Robert Brown.

The great Dionysiak myth online

. (page 33 of 38)
Online LibraryRobert BrownThe great Dionysiak myth → online text (page 33 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

that it should sink at mom would indeed be a prodigy.
Zeus requests HeUos to come on his accustomed path, and
promises revenge.^ The Sun sees all things when in the
Upper-world, hears all things when in the Under-world^
— ^his sight is not his hearing.

Gortyna. In Krete. Female, sitting in a leafy tree,
often an eagle near her. — ^Eev. a Bull.

Europe* carried on the bull.

Female, with eagle, with spread wings. — ^Eev. Ox,

Histiaia. In Euboia. Ox. Also demi-ox, with grape-

Ikaria. One of the Sporades, west of Samos. A
woman's head. — ^Rev. a bull's head. The pasturage
of the isle was rich,* and therefore it may be thought that
the principle *bos laeta pascua indicat' appUes. But
there was also on the island a temple of Artemis Tauro-
pola, the Horned- goddess,^ and the coin-type doubtless
refers to her cult.

Karystos. In Euboia. Cow, suckling calf. — ^Rev. A
Cock — ^ the symbol of the Sun, from proclaiming his
approach in the morning.' ^

* As to the character of the Ho- • Strabo, x. 5.
merik Helios^ vide Gladstone, Juo, * Ibid. xiv. 1.

Mwndif 321 et seq, • R. P. Knight, Worship of Pru

« //. iii. 277 ; Od. xi. 109. apus, 39.

• As to Europe, vide in/, X. ii.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Kleonai. The radiate androkephalic Helios. — ^Rev.
a bull, with lowered head and lifted left foot, in the act
of butting. This aspect of the bull also appears on
the coins of Thourioi in Lucania. Respecting it Payne
Knight remarks that the Demiurge, ' delivering the firuc-
tified seeds of things from the restraints of inert matter
by his divine strength, is represented on innumerable
Greek medals by the Urus, or wild Bull, in the act of
butting against the Egg of Chaos, and breaking it with
his horns.' He notices that the egg is not represented on
the coins, but shows ' that it was no uncommon practice,
in these mystic monuments, to make a part of a group
represent the whole,' and alludes to examples of the ^g
shown by D'Hancarville, who gives ^ a specimen of the
bull butting against it, while votaries beneath adore his
power. The urus or bos primigenius existed in Germany
even in the sixteenth century.^

Knosos. In Krete, another peculiar locality of Bou-
keros, the Ox-horned god. The Minotauros on one kn^e,
holding a ball or sphere.

The quadratum incusum or imwrought square, within
which the Labyrinth in the form of cross.

Head of Apollon. — ^Rev. Circular Labyrinth.

Head of Zeus. — ^Rev. Square Labyrinth.
The Labyrinth and Minotauros appear on coins of Augus-
tus and Tiberius. The word Labyrinth is Egyptian.*
The Acheloos, it will be observed, is a man-headed bull,
the Minotauros a* bull-headed man.*

Korkyra. A cow, suckling a calf. Above it the
eight-rayed solar star. — ^Rev. The Gardens of Alkinoos.

A cow, suckling a calf. — ^Rev. The solar star.

The demi-ox, above noticed.^

* ArU de la Chrhce, vol. iii. pi. viii. * Vide inf, IX. iii The Mmo^

■ JjuhhockyPre-hikaric Times, 206. taurae.

» Bunsen, JEgyjft'e Place, ii. 306. » Vide Oeia.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Head of an ox within a crown. The crown, as noticed,
was first worn by Dionysos, according to l^end.

Dionysos, on a panther. — ^Rev. Tailed Satyr, pouring
drink from one diota into another.

Krete. Europe on the bull. A late coin.

Magnesia. In Lydia. An Ox.

The sun radiate. Other types of the place are
Artemis-Ephesia-Polymastos, the Many-breasted, the great
goddess-mother of Asia Minor, who has no connection
with the ever-virgin sister of Apollon ; and Dionysos, with
Hst, serpent, and ivy-crown.

Metapontion. In southern ItaUa, a place of almost
unknown antiquity, its earUer name being Metabon, which
would seem to signify the Changing-Ox. Does this refer
to the ever-varying Dionysos-Iao ? A bull's head. Also
three crescents with four stars. The two devices together
may indicate the various aspects of day and night, con-
sidered in connection with a taurik demiurge.

