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tion. In the time of Hesiodos the contests with Lykom*-
gos and Pentheus were things of the past, and the son of
Semele was universally acknowledged as a member of the
Aryan Pantheon.

Subsection IV. — Eikon of the Hesiodik Dionysos.

The Hesiodik Dionysos appears as the son of Zeus,
and Semele daughter of Kadmos the Oriental, and as the
husband of Ariadne, daughter of the Phoenician Minos.
His wife and mother are both deified, or received into
the Aryan Pantheon, through his agency ; and he is the
giver of the grape to mortals, inasmuch as he is Chry-
sokomes, the Golden-haired Sun, whose beams cause the
earth to yield her increase. He is thus foreign in con-
nection and kosmogonico-solar in character.

^ A$pi9 Herah 400. « Cf. mp. sec. i. 2.

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Subsection I. — Thrake and Orphik Mysticism,

Down to the time of the Peloponnesian War Thrake
extended on the eastern side of the Bosphoros, as far as
Herakleia, on the coast of the Euxine, and this country,
at once European and Asiatic, appears in legendary his-
tory as the home of a peculiar school of mythical poetry
and religious symbolism. Orpheus, one of the three
Theologers or Writers on the Nature of Divinity (Homeros
and Hesiodos being the other two), Mousaios the Muse
personified in the poet, said to be a son of Orpheus or of
Eumolpos, and reputed author of various poems connec-
ted with the cult of the Eleusinian Demeter ; Eumolpos,
the Good-singer, founder of the Eleusinian Mysteries and
first high priest of Demeter and Dionysas ; Linos, or
Song personified, either plaintive as the Dirge, or lively,
all these, and many other similar personages, appear in
tradition as either actually Thrakian, or else in some way
linked with Thrake. The Asiatic connection of Thrake is
illustrated in the Homerik Poems where the Eastern Thra-
kians appear in the Catalogue among the Troian alUes ; ^
and the Western Thrakians, who subsequently arrive with
Ehesos, their king, in like manner join the Troian array.*
The antagonism between the Thrakian and the lonik
schools of poetry is seen in the allusion to the fate of the
Thrakian bard Thamyris, who, with the arrogance of
Marsyas and linos, both of whom challenged ApoUon to
musical contests, boasted that he could conquer even the
Muses in song, on which they struck him with blindness,

> II. ii. 844. ^ IL X. 434 j Eur. Rhesos,

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and deprived him of his skill.^ In sculpture he was re-
presented holding a broken lyre. The singular compound
Thrakian character and phase of thought is produced by
and resolvable into a blending of the Aryan and Turanian
elements, combined with a Semitic tinge, imported by
the adventurous Phoenician colonists. Orpheus himself
is identified by Professor Max Muller^ with the Sanskrit
Eibhu, used in the Veda as an epithet of Indra and name
for the sun,' and in this case he is of Aryan origin.
Eumolpos is Aryan in name ; but his name, like that of
Mousaios, who is sometimes spoken of as his son, or like
that of the earhest Hellenik lyric poet who is called Olen,
or Flute-player, is merely a descriptive epithet ; while his
being represented as a son of Poseidon points to a Seme-
tic connection. linos, or the Genius of Song, is also
represented as a grandson of Poseidon,* and not unnatu-
rally his cult obtained especially in the form of very
similar Dirges, ahke in Egypt, Phoenicia, Hellas, and
* other places ;'* a circumstance which, although so sur-
prising to the worthy Herodotos, is not in itself mysteri-
ous when the underlying links between those countries
are brought to hght. Another incident connecting the
Thrakian poets with the Semitic East is their intimate
relation to Dionysos. Thus Orpheus is torn to pieces by
the Thrakian Bakchanals, not hke Pentheus, as a despiser
of the god, but as being indifferent to the attractions of
his worshippers, and his death is avenged by Dionysos,
who transforms the infuriate matrons into trees.^ Again,
all four poets, Orpheus, Mousaios, Eumolpos, and linos,
are credited with having written poems relating the
exploits, or otherwise connected with the rites and in

* II. ii. 595. xxvii, xxviii. The Children of Po-
2 ChipSf ii. 127. seidon.

» Of. Bunsen, JEgypfs Place, iv. » Of. Herod, ii. 79.

462. • Ovid, Mctam, xi.

