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Robert Caldwell.

A political and general history of the District of Tinnevelly, in the Presidency of Madras, from the earliest period to its cession to the English Government in A. D. 1801 online

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POLITICAL AND GENERAL HISTORY



OF



THE DISTRICT OF TINNEVELLY,



IN THE



PRESIDENCY OF MADRAS,



FROM TIIE EARLIEST PERIOD TO ITS CESSION TO THE
ENGLISH GOVERNMENT IN A.D. 1801.



BY



The Right Rev. R. CALDWELL, D.D., LL.D., Bishop,

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY,
FELLOW OF THE MADRAS UNIVERSITY.



i ,• j ' , ,

• • • 1 • ' » «



MADRAS:
PRINTED BY E. KEYS, AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS.

1881.






HEAIRY MORSE STEPHEN©



■ ' > • • •

• * • • • • *



« •



*'•*''•/•'•" • '



___



TABLE OF CONTENTS



CHAPTER I.

******* «* WITHOUT EESPEOTING THE EASIEST PERIOD

* tr- , ,„ l Aleanin"- of the word "history, 1.
IntbdduCTION.- Paucity of sources of H tat o »/, ■ J- ' 'j t » h 2 Historical information
lN Reasons-hv the Hindus eared little JrtojtagJ™. made a good beginning 2
from without, 2. Learned Natives m Noit ^mrn ^.^ E hesfc

Information from inscnptionj .and "gJ^J^ ^J ^ Qrigi lly dtstwctfirom
Tamil works have disappeared 3. i*« A '*» ^. f Madura 3. Meaning of Ten-
tfXtf ilfa^ra, 3. Tinnevelly ongmu lj a poinon beg ' Qot repre8e ntative S of

'Audi, 3. ArlM ^J^'^Sir* \h'e lowest castes probably aboriginal 4.
the earliest inhabitants of r ^^ a t 4 Stone implements, 4. Sepulchral wgo.
The Paraiyas and Pallas, 4. Ihe \ eiiaias, *. £ , g D escrip ti n ot the lam-

The lESv*+ *«"> *. Atte "S ^VSSffiR The mountain Potigai, 6.
.___■ a rt.-^u, ofi/i* Tamraparni.— -«0^ a %—**?« „„ w^tv^'s hill and in th-




ne
to



S^oibm 8 The Cbittar, 8. Meaning of the name of ^ ^.^ men m

S 8 W. 0/ the ™™«? a Z£hr^ ofte mnu > Tdmraparnl, 9. . < The tree
Tinnevellv. Where? 9. ^f 1 ?^ Later namel of Ceylon, 9. Identity of the
•IV v^T leaves' 9. Taprobane, 9. i^ater names j which application of

Tlmraparn\ orTninevelly P witb the oldest ^me^^lO Wbic^ PP^ rf

the mme was earlier, 10. Greek name M *MJ°™ mouth of the Tamraparnl 11.
Greeks, 10. The Chittar 11 The hank near the ^ fijto

The Bettigo of the Greeks, 11. IM ^[Tpdndvas 12. Derivation of ' P&ndya, 12.
origin of the three Tamil dynasties, 12. The Pandyas l~ ^ ^^ u ^ t

Anna's intermarriage withthe *1^J£JZ£ % the early Singhalese urth the
Pandya Titles, 13. The Mftran '/ 3 - s ./!f aleS e princes with Pandya names ', 14- The
Pdndyas,n. Vijaya'smarmge^ J^es^pnn crvili8at ion 14 Th-

ereat reservoirs of Ceylon, 14. Date of Jf co ^T Notiee8 f the Pdndyas, 16. Infonna-
SS»Wl!- ^r^neLtoHerSie^lS. Pearls,- 16. The Pdndyas'
tion collected by Megasthenes. ^-^t^e I>, formation about Korkat furjnshed
Embassy to Augustus 16. W?Ij£2£ 17. Situation of Kolkhoi 17 Korkal,
iv tfe Greeks, 17. The Kolkhoi of the t-neeks u ^ 0WM to ^ e Gmto, 19.

18 Imuortance of this identification, 18 tape vo m Kumar i in Indian liter-

TV JEn of Cape Comorin in the Penplus, 19 ^^V Paumben as known, to
Sure P 20 KumaVi not a river, hut an ace on the sea coa^O ^
* flta*4 21. Kory iden ibed w^h Koti, 2 ^ ^ ^ 22

of Kolis and Kory 22 " T/ ^f''™ J Gree k intercourse with Southern India, 22-
Various cities «^_*^ "/L^S Phenician Trade, 23. Courageous act of a
Greek trade with the Tinnevelly boast, z_. t
Greek mariner, 23. Cosmas Indicopleustes, 23.