Neapolia. In Campania. The human-headed bull.^

Olbia. Near the mouth of the Hypanis and the
Taurik Chersonesos. A bull's head. The place was a
seat of the Sabazios-cult.^

Pantikapeion. In the Taurik Chersonesos. Bull's

Parion. In Mysia. An Ox statant.

Head of Ox. Other types are fire burning on an altar
with a kanthar below. Head of Dionysos. Grape-dus-
ter. Female, stolata like the Homerik Lampetie, before
an altar. The blazing altar with a kanthar forms an
excellent illustration of the combined properties of heat
and humidity appropriate to the demiurge.

Pergamos. Head of Ox.*

Perinthos. Bull, with solar disk between his horns con-

* Vide Oela. • Vide sup, Perffomoe.

* Vide tup. V. ii.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


taining a serpent. A late coin and an Egyptian design.
Although, generally in Kam the solar disk is serpent-
encircled, rather than serpent-containing, yet we read in
the Funereal Ritual : ' I am the Sun. I pierce the dark-
ness. Hidden Eeptile is my name. The soul of my body
is a Uranus, I return to the western place.' ^ This is
the Serpent of Goodness, the Agathodaimon. Among
Aigyptian coins we find the crescent-marked bull, with
solar disk between his horns, and a. garland round his
neck, standing before a conical stone, which bears a
crescent and a disk.

Phaistos. In Krete. An Ox.

Herakles, with club and lion-skin, near the Hesperian
dragon and tree. — ^Rev. an Ox passant, with feet loosely

Herakles' contest with the Hydra ; at his feet a crab.

Two other medals of Herakles,* with an Ox on the

PhoJcis. HeadofOx;*

Three bulls' heads arranged in a triangle.

Phykous. In Kyrenaia (Cyrenaica). Aa Ox near a

Polyrrhenia. In Krete. Head of an Ox.

Praisos. In Krete. Poseidon, with dolphin and trident.
— Bev. Ox.

Priapos. Li Mysia. Head of an Ox.

Priene. In Karia. Head of Herakles. — Bev. Bull.

Pylos. In Elis. An Ox passant; below, a dolphin. At
the Messenian Pylos bulls, according to Homeros, were
sacrificed to Poseidon on a very large scale.*

Salamis. In Kypros. Head of an Ox. — ^Rev. Prow of
a ship.

* Fu/nered Ritwd, cap. Imv. • Vide Euboia,

* As to coin representations of * Od. iii. 6.
Herakles, vide sup, Cfoins of Rhodos.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Samoa. A demi-6x.^

Sardis. Bull, fighting with lion.^

Smyrna. Gibbous bull.

Head of bull beneath crescent moon. Above two
Buns radiate.

Sybaris. One-homed bull, with head reverted.

Syros. A demi-ox.*

Tauromenion. In Sikelia. A bull, butting.* This
place, which is comparatively modern, being founded
about B.C. 358 from the neighbouring Naxos, takes its
name from Mount Taurus, an eastern height of the
extended chain of the Nebrodes. The Asiatic Taurus
chains take their title from the Aramean Tur, a height,
which is connected with words signifying bull and prince,
and it is possible that the name of this Sikelian moimtain
has been copied from these, or it may simply mean Mount
of the Bull ; its position as first of the Nebrodes is sin-
gular.^ Types occasionally appear on coins on account
of the harmony of name or kind of pun between the type
and the locality.

Thourioi, In Lucania. A bull, butting.^

Tyros. A bull, behind him a kind of cresset.

The Dionysiak character and connection of, at all
events, the majority of these bovine coins is very fairly
apparent ; but with respect to the coins generally, it may
be urged that even the oldest are of comparatively
modern date, and that therefore types on them can make
no valid pretensions to preserve the ideas and cult of a
very high antiquity. If, for instance, it be conceded that
Phoenicians, to whom bovine notions in religion were
not unfamiliar, colonised Euboia at a remote period, it
must not therefore be concluded that because in historic

» Vide Ce/rt. * Vide Klecnai.

« Vide AkanthoB. » Vide m/^. VHI. i. Neln-odes.

