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REESE LIBRARY



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



Received ^ ySit^P^^C^ . . , i88(^

(

35




Accessions No}^X—97 Shelf No.



eg. ' ^o



THE LIFE



MARMADUKE RAWDON OF YORK,



MARMADUKE RAWDON

THE SECOND OF THAT NAME.

NOW FIRST PRINTED FROM THE ORIGINAL MS. IN THE POSSESSION OF
ROBERT COOKE, ESQ. F.R.G.S.



EDITED BY

ROBERT DAVIES, ESQ. F.S.A.




PRINTED FOR THE CAMDEN SOCIETY.



aT.DCCC.LXIII.






WESTMINSTER :

PRINTED BY JOHN BOWYER NICHOLS AND SONS,

25, PARLIAMENT STREET.



-y/



[no. lxxxv.]



COUNCIL OF THE CAMDEN SOCIETY

FOR THE YEAR 1863-64.



President,
THE MOST HON. THE MARQUESS OF BRISTOL, F.S.A.
ARTHUR ASHPITEL, ESQ. F.S.A.

WILLIAM HENRY BLAAUW, ESQ. M.A., F.S.A. Treasurer.
JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.S.A. Director.
WILLIAM CURRANT COOPER, ESQ. F.S.A.
JAMES CROSBY, ESQ. F.S.A.
THE RIGHT HON. LORD FARNHAM.
JOHN FORSTER, ESQ. LL.D,
THE REV. LAMBERT B. LARKING, M.A.
JOHN MACLEAN, ESQ. F.S.A.
SIR FREDERIC MADDEN, K.H. F.R.S.
FREDERIC OUVRY, ESQ. Treas.S.A.
WILLIAM SALT, ESQ. F.S.A.
WILLIAM JOHN THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A. Secretary.
WILLIAM TITE, ESQ. M.P. F.R.S. F.S.A.
HIS EXCELLENCY M. VAN DE WEYER, D.C.L., Hon. F.S.A.



The Council of the Camben Society desire it to be under-
stood that they are not answerable for any opinions or observa-
tions that may appear in the Society's publications; the Editors
of the several Works being alone responsible for the same.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introduction xi

Pedigree of Rawdon . . . . . . . . xxx

The Life op Marmaduke Rawdon of Yorke.

His birth, education, and recreations ..... 1

His schoolfellows ........ 3

Death of his father ........ 4

Journey to London, and preferment by his uncle Sir Marmaduke
Rawdon, who sends him to Flushing ..... 5

Embarks for Bordeaux ........ 6

Returns to Flushing ........ 7

And thence to England ....... 8

Embarks at Rye for Dieppe, and goes by Paris to Bordeaux . ib.
Returns to England, and again visits France .... 9

Embarks at St. Malo for the Isle of Wight .... ib.

Story of the Earl's daughter 10

He returns to London . . • ; • • • .15

Embarks at Barnstaple for the Canaries . . . .16

Settles at La Laguna.in Teneriffe . . . . . ib.

Receives orders to return home . . . . . .17

Stately journey to the port of Orotava ... . ib.

Entertained by the Governor of Gomera . . . .19

Lands at Portsmouth ........ 20

Arrival at London 22

Entertained by Sir Mannaduke Rawdon at Hoddesdon . . 23
Presented to the King and Queen at Greenwich ... 25
Visits the " Royal Sovereign " at Erith .... ib.

Country recreations . . . . . . . .26

He visits Yorkshire . . . . . . , .27

Returns to the Canaries 31



VI



CONTENTS.



PAGE
Sends a present to Sir Marmaduke Rawdon .... 32
Lines addressed to him by the " Vicar of Broxbourne " . . 33
Mr. Rawdon takes his cousin Marmaduke Rawdon Junr. into

partnership ......... 35

Obtains a Tobacco monopoly from the King of Spain . . ih.
Rents the principality belonging to the Prince of Asculi in

Teneriffe 36

Description of his establishment . . . . . .38

War between England and Spain ..... 39

Mr. Rawdon embarks at Orotava for England ... 40



Actions done by him.