CHAPTER II.

niuuu u .. . , _„, 04 The northern boundary

Boundaries of the Pandya ^"^^^S^e™ boundaries, 25. ^™^££T
of the Pandya country 24 Ih« ^"^ ^ cnkotta boundary, 25. *£***»£ £
the Cheras and the Pand>as, -'o. AU „ o« Indian references to the 1 an 03 ; as, -o.

Nanies of the early Paridya kings unWn, ^ ma ^ ^ , ? ^ ^

liTs of Pandva kings antrustyorthy, 26 Lists 01 _ t 27 B endra chol,, s

n ;; m0S r,,,ord,d. 27. «J <»* gji; •-; ^X^, 28. . Temple to R«^»
Sff ST SSSSSWS. 5: tP Karikala ChCla, 29. Pamanuja .date, 30.

511688



IV TABLE OP CONTENTS.

Varddhana's conversion, 30. Kulasekhara Deva, 30. Singhalese accounts, 30. The
ChGla-Pdndyas, 31. Dr. Burnell's researches, 31. Vlra Chola, 31. Sundara Pandya
ChOla, 31. Dr. Burnell's succession of Cholas, 32. Sundara Pandya, 32. Sources of
information about Sundara Pandya, 32. Sundara Pandya'szeal against the Jainas, 32.
Sundara Pandya the last in the list, 32. Muhammadan influences in Sundara's reign,
33. Reasons for Sundara Pandya s patronage of Muhammadans, 33. Sundara's war
with his brother, 33. Sundara's Muhammadan ministers, 34. Another Muhammadan
account, 34. Malik Kafur's invasion, 34. Marco Polo's Sonder Bandi, 35. Sundara's
brothers, 35. Sundara's date still a desideratum, 35. Ma'har, 36. Origin of the
term Ma'bar, 36. Settlement of Muhammadan Arabs on both coasts, 36. Kayal, 36.
Kayal visited by Marco Polo, 37. Portuguese notice of Kayal, 37. Meaning of
Kayal, 37. Korkai and Kayal, 37. Marco Polo's notice of Kayal, 38. Trade of
Kayal, 38. Horse trade at Kayal, 38. Use of the horse by Indian soldiers, 39.
"Wassaf's account, 39. Marco Polo's arrival in India, 40. Pearl fishery described, 40.
Divers, 40. Profits to the king, 41. Relics of Kayal, 41. Remains of Chinese and
Arabian earthenware, 41. Kayalpattanam a different place, 41. The Muhammadan
Interregnum, 42. The Muhammadans gain the upper hand for a time, 42. Ibn Batuta,

42. The Kingdoms of Dwdra-xamudra and ]'ijaya-nagara, 42. Paramount powers, 42.
Dwara-samudra, 43. Kings of Dvara-samudra, 43. Ramanuja's flight to Dvara-samudra,

43. Defeat of the Ballala king, 44. End of the Ballala dynasty, 44. Canarese traces
in Tinnevelly, 44. List of Dvara-samudra Kings, 45. Vijaya-nagara, 45. Origin of
Vijaya-nagara, 45. Names of Vijaya-nagara, 45. List of Vijaya-nagara kings, 46.
Dr. Burnell's list of Vijaya-nagara kings, 46. The Nayakas, 47. Differences between
the two lists unimportant, 47. Spread of Telugu in the south, 47. Krishna Rayar, 48.
Conquests over the Cholas and Pandyas, 48. Arrival of the Portuguese in this reign,
48. Kingdom of Narsinga, 49. Overthrow of Vijaya-nagara, 49. Origin of Ettaiya-
puram Zemindar, 49. Last days of the Vijaya-nagara dynasty, 50. Grant of Madras
to the English by the Raja of Chandragiri, 50. Succession of Paramount Powers in
Southern India, 50. Pandyas, Cholas, 50. Pandyas again, Nayakas, the Nawab, 51.



CHAPTER III.
From A.D. 1365 to 1731.

THE PERIOD OF THE SECOND DYNASTY OF PANDYAS AND

OF THE NAYAKAS.