» Vide CMa. • Vide Kleanai.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


times bovine types appear on Euboik coins, they neces-
sarily indicate Phoenician influence. Certainly not ; the
circumstance considered alone is far from being conclu-
sive on the matter. But in order to arrive at a just
opinion, i e. one which duly appreciates the preponderating
probability, and gives it proper weight, the following con-
siderations must be carefully noted: (1) The astonishing
power of tradition and conservative tenacity of early
times, of rural districts, and especially of the East, and
of locaUties impr^nated with her influence. (2) The
general character of a great number of allied Dionysiak
coins, their connection or disconnection with Bakchik
localities, and their harmony or disagreement with the
leading features of the general myth. (3) The circum-
stance that the same or a similar type will continue for
hundreds of years on the coins of a particular locality,
thereby illustrating the persistence and force of the
original idea: and (4) The light thrown upon Hellenik
coin-types by the history and religion of other and older
civilisations. These considerations make the exact date
of any particular coin of not much importance ; late
types, i.e. such as appear after the conquests of Alexan-
dros threw open the world to Hellas, are readily recog-
nisable, and, like the disk-holding bull of Perinthos,
generally stand confessed. The following additional
coins present further illustrations of the Myth : —

Abdera. A gryphon sejant or couchant. The type
brought from Teos.^

Aigai. In Aiolis. A tower-crowned, female, winged

Antiochia. In Syria. A double-headed A<Tma.* Near
it the caduceus.

Ajnon. In Kyrenaia. A horned, beardless head.
* Anunonis cornu munitum.'

« Wide mf, Teo$. » Vide ti^. sec iL

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Arados (Arvad). The six-rayed solar star. — ^Eev.
a palm-tree.

Poseidon, holding a dolphin and trident.

The homed Astarte. — Eev. a Bull salient.

Helios, with radiate crown.

The tower-crowned goddess of the East. — ^Rev. Cor-
nucopia. A Phoenician coin.

Askalon. Two terminal figures, with conical caps.

Helios, with radiate crown. — ^Rev. Prow of galley.

Tower-crowned female. — Eev. Double-prowed galley.

Assos. A gryphon rampant.^

Athenai. Janiform head, male and female. Attributed
in local legend to Kekrops the mythic first king of Attike,
who is said to have instituted marriage, and to have been
half-man, half-serpent, and to whom the Dionysiak epithet
of Diphues, the Two-natured, is applied.^

Hephaistos, with tongs. — ^Rev. Two torches. The
Lampadephoria was a torch-race at Athenai performed in
his honour at the Hephaisteia.

Automala. In Kyrenaia. Beardless ram-homed head.
— ^Eev. Henna.

Barke. In Kyrenaia. Youthful head, with the * comu

Headof Zeus-Ammon (Amen) within beaded circle.

Boiotia. Kanthar. — Eev. Boiotik buckler.

ChaUcedon. Beardless male head. — ^Eev. Ivy-leaf,
between four spokes of a wheel.

Wheel, with twelve spokes and a disk or globe in the
centre. — Eev. Four triangular incuses.

The bull, as noticed, appears on coins of this place,
and, combined with the ivy-leaf, makes certain the very
interesting Dionysiak import of the four-spoked wheel
or revolving seasons, and the twelve-spoked wheel or
months and signs of the year, through which .the sun
passes and which surround the earth.

• Vide Teo8. * Vide m/. VUI. i. Dipkuet.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Chdlkis. There were several cities of this name, the
two principal being Chalkis in Euboia and Chalkis in
Syria. Eckhel gives as a coin of the former :(?) Head
of Poseidon, with trident. — Eev. Double-columned temple,
in which a conical stone. This is a purely Phoenician
design. A coin of Chalkis in Syria bears : Bearded male
head. — ^Rev. ' Pyramidal symbol of Astarte in a shrine.'
A phallic column.^

Chios. Demi-lion, open-mouthed. — ^Rev. Winged

Winged androsphinx before amphora, above which a
grape-cluster. — Rev. The banded quadratum incusum.

Sphinx and grapes in dotted circle. — Rev. Wine-jar
and cx)mucopiae in dotted circle.

Sphinx and grapes. — ^Rev. Wine-jar, with solar star
and crescent in the field.

Sphinx, with foot raised on prow of ship. — ^Rev. Two
paten-bearing male figures on each side of an altai*.
Many similar types and combinations of sphinx, grapes,
wine-jar, star, ear of corn, and prow of ship appear on
other coins of the place.