His kindness to the Bishop of the Canary Islands ... 42
His generosity to poor and oppressed Spaniards and others . 44
He persuades an English physician to live at the Canaries, and

obtains the services of an English chaplain ... 45

Visits the nuns of St. Dominic and St. Clare ... 46

Ascent of the Peak of Teneriffe ...... 48

Visits several of the Canary Islands . . . . .52

Dexterity as a marksman , . . . . . .53



Of casual Accidents and Dangers he Escaped.
Adventure in the Port of Santa Cruz .
Narrow escape from drowning . . .
Encounter with a Spanish Knight
His four duels ......



54
ib.
56
ib.



His Voyage to England.

The bird of bad omen ......

The storm ........

The strange sail .......

Mr. Rawdon lands at Dartmouth, and hears bad news
His Spanish foot-boy ......

Entertained by the Governor of Dartmouth .
He proceeds via Exeter to London



63
64
65
67
68
69
70



CONTENTS. VU



His travelling companions. — Mrs. Fax ....

His reception at Hoddesdon by Lady Rawdon

First journey into Yorkshire, after his return from the Canaries

Met at Tadcaster by fifty gentlemen, who escort him to York

Entertained at the Talbot by the chief Aldermen .

Dines with the Lord Mayor and others ....

Matches proposed for him by his friends

After visiting Elvington, Hull, and Scarborough, he returns to

London .........

Second journey into Yorkshire .....

His rencontre with the Lady Temple ....

How he passed the winter in York ....

Attacked with ague, and removes to Elvington

He travels by the York coach towards London, and arrives at

Hoddesdon ........

Visits Bath and Bristol . . . . . .

He returns to Hoddesdon, and enjoys the sport of buck

hunting .........

Third journey into Yorkshire

Hospitality of the citizens of York ....

Mr. Rawdon leaves York, and spends the winter at Hoddesdon

Visits Laytonstone, Tunbridge, Penshurst, &c.

Sets out on his travels in France and Flanders

Dines with the Governor of Dunkirk . . . .

Visits Bruges, Ghent, Brussels, Louvaine, Mechlin, anc

Antwerp ........

Continues his journey, via Amsterdam, Haarlem, and Leyden

to the Hague ........

Mr. Rawdon has an audience of the Prince of Orange

Visits Delf, Rotterdam, Doi-t, Travier, Middleburgh, Flushing,

and Ostend ........

Embarks for England, lands at Deal, and proceeds to Hoddes-
don .........

Visits St. Alban's, Epsom, and Laytonstone .

A strange dream .....



PAGE

71
72
73
75
76
77
ib.

79
81
ib.
83
84

85
86

87
88
ib.
89
90
92
93

95

99
106

107

110

111

ib.



Viu CONTENTS.



Excursion into Norfolk . . . . . . .111

Mr. Eawdon is admitted into the Company of Canary merchants 112
Visits Gobions, the seat of Sir Philip Mathew . . . ib.

His Northern Journey.

Route 1. — Huntingdon, Peterborough, Crowland, Spalding,
Swinstead, Boston, Lincoln, Littleburgh, Bawtry, Doncaster,
York .......... tfi.

2. — Knaresborough, Ripon, Boroughbridge, York . . .117

3. — Leeds, Kirkstall Abbey, Bradford, Halifax, Wakefield,

Sandal Castle, Pontefract, New Hall, York . . .120

4.— Helmsley Park, Gilling Castle, Crake Castle, York . 123

Journey to Scotland.

Route. — Northallerton, Darlington, Durham, Lt;mley Castle,
Newcastle, Morpeth, Alnwick, Belford, Berwick-on-Tweed,
Dunbar, Musselburgh, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Glasgow,
Dumbarton, Stirling, Edinburgh, Leith, Dunbar, Berwick,
Belford, Holy Island, Morpeth, Newcastle, Shields, Tyne-
mouth, Durham, Northallerton, York . . . .126

Excursions in Yorkshire.

1. — Malton, Scarborough, Whitby, York . . . .145

2.— Hull, Beverley, York .147

3. — Stearsby, Crake Castle, South Stainley, Fountains Abbey,
Crake Castle, Thirsk, Carlton-Miniot, Raskelfe, Coxwould,
Byland Abbey, Wasse, Kirkby Moorside,' Lestingham,
Slingsby Castle, Sheriff Hutton, York . . . .149

4. — Leeds, Raw don, York . . . . . . .154

5. — Crake Castle, Cawton Hall, Gilling Castle, Raskelfe, York ib.