Second scries of Pandya Kings, 52. Tarakrama Pandya, 52. Kampana Udaiyar, 52.
Dated inscriptions of the later Pandyas, 53. Tcnkasi inscription, 53. Srivaikuntham
inscription, 53. Ati-Vira-Rama Pandya, 53. The last of the Pandyas, 54. Value of
inscriptions as compared with oral information, 54. Vijaya-nagara supremacy, 54. The
Nayakat of Madura, 55. Sources of the history of the Nayakas, 55. Letters of the
Jesuits, 55. Commencement of the Nayaka rule, 55. The " Badages " of Xavicr, 55.
Origin of the intervention of Vijaya-nagara. 55. Visvan&thaN&yaka, 66. Number of the
Poligars, 56. Origin of the Pn/igarx of cite South, 56. Visvanatha's policy, 56, Parties
to be conciliated, 56. Visvanatha's plan of conciliation, 57. Investiture of the Poligars,
57. Doubtfulness of these traditions, 67. Etymology of "Poligar," 68. Results of the
appointment, 58. Defence of the Poligar system, 58. Krishnapuram, 59. Rebellion of
Ettaiyapuram, 59. Royal representatives in Tinnevelly, 60. Tigers on the sea coast, 60.
List of the Nayakas, 60. Listof the Nayakas of Madura, 60. Tirumalai Nayaka, 61.
Buildings erected by him, 61. Mangamma}, 61. NdyaLa Titles, 61. The Nayakas did
n t style themselves kini^s, 61. The Kaittakkaj, 62. Characteristics of the Kdyafca
Rule, 62. Reputation of the 1'a.ndyas as rulers, 62. Reputation of the Nayakas, 62.
Misrule bidden by shows, 62. Works of public utility almost unknown, 63. Adminis-
tration of laws, 03. Aniouts on tAe Tdmraparni, 63. Legend of 'the Kannadian Anai,
64. Date of this anient, 64. Another form of the legend, 64. Ariyanayakapuram
anient, (ii;. Stittamalli anicut, 66. Marudur anicut, 66. Puthugudi anicut, 66. The
Portuguese on tin- coast of Tinnevelly, 67. Vasco da Gama's information, 67. The
Portuguese at Cochin, 67. Barbosa's information, 67. The king of Travancoro at
Kayal, 67. Tin < first expedition of t he Portuguese, 68. Embassy of the Paravas to
Cochin, 68. The Portuguese in power along the coast, 68. Inroads of the " Badages"

69, Ravages of the Badages, 69, Who wire theyP 69. Collectors of Vijaya-nagara
taxes, 69. Kavier's appeal to the king of Travancoro, 69. Power of the Travancore
king, 70. Designs of the Nayakas on Travancoro, 70. Motives of the "Badages,"

70. Explanation "t" the hostility of the Badages, 71. The policy of the Portuguese, 71.
Qovernmenl of tbe coast, 71. Profits of the pearl fishery, 71. Portuguese claim aban-
doned, 71. I'vmnaikayal, 72. Annals of the Portuguese on the coast, 72. Printing



Table op contents.

v

mg of the name Tutioorin 75 T t; ■ , , e 1 or t«g»ese in Tuticorin 75 Tr'
Bea shells found inl, nd 76 Fi,f Tn hilTho ™> ™- Coral, 75. S/i ^fc
corin, 76. TutieoHnt'aken l^afiS*?! ***■"* 76. ^vemVoi £2
Boats 8 ent to the islands, 77. ^SLrtSffiL'J 7 * ^T^ 8 cfforts f « r it" reHef 77
Iut.eonntak,nhvtheI)utch 7? SI-* ?5uPV.Z.' Later notiwa of Tuticorin 78
"« AM, 78. I)„ t ,h factories 79 ^S^JSfS^T time ' 78 " ^S^Tj/er
j9 Appearance of Tuticorin, 79^ The hNhen 9 ^ 7" ^P^tion of Tuticorin
MarHn succour of the Pear) FisherviTirS,' SO v^ 1 m °?°P°ly in the fishery, 8?
lJutch alliance with Poliaaw aiwiiw tfcl v v X. Fa,I «re8 in the pearl fishevv x"
Tuticorin during the Pol Cw?rT? th T ° ^^ 82. Dates relating toTuti co ri? 8"f
» 1801, 84. Tuticorin at^eS,^. rQ ^ucbon of cotton screwing, BtTSSffifi

CHAPTEK IV.