* Paus. ix. 29; Tide Poseidon j

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honour of Dionysos. So we find Diodoros quoting cer-
tain Bakchik Hymns attributed to Eumolpos/ and which,
be it observed, appear to have represented the god in a
decidedly Oriental phase. Herodotos declares that * the
rites called Orphic and Bakchic are in reality Egyptian
and Pythagorean,*^ and Diodoros represents Orpheus as
introducing the greatest part of his mystical ceremonies
and orgies from Egypt.^ It is thus to be observed that
the early Orphik and Bakchik rites were practically iden-
tical ; ' Orphean and Bacchian orgies expressed quite
the same thing. . . The worship of Bacchus formed the
central point of this religious brotherhood.'* But the
theory which derives Orphik mysteries direct from Egypt
may be unhesitatingly rejected. Herodotos himself de-
clares that the knowledge of Bakchik rites came through
Kadmos the Tyrian, ix. through a Phoenician medium.
The undescriminating acceptance of the statements of
Herodotos respecting the influence of Egypt on Hellas
has been productive of many misconceptions and much
confusion. Almost all early Hellenik travellers in Egypt
accepted with perfect good faith and childish credulity
any sayings and opinions of the priests, and we may quite
believe that Solon received with all respect the celebrated
legend about the Island of Atlantis, the great deluge, the
wars which were stated to have occurred 9,000 years ere
his time, and other equally authentic traditions.^ When
speaking of Dionysos, as he appears in Herodotos,^ I shall
have occasion to consider to what extent and with what
modifications the Egyptian theories of the great historian
have been confirmed, and are to be received. Any stric-
tures of this kind on Herodotos apply still more strongly
to Diodoros. The historical connection between the

> Bu.p, eec. i. 6. 817.

» Herod, ii. 81. * Platon, Timaioe.

» Diod. i. 96. « Inf. V.

* K. O. Miiller, Scientific Mythol,

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various elements of the Thrakian phase of thought is a
subject highly interesting but exceedingly obscure, and it
is unnecessary to notice it further at present, merely pre-
mising that the extant Fragments of the Orphik Theogony,
whether remodelled or even in part composed by Ono-
makritos the Athenian in the time of Hipparchos,^ or of
prior date,* appear to have preserved an earUer, and, at
the same time, in some respects, a far more correct,
view of the concept of Dionysos than is to be found
in the general aspect of the god as he appears m the
popular rehgion of historic Hellas. The high position in
Hellenik opinion of the three Theologers and the personi-
fied poet, Mousaios, is well illustrated by a passage in the
Batrachoi^ of Aristophanes : —

Orpheus instructed mankind in religion.

Reclaimed them from bloodshed and barbarous rites ;

Musaeus deUvered the doctrine of medicine,

And warnings prophetic for ages to come ;

Next came old Hesiod teaching us husbandry.

Ploughing and sowing, and rural afifairs,

Rural economy, rural astronomy.

Homely morality, labour and thrift.

Homer himself, our adorable Homer,

What was his title to praise and renown ?

What but the worth of the lesson he taught us.

Discipline, arms, and equipment of war. — Frere.

Svhseclion II. — Dionysos and ApoUon.

The first phase of the Orphik Dionysos which requires
special notice is his connection with the Sun-god, and
hence with the Dorik Apollon. Thus Macrobius * quotes
Aristoteles, Euripides, Aischylos, and others, as showing
by many arguments that * Apollo and liber were one and

» Vide inf. IX. vi. » V. 1032 et seq.

=* Of. Grote, Hist, of Greece, i. 21. * Saturnalia, i. 18.

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the same god ; * and alludes to the use of ivy by the Lake-
daimonioi at the sacreds of Apollon in Bakchik manner,
and to the joint worship of Apollon and Dionysos by the
Boiotoi at ]?araassos. He then says, * That the Sun was
liber, Orpheus plainly lays down in this verse : *

The Sun whom men call Dionysos as a surname.

And again, —

One 25eus, one Aides, one Helios, one Dionysos,'

* the authority of which verse is founded on the oracle
of Apollo Clarius [or of Klaros, a small town on the
lonik coast near Kolophon, where was a renowned
temple and oracle of the god,] in which another name
also is applied to the Sun, who in the same sacred verses
amongst other names is called lao. For Apollo Clarius,
being asked which of the gods should he who is called
lao be considered to be, replied thus :

Much it behoves that the wise should conceal the unsearchable

But if thy judgement is weak, and thy knowledge is quickly

Know that of gods who exist the highest of all is lao.
He is Aides in winter, and Zeus at the coming of spring time,
Helios in summer heat, and in Autumn graceful lao.