Return to Hoddesdon.

Route. — Tadcaster, Sherburn, Doncaster, Newark, Grantham,
Stamford, Huntingdon, Caxton, Royston, Puckeridge, Ware,

Hoddesdon 155

He diverts himself at London, Laytonstone, and Greenwich . 159



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE

Western Journey.

Route 1. — Hertford, Hitchin, Bedford, TuiTcy, Northampton,
Holmeby House, Daventry, Coventry, Kenilworth Castle,
Warwick, Leamington, Warwick, Alcester, Worcester, Kid-
denninster, Shrewsbuiy, Pitchford, Wrexham, West Chester,
Flint, Holywell, Hawarden, Chester, Holt Castle, Shrews-
bury, Ludlow, Hereford, Gloucester, Berkeley, Thombiiry,

Bristol . .159

2.— Wells, Glastonbury, Wokey Hole, Bristol . . .175

3,— Alderley, Bath, Bristol .178

4. — Alst, Beachley, Buttington, Crowdstone Hill, Tintem
Abbey, Monmouth, Ragland Castle, Usk, Langibby, Caerleon,

Newport 179

5. — Tredegar, Cardiff, Llandaff, Newport . . . . 185

G. — Caerwent, Chepstow, Beachley, Bristol .... 186

Excursion in the King's wherry to Keynsham . . .188
Returns to Hoddesdon. Route — Tedbury, Cirencester, Faringdon,
Abingdon, Thame, Aylesbury, Berkhampstead, St. Alban's,
Hatfield, Hoddesdon ....... ih.

Visit to Harlington . . . . . . . .192

English and Latin verses presented to him by a young scholar 193
Mr. Rawdon is thrown from his horse . . . . .195

His death and burial ........ i6.

His legacies ......... 196

His person and character ....... ih.

General Index .......... 197



CAMi). son.




INTRODUCTIOK



Marmaduke Rawdon, whose biography, printed for the first
time from the original MS., forms the volume now offered to the
Camden Society, sprang from a younger branch of the ancient
family of Rawdon or Rawden, which was seated for many centuries
at a place of that name, situate in the parish of Guiseley in the
West Riding of Yorkshire. *' Near unto New- Lathes Bridge
(Thoresby tells us in his quaint manner) the parish of Leedes is
bounded with Rawden, which place gave name to a race of gen-
tlemen, among whom Sir George Rawden was so deservedly famous
for repulsing the Irish in the year 1641."* If reliance may be
placed upon the authenticity of the pedigree printed by the Leeds
historian, which, he says, he received from Madam Priscilla Rawden,
the surviving sister of Sir George, there were twelve or thirteen
generations of the lords of Rawden, commencing at the Norman
Conquest, and coming down in an unbroken line to John Rawden,
Esquire, who lived at Rawden in the reign of King Henry VIII.,
and had two sons named John and Ralph. John, the elder son,
succeeded to the family estate, and was the ancestor of Sir George
Rawdon of whom Thoresby speaks — who was created a Baronet in
1665— and whose great-grandson. Sir John Rawdon, was the first

* Ducatus Leodiensis, or the Topography of the Town and Parish of Leedes in the
West Riding of the County of York. By Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S. Folio. London, 1715,
p. 868.

CAMD. SOC. C



XU INTRODUCTION.

Earl of Moira. Ralph, the younger son, migrated from his pa-
ternal home in the West Riding, and settled at a place called Kep-
wick in the North Riding. He was the father of a second Ralph
Rawdon, who, towards the close of the sixteenth century, was a
country gentleman living at Stearsby, one of a number of small
villages that lie nestled among the picturesque hills which form the
north-eastern border of the great central plain of Yorkshire. Stearsby
is not very far distant from Kepwick, which is situated near the
southern extremity of the adjacent vale of Cleveland.