THE PERIOD OF THE NAWAB OF ARCOT to m™

YUSCIF KHAN'S A^^SlmiT^^^

^ffittiC^^ftn 8 ^ Ch r daS ^ a ^richinop oJv85 Cha .
-9*. 86. Arrival of Sata^mTs^V^r - 86 " EKS^ Sfifc

the founder 90 f^Y d f- lgnS ' 89 " Mea ™g and ori4 of ^ stron & est f ort south
ine rounder 90. Construction of the fort 90 n * 0I1 8 m , °} tfl e name, 89. Ag-e of

garrison 91. First Selp rendered buthek^t Ii2 n and inner forts - W. English
""* .«" £»««»Sfc B „rf J^ English E°d? t ? on ^^mpany to the NawaV* Govern-

Poligar Kat aboma Nayaia 93 pTtS iT 1 ^ 8 ' 93 Id <^ «Sd off 93 t^
94. Massacre of the defines J the fort w" ^7™°^ ^ Ca P^re o? Nel icotafa
fete 96 "^ Hero /* f ™tles S delay%f ' The M dI^S ^ tt0 » Me «3Kg

Defeit nf m u? 7, t 9 7 - Trav ancore troops retire 97 t» t* ^"government, 97.
^eieat of Wahfuz Khan's troons 9S ilVi, j J' Mahfuz Khan's policv 98
Eastern Polio-ars 99 v 7i p l\ , Another defeat. 98 w M *»™ t>v j » ys -

Plundering habit* of the E ?07 g rL °"i? "",""•••««' its adva, taZ' „?'

;=:ioTPOrtiM , 108 . H d fci^ ^^srS^ffi-j^ ;«

CHAPTER V.

MUHAMMAD YUSUF khavs i™.rv. Tr

M^; v r D N ^s T0 T,,E CAr ™ E °*



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Poligar of Sivagiri, 114. Mahfuz Khan takes the field, 115. Mahfuz Khan's attempted
treachery, 115. Mahfuz Khan's exactions, 115. Siege of Palamcotta, 116. Surrender
of Madura, 116. Submission of the Ettaiyapuram Poligar, 116. Yusuf Khan's successes,
116. Proposals ahout Mahfuz Khan, 117. Confederacy against Yusuf, 117. Successes
of the confederates, 117. Yusuf s reprisals, 118. Yusuf called to help the English, 118.
Palamcotta besieged, 118. Yusuf Khan's Return, 118. Mahfuz Khan's expectations,
118. Confederacy of the eastern Poligars, 119. Yusuf' s expedition against the
Poligars, 119. Capture of Kollarpatti fort, 119. The Poligar of Uttuinalai, 120.
Travancore troops, 120. Alliance of the king of Travancore and Yusuf, 120. Vada-
garai's flight at Puli Devar's fears, 121. Travancore' s proposals, 121. Attack on a
subsidiary fort, 121. Yusuf receives supplies, 122. Description of Vasudgvanallur fort,
122. Attack on the fort, 122. Successful defence, 123. Yusuf's return, 123. His
enforced inactivity, 123. Depredations of the Poligars, 123. Hostilities of the 31 y-
soreans, 124. butch Invasion, 124. A Dutch force arrives from Colombo, 124. Yusuf's
preparation, 124. Retreat of the Dutch, 124. Yusuf Khan's operations renewed, 12o.
Yusuf and the Puli Devar, 125. Revenue Administration in TinneveUy by the Xawab, 125.
Lushington's letter, 125. Succession of administrators, 125. Yusuf's administration,

126. Fluctuations in revenue, 126. Muhammad Yusuf Khan's Rebellion, 127. Yu.-uf's
offer to rent the province, 127. Yusuf's position, 127. Dissatisfaction of Government,

127. Government suspicions of his designs, 128. Yusuf's reasons for rebelling, 128.
Yusuf's forces, 128. General Lawrence's force, 129. Yusuf's negotiations with the
French, 129. Treachery of the French Commander, 129. Yusuf Khan's death, 129.
Results of Yusuf's death, 130. Yusuf's successors, 130. State of Madura after Yusuf
Khan's death, 131.

CHAPTER VI.

TlNNEVELLY ANNALS FROM 1764- TO 1799.

PART I.

FROM THE DEATH OF YUSUF KHAN TO THE ASSIGNMENT OF

REVENUE IN 1781.