The force of which oracle and the signification of the
deity and of the name by which Liber [Dionysos] is
plainly meant, while the Sim is intended by lao, Cornelius
Labes has explained in his work " Concerning the Oracle
of Apollo Clarius." ' In the Orphik verse the four varient
phases of the one great divinity are Zeus, Aides, Helios,
$uid Dionysos, and in the oracle of Apollon Klarios,
Zeus, Aides, Helios, and lao, who is thus represented as
the equivalent of Dionysos. In further proof of the real

* JFVfl^. iv.

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unity of Apollon and Dionysos, Macrobius proceeds to
quote the celebrated Orphik Fragment which describes
the sacred dress of the initiated,^ but which, in reality,
far from supporting the theory of a purely solar Dio-
nysos, wonderfully illustrates the kosmogonic character
of the god. Of course, the whole idea of the absolute
unity of the two divinities is as inadmissible as the next step
in the theory of Macrobius, by which Father Liber and
Mars are identified ; but he is practically right in so far as
Apollon and Dionysos are both solar divinities, although
the one is a Semitic, and the other an Aryan, study of
the Sun; and his knowledge of the subject is greatly
superior to the ordinary conception of Dionysos as simply
Theoinos, the Wine-god. The root of the Dionysiak
Myth, is, however, in Phoenicia and Egypt not merely
solar, but also kosmogonic ; ^ and rightly does Mr. Cox
include the god among the earth-deities.® As regards
the oracle of Apollon Klarios, and the mystic name lao,
Bunsen observes, *Lobeck admits the antiquity of the
celebrated answer of the oracle of Apollo Clarius, which
Jablonsky doubted without any foundation.* lao is
there said to be the general name of the Sun-god, " the
highest of all gods ; " ' Hades, of the Winter sun ; Zeus,
of the Vernal sun ; Helios, of the Summer sun ; Adonis

^ Vide subsec. iii. to doubt the antiquity of this oracular

* Ibid. response ; but tne circumstance is
' Mythol, of Aryan NattonSf ii. not in itself any proof that the name

293. Yahveh is derived from lao, which

* Bishop Browne, speaking of the later title is nevertheless undoubtedly
appellation Yahveh (Jehovah), re- of extreme antiquity (vide subeec.
marks, * Some of the German writers iiL). The mistake of Jablonsky is
have tried to trace the name to an shown, amongst others, by Movers
attempt at expressing in Hebrew (Phonizier, i. 539). Mr. King weU
letters the name of the Phoenician observes, 'The titles J^o and -45rara»,
god laOf and says that the chief instead of being recent Gnostic fig-
support of the theory is this * response ments were mdeed holy names,
of the Olarian Apollo, which has borrowed from the most ancient
been clearly proved by Jablonsky formulae of the East' (7%c (rna»iic«,
to have originated in a Judaising 79). 'Mansel {The Gnogtic Heresies),
Gnostic * (Spe^akefi^B Commentmy, i. somewhat singularly, does not men-
20). There is, liowover, no reason tion lao.

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(Dionysoe), of the Autumn sun.^ lao is, of course, a
Semitic name, and a strong Semitic tinge must have over-
spread the oracle of the Klarian god, if, indeed, he were
identical with the Dorik Apollon, before such a response
could have been possible. But how was it, then, that
men called the Sun Dionysos as a surname ? Apollon,
as we know, is a purely Aryan and Ouranik divinity,
distinct and separate from the Semitic and chthonian
Dionysos. There could be no real, but only apparent,
affinity between such opposite concepts. But Dionysos,
as we have already seen, has undoubtedly a most im-
portant solar phase and aspect, and so Donaldson rightly
asserts that he * first appeared to the Greeks as a tauri-
form sun-god;'^ as in the Eumolpik verses we read
* Dionysos, with face of flame, glitters like a star with
his rays.' ^ And this solar phase and character of Dio-
nysos at once explain how ancient philosophical investi-
gators, ignorant of those laws of linguistic afiinity which
it is the triumph of modem research to have developed,
and of the gaps which separate the concepts of Aryan
and Semite, not unnaturally confounded divinities essen-
tially distinct. To the ordinary philosopher, the creed of
the multitude generally appeared gross and absurd. He
r^arded the gods as either the arbitrary creations of
man's fancy, or as expressions denoting the forces of
nature ; or again, as the attributes of a great and un-
known divinity. To believe in Apollon and Dionysos
as distinct divine beings, would appear childish to a
philosophical pagan, or perhaps to any pagan, of the age
of Macrobius, a.d. 390. He would regard the two
divinities as in reality merely two solar impersonations,
and therefore as identical. But this view is historically
considered incorrect, since (1) Pyropos, the Fiery-eyed, is
not the entire Dionysos, but one only of his many phases ;

'« lUcey iv. 193, note. » Subeec. i. 6.