The second Ralph Rawdon had several sons. The eldest was
Laurence Rawdon of York, who flourished in that city as a respect-
able merchant in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James 1.
One of the younger sons was Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, the brave
and zealous royalist of the time of King Charles I., who became as
" deservedly famous " as the Leeds historian represents his kinsman
Sir George Rawdon to have been at the same period.

Ralph Rawdon, of Stearsby, belonged to a numerous class of
Yorkshire gentlemen of good family and small estate — the gentes
minores of the county — who in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-
turies thought it no degradation to bring up their sons to the trade
or commerce of the city. He bound his eldest son apprentice to a
mercer or merchant at York; and in the year 1593 Laurence
Rawdon was admitted to the city franchise and became a member
of the Company of Merchant- Adventurers. A few years afterwards
we find him married, and established in business.* His wife's name

* Laurence Rawdon ranked as a merchant, but his special business or trade was that
which would novv be called a wholesale grocer. Sugar, a costly luxury in those days,
was one of the articles in which he dealt. Here is one of his bills for sugar-loaves sup-
plied to the corporation to form part of a complimentary offering presented by the Lady



INTRODUCTION. Xlll

was Margery, daughter of William Barton esquire, the head of a
family which had long been seated at the village of Cawton, not far
distant from Stearsby. The Bartons of Cawton and Whenby were
of old gentllitial blood, and connected with the Danbys, the Picker-
ings, the Lascelleses, the Nortons, and others of the best families of
the North Kiding.

Laurence Rawdon lived at York in the palmy days of that
" ancient and famous city,"* which, during the long and for the most
part peacefiil reign of Elizabeth, had gradually attained a high
degree of material prosperity and social refinement. At the close
of the sixteenth century the commerce of the city was widely ex-
tended — her merchants were enterprising and affluent — her trades-
men numerous and thriving. The great Court of the Presidency
of the North had long been stationed at York. For nearly a
quarter of a century Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, a
learned and pious nobleman, had administered the affairs of the
vice-regal government. He and his countess, a sister of Queen
Elizabeth's former favourite Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester,
passed great part of every year at the royal palace, called "the
King's Manor," which stood in close proximity to the city. They
drew around them a polished and brilliant society. The Court of

Mayoress of York, and the aldermen's ladies, to Lady ShefiBeld, the wife of the Lord
President of the North, upon her first coming to the Royal Manor at York in the year
1603.

Bought of Laurance Rawdon,
ij loves of superfine sewgar weinge xij". xiiij"'',, at xxiij". per". xxiiij*. ix"".

The following payment is entered in the account of the city chamberlains for the year
1606:

To Lawrence Rawdon for xxviij". v^^ of suger, bestowed of Mrs. Mathew, my lord
archbusshop's wife, at her first coming to York, by my lady Mares & ladies, xlij*. iij**.

» See Memoir, p. 1, post.



XIV INTRODUCTION.

the Lord President was composed of his executive council and a
numerous staff of legal functionaries, many of whom were dis-
tinguished by rank and position in the county, or eminent for
literary and professional acquirements. The accomplished and hos-
pitable Archbishop Matthew Hutton was at the head of the church
of York during part of this period, and he was succeeded by the
witty and eloquent prelate, Tobie Mathew. The Deanery of York
was held by Dr. John Thorneborough, who was at the same time
Bishop of Limerick.^ Among the dignitaries and ecclesiastical
officers of the cathedral were many persons whose names are not
unknown to fame — men celebrated as able theologians or skilful
lawyers. Possessing social attractions and advantages unattainable
by any mere provincial town, York was the constant resort of
most of the principal families of the surrounding counties, and
fully maintained her claim to be the Metropolis of the North.

The progress of the mercantile community of York in intelligence
and respectability had kept pace with that of the higher classes, and
the leading citizens were freely admitted into the social circle of
their aristocratic neighbours. Many of the contemporaries of Lau-
rence Rawdon, merchants and tradesmen who filled the more im-
portant municipal offices, acquired wealth by comm.crcial enterprise,
and became founders of families which subsequently rose to rank
and distinction.^ Laurence Rawdon's course of worldly prosperity

* Afterwards translated to the see of Bristol, and finally Bishop of Worcester.

