysos. The cock is the usual symbol of the former,
and the wine-jar of the latter. The cock, however, is
sometimes regarded as the solar herald.^ Montfaucon
asks * Pourquoi ce Vase entre THerme et le coq ? C'est
ce qu'on ne pent savoir sans p^n^trer dans la pens^ de
celui qui fit feire cette bague/ The beard, too, belongs
rather to Dionysos Katapogon than to Hermes, although
the latter appears occasionally as bearded on the Vases.

IX. Terminal figure of the so-called Hermes^ bearded
and ithyphallic, before which an altar, with blazing fire ;
over it a youth roasts part of a goat, other portions of
which hang on the wall and the head lies under a table,
where another figure is cutting up the rest of the animal.*
A thoroughly Dionysiak concept, phallos, goat, beard,
pillar.

X. Terminal Dionysos^ to which a bull is about to be
sacrificed.*

XI. Terminal^ bearded^ ithyphallic Dionysos^ before
him an altar, behind him the Bakchik tree.*^ At Naxos
the heads of such statues were made of fig,^ a tree which,
according to Sosybios of Lakedaimon, B.C. 250, had been
given to man by Dionysos,^ so the Priapus of the Boman
poet declares : —

* Olim truncas eram ficulnus, inutile lignimi.' * The
later and pecuUar phallic connection of the fig-tree with
the explanation of the occult phrase, * a fig for you ' ® is



* Montfaucoii^ 8uj9plement I. Ph Fk. 3.
xxxviii. ¥ijg, 6. • Ibid. 126.

* Vide tn/. eec. iiL KarystoB. see. ^ Athenaios. iiL 5.

iv. No. XXXrV. « Hot. Sat. lib. I. viiL 1.

» Brit. Mus. VoM Cat. No. 661. • Of! ' A fiffo for thy friendship '



* Vide inf. sec. iu. Pergamos. (Hen. V. iii. 6),

* David, AntiquitU OrecqueSj iii.



Digitized by VjOOQ lC«



DIONYSOS IN ART. 367

given with much learning and research by the Editor of
Payne Knight's Worship of Priapus}

Xn. Two females presenting a mystic chest and casket
to a column, symbol of Dionysos. — ^One holds in her hand a
staff, crowned with sesame ; ^ bandelets {i.e. the girdle or
zone, which is unbound by Eros) appear suspended, and
also fastened to the column, on the top of which is a
singularly shaped diota, and the Bakchik pine-cone.*

We next come to the statue proper or whole human
figure, which, in the case of Dionysos, is divided into two
classes : (1) the Elder or Bearded, and (2) the Younger or
Beardless, god. The former class represents Dionysos in
mature manhood with ' a stately and majestic form, with
a magnificent luxiuiance of curly hair restrained by the
mitre, gently flowing beard, clear and blooming features,
and the oriental richness of an almost feminine drapery,
with usually the drinking cup, and a vine-shoot in his
hand/ * Dionysos Katapogon or Barbatus is sometimes
called the Indian Bakchos, fi:om a l^end that he was
bom in India where the men are bearded,^ or that he
vowed to let his beard grow during the three years of his
Indian expedition.^ On that ancient and celebrated work
of art the Chest of Kypselos, who ruled at Corinthos,
B.C. 655-625, the god is represented as bearded, and lying
in a cavern holding a golden patem, Stolatus, or clad in a
garment reaching to the feet, and surrounded with the
vine, apples, and pomegranates.^ There is a statue of
Dionysos Pogonites, the Bearded, in the Vatican.

The last phase of the god in statuary is that of
Dionysos Ephebos, the blooming and femininely shaded
youth, who has arrived epi Hebe, at Pubertas. Hebe

» p. 149 «« $eq. Vide inf, YUl. ii. * Weetropp, Handbook ofArchaeol.

Fig. 184.

« Vide inf. YUL ii. Sesame. » Diod. iii. 63.

' David, AntiguUi$ Chrecques, iiL • Vide inf. IX. vii. Indoletes.

Fig. 49. ' Pans. V. 19.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



368 THE GREAT DIONYSIAK MYTH.

herself, in later l^end the goddess of youth, is in earlier



Online LibraryRobert BrownThe great Dionysiak myth → online text (page 30 of 38)