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Robert E. Wyllie.

Orders, decorations and insignia, military and civil; with the history and romance of their origin and a full description of each online

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4lsT DIVISION 42d DIVISION 76th DIVISION 77th DIVISION







78th DIVISION 79th DIVISION 80th DIVISION 8IST DIVISION



SHOULDER INSIGNIA



tured 2357 prisoners, and advanced eleven kilometres
against resistance, losing 1785 killed and 7021 wounded.

The insignia is an "N. Y." in monogram and the seven
principal stars of the constellation Orion, in compliment
to the division commander, Maj. Gen. J. F. O'Ryan. A
uhique feature in connection with this insignia is that only-
soldiers rated by the company commanders as "first-class
soldiers" were permitted to wear it.

The 28th, hke the 27th, was an organized division in the
National Guard. It came from the State of Pennsylvania,
New York and Pennsylvania being the only two States
with complete divisions in their Guard at the outbreak
of the war. It was trained at Camp Hancock, Georgia,
leaving for France in May, 191 8.

This division served in the Aisne sector July 28th and
29th; Vesle sector, August 7th to September 7th; Meuse-
Argonne operation, September 20th to October 8th;
Thiaucourt sector, October i6th to November nth. It
was thirty-one days in quiet sectors and forty-nine in
active, capturing 921 prisoners; it advanced ten kilo-
metres against resistance and lost 2551 killed and 11,429
wounded, the highest of any National Guard division,
and was exceeded only by the ist, 2d, and 3d regular
divisions. The Keystone of Pennsylvania was selected
as its device.

The 2Qth Division was organized at Camp McClellan,
Alabama, from the National Guard of the States of New
Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and the District
of Columbia. It arrived in France in June, 191 8, and
served in the Vosges July 25th to September 21st and

221



0tttt$i, ©etoratiottJBi, anb Sn^^ignia

north of Verdun October 7th to 29th. It spent fifty-nine
days in quiet sectors and twenty-two in active. It cap-
tured 2187 prisoners, advanced seven kilometres against
resistance, and lost 951 killed and 4268 wounded.

The divisional insignia is taken from the Korean symbol
of good luck, and the personnel, partly from the North
and partly from the South, was responsible for its name,
the Blue and Grey Division, and for the colours of the
insignia which should be reversed from position shown in
illustration.

Organized at Camp Sevier, South Carolina, from the
National Guard of Tennessee and North and South
Carolina, the joth Division arrived in France in May,
191 8, and served entirely with the British, alongside the
27th Division. It was in the Canal sector, south of Ypres,
July 1 6th to August 17th, being brigaded with the British
at that time ; then under American command in the same
sector to September 3d; in Northern Picardy, including
breaking the Hindenburg line, September 24th to 29th;
October 6th to nth, and i6th to i8th.

Serving sixty-five days in active sectors, none in quiet,
the division captured 3848 prisoners, advanced twenty-nine
and one half kilometres against resistance, and lost 1629
killed and 7325 wounded. It was known as the Old
Hickory Division, taken from the nickname of the famous
Tennesseean, Andrew Jackson, and the insignia shows
the letter "O" surrounding the letter "H," with the
Roman numerals XXX inside the cross-bar of the "H,"
representing the divisional number, "30." This is worn
horizontally, not vertically, as the design reads. This

222



insignia was used on the divisional transport long before
the adoption of the shoulder insignia.

The J I St Division was organized from the National
Guard, of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, at Camp
Wheeler, Georgia. It went to France in October, 191 8,
and never entered the line. The insignia stands for the
initials of the nickname, the Dixie Division, and was used
for marking the baggage as early as November, 191 7.

The J2d Division was organized from the National
Guard of Michigan and Wisconsin, at Camp McArthur,
Texas. It arrived in France in February, 191 8 ; served on
the Alsace front May 21st to July 19th; Fismes front
July 30th to August 6th; Soissons, August 28th to Sep-
tember 1st; Meuse-Argonne, September 30th to October
19th, including the operations against the Kriemhild line;
east of the Meuse, November 8th to nth; in the Army of
Occupation from November 17th. It spent sixty days in
quiet sectors and thirty-seven in active; captured 2153
prisoners, advanced thirty-six kilometres against resist-
ance, and lost 2915 killed and 10,477 wounded. The
insignia of an arrow was selected because they "shot
through every line the Boche put before them."