'aire of the Greeks^ 17.

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and (2) Apollon is an Aryan, Dionysos Pyropos a Semitic,
study of the sun ; they are distinct alike in origin and in
line of thought.^

Subsection HI. — Dionysos the Demiurge.

A very prominent feature of the Orphik Dionysos is
that of the Demiourgos, or Maker-of-the-world, in fact, of
the entire Kosmos. Thus the Orphik poet, speaking of the
sacred dress to be worn in the Bakchik Mysteries, says :

To accomplish all these things, clad in a sacred dress

The body of God, a representation of the bright-rayed Helios,

Let the worshipper first throw around him a crimson robe

Like flowing rays resembling fire.

Moreover from above the broad all-variegated skin of a wild

Thickly spotted should hang down from the right shoulder,
A representation of the wondrously-wrought stars and of the

vault of heaven.
And then over the fawn-skin a golden belt should be thrown.
All-gleaming, to wear around the breast, a mighty sign
That immediately from the end of the earth the Beaming-one

springing up
Darts his golden rays on the flowing of ocean.
The splendour is unspeakable, and mixed with the water
Revolving it sparkles with whirling motion circularly
Before God, and then the girdle under the unmeasured breast
Appears as a circle of ocean, a mighty wonder to behold.'

Here we have a full-length portrait of the kosmogonic
Dionysos. The sacred rites are proceeding ; the prin-
cipal wrorshipper, who in the symbolism represents jthe
god himself, is in the Thronismos or State-of-enthrone-
ment, clad in the mystic dress, and surrounded by the
chorus of votaries dancing in a ring. His crimson robe
and peploSj with its flaming rays, symbolise the heat and

* Vide inf, subsec. iii. ' Frap, vii.

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fierce beams of the sun, Dionysos Pyropos ; and, had the
mystic dress consisted of the peplos only, there might
have been some foundation for the theory of the absolute
unity of Helios and Dionysos. But this is merely the
first article of the attire. Next, the all-variegated,^ much
spotted, faun-skin, typifying 'the starry vault of heaven,
is to hang down from the shoulder.^ Over the faun-skin
is thrown a golden belt, typifying the Homerik ocean-
circle, when gleaming with splendour beneath the rays of
Phaethon, the Beaming-sun, who corresponds with Dio-
nysos Antauges, the Sparkler.* The ocean-girdle, it will
be observed, is placed in the symbolism without the stars,
because they in Hellenik idea sink into it ; and Okeanos
is, like Poseidon Gteieochos, the Earth-encircler, and holds
the Kosmos in his all-surrounding arms. Thus, the sacred
dress typified sun, starry vault, and ocean, all indeed of
matter that exists, except the earth ; but this latter is not
omitted from the mystery-play, for the worshipper him-
self is at once the earth and Dionysos, or the kosmogonic
spirit of the world ; sexless, or of both sexes, for the
result is the same, clad in the woman's robe, peplos^ and
the man's belt, zoster. Hence the close affinity and the
connected historic worship of Dionysos and Demeter, the
Aryan Earth-mother, anthropomorphic, emerging into
human form from the huge and shadowy Gaia. This
Orphik Dionysos is truly a colossal concept, and let those
who are inclined to condemn the study of Mythology as
frivolous and imimportant endeavour to estimate the
value and interest of the light which it throws alike upon
the mind of man and the general history of the world.
The great subject of Pantheism — the higher and the
lower : its truth and error, truth — that all things are in
God ; error — that God is in all things, as if Deity were

' Vide inf, WTL/x, Aiolomorphos, ^ Frag, vii.

* Cf. IHod. L 11.

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nought but animated and eternal matter, is and ever
must be of the highest importance, especially in these
days when Agnosticism exults in its ignorance, and a
deepening Materialism finds constantly increasing favour
with numerous sages. How apparently delicate are
many of its distinctions, yet how important their diflfer-
ences 1 Thus with equal truth and beauty may the Deity,
especially when considered anthropomorphically and in
His more active operations, be figuratively represented
as clad with the immediately surrounding visibility, not
with the entire Kosmos, * as with a garment,' firom which,
nevertheless, He must ever be kept distinct and separate
in idea. He animates the All, not as soul does body
from within, but, being essentially external and distinct
in His infinity. He looks upon the whole world, not as
His tabernacle, but ' as a very little thing.' ^ It is not
true, as the friend and pupil of Bohngbroke has asserted,

All are but parts of one stupendous whole.
Whose body natiue is, and God the soul ;
That changed thro' all, and yet in all the same, .
Great in the earth as in the etherial frame ;
Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze.
Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees ;

that the Creator is but the animated creation, no more
than the Platonik * Soul of the World,' the Neo-Platonik
Hippa. This is not God, but Dionysos. But,

The sun, the moon, the stars, the seas, the hills and the plains —
Are not these, Soul, the Vision of Him who reigns ?

that is.