When speaking of the Theban Sphinx, Mr. Cox
observes, * Neither the name nor the figures of the Hellenic
sphinx have been borrowed from Egypt. The Egyptian
sphinx is never winged^ and is never represented except
as prone and recumbent, or in any form except that of a
lion with a human head and bust.' ^ So far as the name
is concerned I agree with him ; a sphinx in Egyptian is
akry the Sphinx Hu ; but the other statements are in-
correct. Thus Sir G. Wilkinson remarks: ' The winged
sphinx is rare in Egjrpt ; but a few solitary instances occur
of it on the monuments and on scarabaei ; as well as of the
hawk-headed sphinx, which is winged.' Again he says :
' There were also the criosphinx, with the head of a ram ;

> Vide ntp. sec. iL ii. 844-5.

* Mythcl. of the Aryan NatianSy

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


the hieracosphinx, with that of a hawk.' ^ ' The winged
Greek sphinxes, so common on Vases, are partly Egyptian,
partly Phoenician^ in their character, the recurved tips ol
the wings being evidenUy taken from those of Astarte'^

Ephesos. Bee. — Rev. Quadratum incusum. Philo-
stratus has preserved a late fiction, perhaps his own
invention, that the Muses, in the form of bees, led the
Hellenik colonists to Ephesos.^ This explanation, which
explains nothing, affords a good instance of the worth-
lessness of arbitrary interpretations.

Bee in dotted circle. — Eev. Demi-stag couchant;
behind it, palm-tree.

Bee in dotted circle. — ^Rev. Infant Herakles strangling
serpents, as at Samos and Rhodos.

Serpent emerging fi'om kist, the whole surrounded
with ivy-wreath.

The same. — ^Rev. Two serpents twisted round a
quiver, between their heads a bee ; in the field a torch
with cup and handle.

Artemis, with arrow, bow, and dog. — ^Rev. A cock
with palm-branch, from which a crown pendent.

Draped Dionysos, in right hand kanthar, standing on
kist between serpents. Temp. Antonius.

Artemis-Ephesia-Polymastos. Numerous examples^
A terminal figure sometimes with the caput radiatum,
stag and bow. Sometimes the sun and moon in the field,
and at her side the horned seistron-bearing Uasi. The
hands of the goddess generally supported on tridents or
on many-jointed rods ; she is sometimes winged.

As has been well observed, the crabs, oxen, bulls,
lions, gryphons, stags, sphinxes, bees, trees, roses, and
other emblems on the goddess, according to the Hellenik in-
scription, assist in representing ' all-varied Nature, mother

' Vide figures in Hawlioson's He- ' Bawlinsoa, Herodotus, ii. 22(k
rodotu8y ii. 224-6. ' JEikones, ii. 8.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


of all things/ But each emblem has also its special
meaning and appropriateness. Montfaucon gives a repre-
sentation of the goddess, in which her peculiar body-
covering is adorned only with bees and roses/ The bee-
type also appears on coins of Keos * in connection with
lie cult of Aristaios,® a deified personage, according to
one account son of Heaven and Earth, but more generally
described as the son of Apollon and the Libyan nymph
Kyrene, i.«., Ku-Ee-Ne, or Horn ;* and the country being
thus within the sway of homed divinities, the coins dT
Kyrenaia constantly represent the ram-homed head erf
Amen both bearded and beardless. Aristaios, therefore,
springs from the Horned-sun, and he is further linked
with Phoenician associations, as he is said to have lived at
Th^^oai and married Autonoe, daughter of Kadmos. He
taught men to keep bees, and was a fostering and bene-
ficent protector of flocks and herds and the fruits of the
earth. The bee is especially connected with the happy,
peaceful earth-Ufe. Speaking of Ephesia, Mttller observes :
' Everything that is related of this deity is singular and
foreign to the Greeks.' Doubtless,^ * Her constant symbol
is the bee, which is not otherwise attributed to Diana
[Artemis]. The bee appears originally to have been the
symbol of nourishment ; the chief priest himself was
called Essen [as if akin to hesmoSy a swarm of bees ?],•
or the King-bee.'^ The term * bees 'was also specially
applied to the priestesses of Demeter the Aryan, and
Ephesia the Semitic, Earth-mother.® On a gem,^ a hou
appears surmounted by the eight-rayed solar star and
swallowing a bee. Another gem^^ represents the same

» Montf. i. Pt i. PI. xcvi. fig. 1. « Liddell and Scott. In voc

« Ibid. iii. Pt i. pi. cxyiL ^g. 3. ^ Doric liace, I 403-4.