The jjd Division was organized from the National
Guard of Illinois, at Camp Logan, Texas. It went to
France in May, 191 8; served in the Amiens sector with
the Australians July 19th to August 20th, by detachments.
From September loth to November nth some units of the
division were always in the line, serving north of Verdun
and west of the Meuse during the Meuse-Argonne opera-
tion. For thirty-two days it served in quiet sectors and

223



twenty-seven in active; captured 3987 prisoners, more
than any other National Guard division, and was sur-
passed in this respect by only three in the army, the ist,
2d, and 89th. It advanced thirty-six kilometres against
resistance and lost 989 killed and 6266 wounded.

The colours of this division's insignia are said to have
been chosen because they were the only paints available
when it became necessary to mark the equipment in Texas
before leaving for France.

The 34th Division was organized from the National
Guard of Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and
South Dakota, at Camp Cody, New Mexico. It went to
France in October, 191 8, but did not get into the line.
The bovine skull on the insignia is a conventionalization
of the Mexican water flask, and with the name. Sand-
storm Division, is strongly suggestive of the State where
the division was organized and trained. In the authorized
insignia the figures and words are omitted.

The 35 th Division was organized from the National
Guard of Missouri and Kansas, at Camp Doniphan, Okla-
homa. It went to France in May, 191 8, and served first,
a brigade at a time, in the Vosges between June 30th and
August 13th. The whole division served in the Gerard-
mer sector, Alsace, August 14th to September ist; Meuse-
Argonne, September 21st to 30th; Sommedieu sector,
October 15th to November 6th.

The men of this division were ninety-two days in quiet
sectors and five in active; advanced twelve and one half
kilometres against resistance, captured 781 prisoners, and
lost 1067 killed and 6216 wounded. Their device shows

224



the old Santa Fe cross, which was employed to mark the
Santa Fe Trail in the old days. This trail started near Camp
Doniphan. This emblem was adopted for marking the
property and baggage soon after the organization of the
division.

The 36th Division was organized from the National
Guard of Texas and Oklahoma, at Camp Bowie, Texas.
It went to France in July, 191 8, and served in the Cham-
pagne during the French offensive there, October 4th to
26th. It was twenty-three days in active sectors, none in
quiet; captured 549 prisoners, advanced twenty-one kilo-
metres against resistance, and lost six hundred killed and
1928 wounded. The divisional insignia is the letter
"T," for Texas, superimposed on an Indian arrow-head,
for Oklahoma (not long ago the Indian Territory) .

The j^th Division was organized from the National
Guard of Ohio at Camp Sheridan, Alabama. It went to
France in June, 191 8, and served in the Baccarat sector,
Lorraine, August 4th to September 15th; Meuse-Argonne
offensive, September 25th to 29th; St. Mihiel sector,
October 9th to 15th; on the Lys and Escaut rivers,
in Flanders, October 30th to November 3d ; Syngem sector
(also in Flanders), November loth and nth — a total of
fifty-one days in quiet sectors and eleven in active. It
advanced thirty kilometres against resistance, captured
3848 prisoners, and lost 977 killed and 4266 wounded.
The insignia was taken from the State flag of Ohio.

The j8th Division was organized from the National
Guard of Indiana and Kentucky, at Camp Shelby, Missis-
sippi. It went to France in October, 19 18, but was never
'^ 225



in the line. It was called the Cyclone Division ; hence the
*'CY," the insignia.

The jQth Division was organized from the National
Guard of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, at Camp
Beauregard, Louisiana. It went to France in August,
191 8, as a depot division, from which replacements were
sent to the combat divisions at the front ; therefore it was
never intended to be in the line. The insignia shows the
Greek letter delta, because the personnel came from the
vicinity of the Mississippi delta, but it was never approved
by the A. E. F. It was stationed at St. Florent and sent
10,156 replacements to the front.