Events following the death of Yusuf Khan, 132. Protection of Palamcotta, 132. Retirement
of the Travancore troops, 132. Armed followers of the Poligars near Palamcotta, 133.
Complaints of Government against the Nawab, 133. Major Flint attempts to reduce
Poligar fort, 133. Flint's unsuccessful campaign, 134. Pdnjdlatnkuriehi, 134. Mean-
ing of the name ranjalamkurichi, 134. Succeeding Events of the Year, 135. Assault on
Panjalamkurichi a failure, 135. Determination of Government, 135. Colonel Campbell's
campaign, 135. Abandonment of Sett u r, 136. Abandonment of Sivagiri, 136. Attack
on Yasudevanallur, 136. Colonel Campbell's care for the people, 137. Cantonment at
Nankaranaiyanarkovil, 137. Cessation* of hostilities, 138. Arrangements made by the
Nawab's manager, 138. Hyder Ali's communication with the Poligars, 138. Assem-
blage of Col laries, 138. Behaviour of the Poligars towards Hyder Ali, 139. Burning
of TinneveUy Cutclierry, 139. Postal Communication between Madras and Bombay in the
hitter half of the Eighteenth Century, 139. Letters to Bombay how sent, 139. Overland
Communications, 139. Earliest date in Palamcotta church-yard, 140. Expedition
against Sivagiri, 140. Insults offered to Hindus. 140. Spices in Palamcotta, 141.
Dutch estimate of Hyder Ali, 141. Dutch alliance with Poligars, 142. Meditated
Cession of TiiDuitlli/ to the Dutch, 142.

PART IT.

FROM THE ASSIGNMENT OF REVENUE IN 1781 TO THE COMMENCEMENT
OF THE BANNERMAN-POElOAK WAR.

The Assignment, 143. Committee of Assigned Revenue, 143. Superintendents of Assigned
Revenue, lit. Intentions of Government, 144. First Collector of TinneveUy, 144.
Capture of Tutioorin, 144. Complaints of die Paravas, 146. Dispute between the.
renter and the Collector, 146. Dissatisfaction with Mr. Proctor, 115. Conduct of
European functionaries, 146. Commission to Mr. Irwin, 146. Instructions to Mr. Irwin,

116. Tutioorin Complaints, 147. Mr. Irwin enters on bis duties, 147. Mr. Proctor

ordered to leave, 117. Mr. Irwin invites Colonel Fullarton, 148. Colonel Fullarton'a
expedition as related by himtelf, 148. Strength of the Poligars, 1 18. Difficulties of the

situation, 149. Invitation to reduce the Poligars, 149. March into TinneveUy, 149.



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vll

Attack on Panjalamkurichi, 149. Abandonment of the fort. 150. Attack on Sivagiri,
151. Abandonment of the fort, 151. Terms offered to the Poligars, 151. Terms
declined, 152. Attack on the stronghold, 152. Capture of the stronghold, 152. Suc-
cess of the expedition, 153. The Colonel's threat, 153. Conditions of peace imposed,
154. Satisfaction of Government, 154. Kattaboma's treaty with the Dutch, 154.
Pearl fishery, 154. Mr. Irwin's policy, 154. Instance of filial duty, 155. Swartz's
visit, 155. Tuticorin given up, 155. Surrender of tke Assignment, 155. The surrender
of the Assignment reluctantly agreed to by Government, 155. Irwiu's forebodings,
156. The Nawab's relations with the Poligars, 156. His losses, 156. The Nawab's
Administration, 157. Effects of the Nawab's rule, 157. Improvements introduced by
Government, 157. Board of Revenue, 158. Fears of Tippu Sultan, 158. Cultivation
of spices, 158. The Period of the Assumption, 159. Difference between the Assign-
ment and the Assumption, 159. Mr. Torin Collector under the Assumption, 159.
Puli Devar again, 160. Torin's opinion of the results of Fullarton's lenity, 160. The
Treaty of 1792. Conditions of the new treaty, 160. New appointments, 161. Colonel
Maxwell's expedition, 161. Colonel Maxwell's settlement, 161. Mr. Landon, Collector,
162. Marudur anicut, 162. Troubles at Settur, 162. The Government obliged to
temporise, 163. Disorders increasing, 163. Proposed disarming of the Poligars, 163.
Mr. Powney, Collector, 164. Orders of Court of Directors, 164. A Poligar shot by
another Poligar, 164. Rebellious conduct of the Sivagiri Poligar's son, 165. Uttu-
malai Poligar, 165. Mr. Jackson, Collector, 165. Major Bannernian, 166. Mr.
Lushington, Collector, 166.