» Of. Apollon. Argonaut, ii. 600; * Cf. Oreuzer, SymboUk, iii. 354;

Oic. De Dtvinat. i. 57. iv. 382.

* Vide inf. IX. iii. Kronos. • Montf. ii. Pt ii. PI. cxlviii. fig. 5.

» Vide inf. IX. iii. JEphetia Poly- ^ IWd. %, 6.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

raoNYSos m art. 408

subject/ but around the lion are seven stars, each sur-
rounded with six letters. In all cases the head of the bee
is in the lion's mouth ; but as the Hebrew root dbr can
be connected with words signifying * word ' and ' bee,'*
it has been suggested that tiie meaning of this mystic
design is to illustrate the Word of truth proceeding out of
the mouth of the solar-leonine divinity. Had the bee
been represented as coming out of the lion's mouth instead
of going into it, there would have been more to say in
favour of this view; but the ancient symboUsts were
very careful in matters of detail : and, as it is, the idea
suggested is rather that of the burning sun, Athamas,
consuming the nourishing v^etation of the earth, whose
happy voice is uplifted in the ' murmuring of innume-
rable bees.'

Gaulos. An island near Melite. The terminal Uasar,
with whip and crook ; on each side a homed and disk-
crowned figure with branch adoring.*

A bee within a laurel wreath.

A ram's head. All Phoenician coins.

Hephaistia. The chief town of Lemnos. Diademate,
beardless male head. — ^Rev. Bam, in front torch with
cup and handle.

Kev. Owl and tongs of Hephaistos.

Herakleia. In Kyrenaia. Head of Ammon.

Hierapytna. In Krete. Turreted female head.

The solar star. — ^Rev. A palm-tree.

Histiaia. In Euboia. Female seated on prow, some-
times with the star, bird, or trident.

JoiUis. A city of Keos. Head of Zeus. — Eev. Bee.*-

Bearded Dionysos. — Rev. Grapes.

Female head. — ^Rev. Grapes.

* Another Mpresentation is given * Vide Mdite,
In Hyde, De Vet. 2W. Per. 113. * Vide Ephe90i.

> Of. Deborah.

D B i

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Tssa. An island in the Adriatic, off Dalmatia. Grape-*
cluster. — ^Rev. Kanthar.

Jewish coins. Cup. — ^Rev. Branch.

Palm-tree. — ^Rev. Vine-leaf.

Sheaf of corn. — ^Rev. Palm-tree.

Lyre. — ^Rev. Grape-cluster.

Juha /., King of Numidia, ob. B.C. 46. Head of
Ammon. — ^Rev. Elephant.

Bearded head, surrounded with dotcircle. — ^Rev*
Grape-cluster within crown.

Jvha IL, King of Numidia and afterwards of Maure-
tania, ob. A D. 19. Bearded head. — Rev. Grape-cluster
and six-rayed solar star. A frequent type.

Karthaia. A town in the isle of Keos. As the name
shows, the site of a Phoenician factory.^

Head of Zeus. — ^Rev. Demi-hound radiate.

Head of Apollon. — Rev. Demi-hound radiate and bee.

Head of Apollon. — Rev. Eight-rayed star.

The hound and star represent the Dc^-star so honoured
and important in Phoenician and Kamic cults.

Keos. Similar types. Also grapes.

Kilikia. Lion devouring a stag.*

Herakles, with raised club. — ^Rev. Lion devouring

Naked male demi-figure, with crown, and apparently
a phallic emblem; below, the winged disk, as in represen-
tations of the Assyrian Assur and the Persian Ormuzd

King combating monster. An Assyrian and Persian
subject. — ^Rev. Cow, suckling calf.

Naked figure holding up a wild beast by the tail, ap-
parently in the Bakchik phrensy. — ^Rev. Sheep suckling

Gryphon, devouring stag.

» Vide VI. i. 2. In voc. MMcertes, » Vide Akanthos.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Man riding over ihe waves on the fish-tailed goat,
— Eev. An owl, type of night/ with TJasarian whip and

A he-goat upright, with legs bent under it.