b A single example may suffice. The late Thomas Philip Weddell Robinson, Earl de
Grey, K.Gr. and his brother the late Frederick John Robinson, Earl of Ripon, were of tlie
seventh generation in lineal male descent from William Robinson, a merchant and
alderman of York, who died in the year 1616. His great-grandson Sir Metcalfe Ro-
binson was created a Baronet in 1660. A century later, Thomas Robinson, the grandson
of Sir Metcalfe, was advanced to the dignity of the peerage as Lord Grantham, and



INTRODUCTION. XV

was interrupted by his premature death. He was one of the sheriffs
of the city in 1615, and was elected an alderman and took his seat
on the magisterial bench in 1624. Within two years afterwards,
before it came to his turn to occupy the civic chair, he died at the
comparatively early age of 58.* His wife survived him, with four
children, of whom, Marmaduke, the subject of the following memoir,
was the youngest.

Young Marmaduke Rawdon, his biographer tells us, "was
brought up with all manner of learning that the City of York could
afford." This, doubtless, means that he was a pupil in the grammar
school of St. Peter of York, which was then, as it is now, one
of the most celebrated places of education in the North of England.
It had been established under the patronage of the Dean and
Chapter of York at the time of the Reformation, and by a royal
grant, made in the reign of Philip and Mary, was endowed with the
house and possessions of the dissolved hospital of Saint Mary
that stood near a place called the Horse-fair in the suburbs of the
city. Fuller in his "Worthies of England,'"' and Strype in his
" Life of Sir John Cheke,"° have perpetuated the fame of the York
school by particularising some of the eminent persons who were
pupils there in the latter half of the sixteenth century, when Mr.
John PuUeyn, B.A. was the master.*^ Mr. Pulleyn died in the year

afterwards succeeded to the baronetcy. The present Earl de Grey and Ripen, the great-
grandson of the first Lord Grantham, enjoys the peerages of his father and uncle and the
baronetcy of his more remote ancestor. Alderman William Robinson was a near
neighbour of Laurence Rawdon. They lived and died in the same parish and were
buried in the same church.

" He was buried in the parish church of Saint Crux at York on the 6th July, 1626.

b Ed. 1811, vol. ii. p. 540. <= Ed. 1705, p. 190.

<• Thomas Morton, the eminent Bishop of Durham, whose father was a York merchant,



XVI INTRODUCTION.

1590, and was succeeded in the office of " ludimagister of the free
school in the Horse-fayre," by the Reverend John Bayles, M.A,
The biographer of Marmaduke Rawdon, with a spice of pardonable
vanity, has recorded the names of such of his condiscipuli as he con-
sidered to be persons of consequence. The list includes several
youths who were connected with principal families of the city and
county.

Upon the death of his father, Marmaduke Rawdon, who had then
attained his sixteenth year, was suddenly removed from the quiet
routine of scholastic discipline in his native city to the activity of
mercantile life in the heart of what was even then the great metro-
polis. His uncle Marmaduke, afterwards Sir Marmaduke Rawdon,
who had risen to eminence as a London merchant, requested that
the boy might be committed to his parental care. Sir Marmaduke
gratefully remembered, that, when he was of the same age, his
elder brother Laurence had taken him to London, had placed
him in business there, and had thus laid the foundation of his fortunes.
He at once adopted his orphan nephew, and received him into his
family as one of his own children.

When the younger Marmaduke became a member of his uncle's
household, the London merchant was in the prime of life,
and at the height of prosperity. He had married a wealthy heiress,

was educated at York under Mr. Pulleyn. In a memoir of the bishop, published at York
in 1669, the author of which was his secretary and chaplain, we have this passage : —
"He was put to schoole to learne the English elements in the same city, where, as I have
heard him say, were his school-fellows Mr. Thomas Cheeke (after knighted by King
James) grandchild to that famous scholler Sir John Cheeke, and Guy Faux, who after-
wards proved that famous and fatall incendiary in that never to be forgotten gunpowder
treason, which God Almighty, through King James his singular and divine wisdome, most
happily prevented and subverted." — The Life of Dr. Thomas Morton, Bishop of Duresme.
12mo. York, 1669, p. 4.




INTRODUCTION.