CHAPTER VII.

THE BANNERMAN-POLIGAR WAR.

Sketch of the Political Position between 1781 and 1801, 167. The Assignment of 1781, 167.
Treaty of 1787, 168. Assumption 1790, 168. Treaty of 1792, 168. The Nawab's
debts, 169. Lord Hobart's proposal, 169. Final determination of the Government,
169. View of the Political Position of Tinnevelly and the Poligar Country generally taken by
the Court of Directors prior to the commencement of the last Poligar wars, 170. Evils of
divided authority, 170. Small amount of the Nawab's collections, 170. Transfer of
tribute, 170. The Company's obligations, 170. Poligar misgovernment, 171. Antici-
pated loss to the Company, 171. A better system to be introduced, 171. The Nawab's
refusal anticipated, 172. Conclusion arrived at, 172. Kattaboma. Ndyaka, 172. Suc-
cession of the Poligars of Panjalamkurichi, 172. The Poligar's brothers, 173. Ettai-
yapuram, 173. Events preceding Major Bannerman' s Expedition, 173. Conduct of
Kattaboma, 173. Orders of Government, 173. Commencement of final struggle, 173.
Kattaboma breaks away, 174. Mr. Jackson's proceedings disapproved, 174. Katta-
boma defended, 174. Kattaboma condemned, 175. Subsequent letter of the Board of
Revenue to the Madras Government, 175. Extracts, 175. Hopes of Government, 175.
Collector superseded, 175. An inquiry to be instituted, 176. Fresh orders from Gov-
ernment, 176. Recapitulation, 176. Disapproval of Jackson's severity, 176. Acquittal
of the murder of Lieutenant Clarke, 177. A new arrangement to be made, 177. Con-
clusion arrived at, 177. Mr. Jackson's character, 177. Mr. Lushington's dealings
with Kattaboma, 178. He refers to Government, 178. An expedition recommended,
178. Different sides taken by different Poligars, 178. Troops set free by the taking of
Seringapatam, 179. Major Bannerman'' s Expedition, 179. Letter of Government to the
Board of Revenue, 180. Reasons of Government, 180. Proclamation by the Collector,
180. To all Poligars, Landholders, and Inhabitants of every description within the coun-
tries commonly called the Tinnevelly Pollams, 180. Attempt to take Panjalamkurichi, 181.
To the Secretary to Government, 182. Call to the Poligar to surrender, 182. The
Poligar's escape anticipated, 182. Failure of the attack, 182. Dissatisfaction with
Native troops, 183. The fort abandoned, 183. The Poligar's end, 183. Major Ban-
nerman to the Secretary to Government, 183. Particulars of Major Bannerman's expedi-
tion, 183. Events which followed the Poligar's escape, 184. Assistance of Ettaiyapuram,

184. Capture of important prisoners, 184. Subrahmanya Pillai's guilt and sentence,

185. Two principal offenders executed, 185. Kattaboma taken, 187. Assembly to
witness the execution of Kattaboma, 187. Sentence on Kattaboma, 187. Address to
the assembled Poligars, 188. Execution of Kattaboma, 188. Disloyal Poligars dispos-
sessed, 189. Disarmament ordered, 189. Penalties for disobedience, 189. Explanation
of reasons, 190. Forts to be demolished, 190. Poligars ask for help to demolish their
forts, 191. Approval of Government, 191. Results, 191. Proclamations inscribed on
brass, 192. Leniency to certain Poligars, 192. Banishment of dangerous persons, 192.
Mapillai Vanniyan, 193. Reappearance of the demolished forts, 193. Major Banner-
man's success, 193.



Till TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER Till.

THE LAST POLIGAR WAR, 194.