The above are Phoenician coins of the time of the
Persian Empire.^

Korinthos, On the very numerous coins of this city
are found, amongst other types and symbols : —

Thyrsos with pendent ribbons, ivy-wreath, pine-cone,
pomegranate, head of gryphon, the Ehodian flower, the
cock, radiate head of the Sun, the Chimaira, trident and
dolphin. Also, the infant Palaimon, lying on a dolphin by
a fir-tree. Two difierent types.

Pidaimon, standing on dolphin.*

KorkyrcL Eudder with star above. — ^Rev. Head of

Diota. — ^Rev. Circular incuse.

Diota, ivy-leaf in field. — Eev. Eight-rayed star.

Prow. — ^Eev. Kanthar, with grapes above.

Numerous coins and variations of types.

Kossyra. A small island between Sikelia and Libye,
The protagonistic type of the Phoenician coins of Kossyra
is described by Gesenius as a ' Cabirus or Pataecus, i.^., a
deformed dwsutf holding a hammer in his right hand and
a serpent in his left, on his head three horns, or adorned
with rays.' There are eleven types of this figure, who is
generally surrounded with a dotted circle. The number
of rays is either seven or. eight.^

Kydonia. In Krete. Dog recumbent.

Star and moon. The Dog-star, Kuon-Seirios * or
Sirius the Scorching, the Aigyptian Sothis, i.e.y Set
(Typhon), the tutelary god of the Dog-star.^

' Lat. noctua, * Vide mf. X. i.

' As to other Kilikian coins, yide ' Ais. Ag. 067.

Soloi and Tanos, ^ Vide Karthaia,
* Vide tup. VI. I 2.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Kypros. The protagonistic type of the Kypriot coins
is the temple of Astarte or Aphrodite Ouranie, with the
conical symbol, phaUic columns, dove and crescent moon.

Lampsakos. Janiform head ; under the neck a dolphin.

Bearded head of Poseidon. — ^Rev. Winged demi-hare.

Malaka^ a Phoenician settlement in Baetica. Kal»rik
head, helmed and bearded, near it the fire-tongs of
Hephaistos. — ^Rev. Bearless s(^ar head, radiate and wreath-
crowned. A Phoenician coin.

Mardoi. A four-winged Janiform personage, above
noticed.* This Being, at once awake and asleep, is the
realisation of the four-winged, four-eyed Kronos of
Sanchouniatbon, who saw when he slept and slept when
he saw, flew when he rested and rested when he flew.*
Symbol of the tireless energy of the Deity.

A winged, homed, and bearded goat. — ^Rev. The Tri-

A winged ' animal mihi ignotum,' said by some to be
a tiger. — Rev. The Triquetra.

Two demi-bulls addorsed; above, the Triquetra

Eev. The Triquetra.*

Melite (Malta). Terminal Uasar, with crook, whip, and
two adorers, who are sometimes winged and triple-homed,
have the legs and feet of oxen, and hold a canopy over
him. Five types.*

Four- winged, semi-recumbent figure, with whip and
crook, sometimes mitrephoros. Five types.*

Melos. Pomegranate. — ^Rev. Kanthar, with grapes

Pomegranate in linear circle. — Rev. Grapes in linear
circle. A constant type. Melos was a Phoenician colony,
and the pomegranate is sometimes called the ^ malum
Punicum.' ^

> Vide Ofla. * Vide Mardm.

' San. i 7. « Vide m/ VIU. ii. ApfUt tf

' Vide Sikdia. Dionyso$,

* Vide Oauloa.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Miletos. Head of lion with open mouth ; above, a star.

lion looking back at star. — ^Rev. Eight-rayed star.

Mytilene. Two heads of hornless oxen, opposed.

Lion's head, with open mouth and protruded tongue.

Badiate solar head.

Homed head. — ^Rev. Bearded figure, ivy-crowned,
standing on prow ; in the field, grapes, with vine-branch
and leaf.

Panormoa. In Sikelia. Horned head, surrounded by
dolphins. — Rev. Horse-head. The latter a frequent type.
Also horse and palm-tree, lion and palm-tree, and palm
alone. A Phoenician colony. The above are Phoenician

Pantikapeion. Lion's head. Brought from its metro-
polis, Miletos.

Horned gryphon and demi-gryphon.^

Parthia. The Parthian kings, with turreted or solar-

Online LibraryRobert BrownThe great Dionysiak myth → online text (page 33 of 38)