XVIX



and was the father of a numerous family. He enjoyed the re-
putation of being one of the most enterprising and successful of
the English mercantile adventurers of his day. His transactions
extended to almost all parts of the known world. He traded largely
in the wines, both of France and the Peninsula, through agencies or
factories established at Bordeaux and Oporto. From the merchants
of Holland and the Netherlands he purchased the produce of the
vintages which flourished on the banks of the Ehine and its tribu-
taries. To encourage the introduction into this country of the wine
recently produced in the Canary Islands, he joined in forming an im-
portant factory at Tenerifie. He was among the earliest of the ad'
venturers who invested capital in the cultivation of the sugar planta-
tions of the Island of Barbadoes.* It is said that he was one of the
first who rigged out a ship for the discovery of the North- West
Passage. He was a member of the Company of Turkey Merchants ;
and he possessed the confidence of the French merchants who traded
with England, and acted as their friendly advocate when negotia-
tions with our government took them before the council-table. We

* Barbadoes was first settled under the authority of letters patent granted by James I.
A subsequent grant was made by Charles I. (See Verney Papers, ed. Camden Soc. p.
193, note.) We learn from the Calendar of State Papers, 1628-29, that Mr. Marmaduke
Rawdon was either sole or part owner of the following ships in the years 1626 and
1627:—



1626,
Sept. 15.

1627,


Owners,

Marmaduke Roydon,
Rowland Wilson,
and others.


Names.

Transport of
London


Tonnage.

200


Captains or Masters.
Henry West.


Jan. 30.


Marmaduke Roydon


Patience of

London,
George


300

80


Christopher Mitchell


Feb. 21.


Marmaduke Roydon
and others


Vintage of
London


140


Richard West.



XVlll INTRODUCTION.

are not surprised to be told that he was much esteemed by the royal
favourite Buckingham, and that he received marked attention from
both the great Duke's masters, King James I. and King Charles I.

That Mr. Eawdon was upon terms of friendly and familiar
intercourse with the latter monarch is apparent from a letter ad-
dressed' by him to the Secretary of State, Sir John Coke, which
happens to be preserved among the State Papers of the year 1627.

Eight Honorabl'.

After his maiestie had read that p't of the Spanish letter that is hear
translated, his maiestie saide it was of great importance, and comaunded
me and Capt. Marsh to deliver both the oregenall with the p't translaited,
and this letter from the fathers at Rome, unto your honneur, till his
further pleasure was known. Thes letters I had, w*'' a number of others,
in a shipp w'^'^ we tooke at sea, with sugars newly comed from Brasill, and
fynding it of consequenc I thought it my dewty to present it to his maiestie ;
thus humbly kissing your honeurs hands, I wish all health and good for-
tunes may attende you.

Your honeurs sarvantt to dispose of,

Maemaduke Rawdon.

Tottnam, this 7th September, 1627.

(Addressed)

To the Eight Honorabl'. Sir John Cooke, Knight, one of his
maiesties secretary, att Tottnham, thes.

We gather from this letter that Mr. Rawdon and the captain of
one of his merchant-ships had called at the palace and been admitted
to an interview with the King. A Spanish vessel freighted with
sugars from Brazil had been captured by the Englishman, and her
papers seized. Among them were letters which the merchant
thought of sufficient importance to be presented to the notice of his
sovereign. The King was of the same opinion, and in the usual
manner commanded them to be laid before his Secretary of State.



INTRODUCTION. XIX

In the year 1628 Mr. Rawdon sat in the House of Commons as
one of the representatives of the commercial and ship-building town
of Aldborough in the county of Suffolk, but it does not appear
that he was returned to any subsequent parliament. At an early
period of his career he was made a member of the municipal cor-
poration of the city of London, but upon being afterwards elected
an alderman he refused to accept the office. As soon as he per-
ceived that the citizens were " inclined to the parliament," he re-
signed his commission as one of the lieutenant-colonels of the city
militia. Of his loyalty to the King, and his military services and
bravery in the Civil War, I shall afterwards speak.

To enter into active life under the auspices of a relative who had



Online LibraryRobert DaviesThe life of Marmaduke Rawdon of York, or, Marmaduke Rawdon the second of that name. Now first printed from the original ms. in the possession of Robert Cooke .. → online text (page 1 of 24)