In contemplation of created things
By steps we may ascend to God, —

not find God indwelling in them.

* ' God could haye made other worlds.* S. Athana^ios.

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Eiuth, these solid stars, this weight of body and limb,
Are they not sign and symbol of thy division from Him ?

Not of forming * parts of one stupendous whole.'

Speak to Him thou, for He hears, and spirit with Spirit can

meet —
Closer is He than breathing, and nearer than hands and feet.

For * in Him we live, and move, and have our being ; ' we
in Him the Creator, not He in us His creatures.

Worlds without number
Lie in His bosom like children*

He lies not concealed in them, as a principle of inherent

* This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the
world, but as Lord over all/ (Newton). And this is not
Dionysos, but God. Such then is the root^idea of the
Kosmc^onic Dionysos.

But the Orphik poet, while thus pantheistically cloth-
ing Dionysos vrith the visible universe, is no mere crude
materialist. He fully admits Mr. Martineau's canon, that
' mind is first and rules for ever/ and so^ in another Frag-
ment, he tells how the Demiurge, whom * men call both
Phanes, and Dionysos, and King Eubouleus the Wise-
counselling, and the widely-known Antauges the Spark-
ler,' and whom * others of the men who dwell on the
earth call by other names, first came to light ; ' and how
Aig mysterious power ' melted down,' i.e. resolved into
form and shape, * the divine ether that before was motion-
less, and lit it up fo& the gods to see, most beautiful to
behold ; ' ^ or, in other words, established order out of a
pre-existing chaos. This demiurgic force is not external
to the matter in and through which it works, and through
which it becomes known as Phanes the Apparent,^ identi-

* Orphik. Frag. Til ^ Of. mp. sec. ii.

E 2

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fied with Dionysos, and representing the visible creation
in its vitality. As the sun is the eye of the universe, the
most prominent and remarkable object of the Visible, and
as the mind looks out through the human eye, so the de-
miurgic Dionysos looks down through the great solar eye
upon his worshippers and the world ; and thus, being
pecuharly associated with the sun, naturally appears as
Pyropos the Fiery-faced, and Antauges the Sparkler. That
all nations, and especially the children of the glowing
Eai5t, should have solar gods and solar myths is natural
and even necessary ; but, at the same time, the kosmo-
gonic aspect of the Uasar-Dionysos Myth is even vaster
here than the solar, while the relations between Dionysos
and Helios are fully explicable by the protagonistic posi-
tion of the latter in the material universe, and the kosmic
concept of the former as its animating essence, and all-
pervading daemon. Hence the poet, while saying that
men call the Sun Dionysos, does not thereby absolutely
identify the two ; and he clearly distinguishes between
them in his account of the enthroned worshipper and
his dress.

But, as may be readily conceived, the idea of a solar,
being simpler than that of a kosmogonic, deity, when
Dionysos had become thus connected with the Sun, the
light of the solar phase threw the broader conception
somewhat into the shade. Dionysos the Demiurge was
lost sight of, but his character is so far impressed upon
Dionysos Pyropos, that the latter chiefly appears, not in
an astral or purely solar phase, as being distinct and dis-
tant from the earth, but, as the lord of the changing
seasons, whose power afiects and alters the visible world
on which he looks down. And so the poet tells us :

He has surnames for each of his changes,
Manifold as the year rolls, and they suit with the change of the

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These names, as we have seen,^ are Zeus, Aides,
Helios, and Dionysos, and all of them are said to be-
long to lao, who, like Zagreus,^ is *the highest of all
gods/ But the Semitic lao, of whom, according to
the Klarian oracle, Zeus and the three other deities are
but annual phases, is not merely a solar divinity, but the
life-heat power of nature as imparted through the solar
orb.* The very fact that he is the * highest of all gods *
shows this, for neither in Kaldea, Assur, Phoenicia, or
Egypt, or in Aryan Hellas or India, does the Sun-god,
merely as such, head the list of divinities. Joannes Lau-
rentius, who from having been bom in Lydia is com-
monly called Lydus, and who lived a.d. 490-560, in his
work * Peri Mendn ' (De Mensibus), states that * the Chal-
daeans call God lao,' and the name itself in the form lau,
occurs in the cuneiform inscriptions.* lao, in fact, some-
what corresponds in place and position with the Aryan

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