Events preceding the outbreak, 194. General Welsh's account, 194. Mr. Hughes's account,
194. The two Panjalamkurichi brothers, 19.5. Escape of the prisoners from the Falamcotta
Jail and subsequent events, 195. Position of things prior to the outbreak, 195. Escape
of the prisoners, 195. Unavailing pursuit, 196. Measures adopted by the authorities,

196. Attack on the camp by the Poligars, 196. Arrival of troops at Panjalanikurichi,

197. Condition of the fort, 197. Retreat from Panjalamkurichi, 197. Preparations for
resistance, 197. Hughes's opinion, 198. Failure of attack in Kadalgudi, 198. Defence
of Srivaikuntham, 199. The Native Christians, 199. Welsh's error, 199. Return to
Panjalamkurichi, 200. March to Panjalamkurichi, 200. Skirmish on the way, 200.
Description of fort, 201. The assault on the fort, 201. The defence, 201. Bravery of
the enemy, 202. Aid of E^taiyapuram, 202. More extensive preparations, 202. Help
obtained from Ceylon, 202. Sortie from the fort in a storm, 203. The final assault, 203.
A breach made by the battery, 204. Successful assault, 204. The enemy abandon the
fort, 204. Killed and wounded, 204. The interior of the fort, 205. Description of the
enemy's defences, 205. Destruction of the fort, 205. Reminiscences of the Dumb bro-
ther, 206. Veneration in which the dumb brother was held, 206. He is discovered
amongst the wounded, 206. His concealment, 207. Tombs — At Ottapiddramont mile from
Panjalamkurichi, 207. In the Cemetery at Panjalamkurichi, 207. The Panjalamkurichi
Epic, 207. Victory Canto, 208.

CHAPTER IX.

CONCLUSION OF THE POLIGAR WAR, CESSION OF THE CARNATIC
TO THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT.

Transfer of the war to Sivagangai, 209. Armed retainers of the Poligars still at large,
209. Welsh's estimate of the Poligars, 209. Fort of Kamudi, 209. Ramnad, 209.
Colonel Martinz, 210. Junction with Colonel Innes's force, 210. The " Murdoos" and
" Sherewele," 210. The two Marava States, 210. Orme's Nellicotah, 210. Description of
Sivagangai, 211. The people of Sivagangai, 211. Usurpation in Sivagangai, 211.
Conditions offered to the rulers of Sivagangai, 211. Death of the chief, 212. Colonel
Stewart's expedition, 212. The Murdoos, 212. Origin of the title Marudu, 212. The
two brothers, 213. Vellai Marudu, 213. Chinna Marudu, 213. End of the Marudus,
214. The village of the Marudus, 214. Reasons for Kattaboma's taking refuge in
Sivagangai, 214. Mr. Lushington's policy, 215. Explanation of the hostility of the
Marudus, 215. Smaller forts attacked, 215. Small naval war, 215. Success of Master
Attendant of Paumben, 216. The Capture of Kdlaiydrkovil, 216. Nature of the enemy's
resistance, 216. Burning of Siruvayal, 216. A road to be cut through the jungle, 217.
Attack on a post, 217. Another post taken, 217. A post taken, 218. A redoubt
erected, 218. The .attempt to cut through the jungle abandoned, 218. Attempts to
convey letters, 219. The force moves off, 219. The true heir proclaimed, 219. Success
of the measure, 220. Capture of a fortified pagoda, 220. Meaning of Kalaij arkovil,
220. Attack on the place in three divisions, 220. Success of the advance through the
forest, 220. Meeting of the attacking forces, 221. Description of Kalaiyarkovil, 221.
Events that followed the capture of Kdlaiydrkovil, 221. Advance to Mangalam, 221.
The rebels disbanded, 222. Execution of the principal rebels, 222. Results of the
victory, 222. Minor rebels sent to Tuticorin, 222. Fate of Panjalamkurichi, 222.
Capture of Sivattaiya, 223. The Maravas of Nanguneri, 223. Lushington's dealings
with the Kaval^ars, 223. Remuneration of Kavalgars, 224. Exception of the Nangu-
neri Maravars, 224. Loyal Poligars rewarded, 225. Cession of the country to the English
Government, 225. Results of the cession, 225. Proclamation, 226. Consequences of
the rebellion, 226. Future condition of Poligars, 226. Kattaboma's offence, 226. Sup-
} > i • s.sion of the rebellion, 226. Proofs of British Government's strength, 226. Punish-
ment of rebellion necessary, 226. Loyalty rewarded, 226. Estates of rebels not appro-
priated by Government, 227. Hopes for the futuro, 227. All weapons prohibited, 227.
Arms no longer necessary, 227. Evil custom to be relinquished, 227. Amnesty to
all but a few, 227. A permanent assessment promised to the Poligars, 228. Concluding



Online LibraryRobert CaldwellA political and general history of the District of Tinnevelly, in the Presidency of Madras, from the earliest period to its cession to the English Government in A. D. 1801 → online text (page 1 of 38)