The 40th Division was organized from the National
Guard of California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and
Colorado, at Camp Kearny, California. It went to
France in August, 191 8, and, like the 39th, was a
depot division, being stationed at La Guerthe, and sent
16,327 replacements to the front. It was known as the
Sunshine Division, and the insignia carries out the idea.

The 41st Division was organized from the National Guard
of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming, at Camp
Greene, North Carolina, leaving in December, 191 7, for
France. This was the first depot division to go across
and was stationed at St. Aignan, and sent 295,668 replace-
ments to the front, equivalent to more than ten complete
divisions. It was known as the Sunset Division, and its
members wore as their distinguishing device a sun setting
over the blue waters of the Pacific.

The 426 Division was organized from National Guard
units left over after the formation of the preceding sixteen

226



divisions, and twenty-six States contributed; hence the
popular name of the Rainbow Division, which is carried
out in the insignia.

This organization arrived in France in November, 191 7,
and served in the Luneville sector, Lorraine, February 1 7th
to March 22d, then after eight days' rest it went into the
Baccarat sector, Lorraine, remaining in the hne till June
20th, part of this time under French command. East of
Rheims, July 15th and 1 6th; Trugny and Beuvardes,
Aisne, July 25th to August 2d; St. Mihiel operation,
September 12th to 29th; Meuse-Argonne offensive, Oc-
tober 13th to 30th; and again, November 5th to 9th.

The Rainbow Troops served 125 days in quiet sectors
and thirty-nine in active, advancing fifty-five kilometres
against resistance, more than any other National Guard
division, and was excelled in this particular only by the
2d and 77th Divisions. It captured 131 7 prisoners and
lost 2644 killed and 1 1,275 wounded.

The 76ih Division and those following, to include the
92d, were known as National Army divisions and were
organized from the first draft in September, 191 7. The
76th was composed of men from the New England States
and northern New York State and was stationed at Camp
Devens, Massachusetts. It went to France in July, 19 18,
and was a depot division, stationed at St. Amand-Mon-
troud, and sent 19,971 replacem.ents to the front.

Men from southern New York, including New York
City, comprised the yyth Division. It was organized at
Camp Upton, Long Island, and went to France in April,
191 8, the first National Army division to go overseas.

227



It served in the Baccarat sector, Lorraine, June 2ist to
August 3d; on the Vesle, August 12th to September 14th;
Meuse-Argonne offensive, September 23d to October 15th,
where it was the extreme left of the American army, and
again from October 31st to November nth. It spent
forty-seven days in quiet sectors and sixty-six in active,
the total under fire being more than any other National
Army division and the service in active sectors being
equal to that of the 2d Division and exceeded only by the
1st and 3d Divisions, all three being regular divisions.

The 77th advanced seventy-one and one half kilo-
metres against resistance, more than any other division;
captured 750 prisoners, and lost 1992 killed and 8505
wounded, again more than any other National Army
division. The insignia is self-explanatory.

The ySth Division was made up of men from western
New York State, New Jersey, and Delaware, and was
stationed at Camp Dix, New Jersey. It went to France
in June, 191 8, and served in the Woevre, September i6th
to October 3d; the Meuse-Argonne, October i6th to
November 4th, in which it relieved the 77th Division on
the extreme left wing of the American army. It advanced
twenty-one kilometres against resistance, spent seventeen
days in quiet sectors and twenty-one in active, captured
432 prisoners, and lost 1384 killed and 5861 wounded.
The original insignia was a semicircle of red and was
adopted in the United States for marking baggage, but
when shoulder insignia was adopted in France the light-
ning was added to represent the popular name of Lightning
Division.

228



The '^Qth Division was formed of men from eastern
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the District of Columbia
and was stationed at Camp Meade, Maryland. It went
to France in July, 191 8, and served in the Meuse-Argonne
September 15th to 29th capturing Montfaucon. It
served in the Troyon sector on the heights east of the
Meuse, October 8th to 24th, and in the Grande Montagne
sector October 30th to November nth. It spent twenty-
eight days in quiet sectors and seventeen in active, ad-
vanced nineteen and one half kilometres against resistance,
captured 1077 prisoners, and lost 1419 killed and 5331
wounded.

The device of this division is the cross of Lorraine, a
symbol of triumph dating back to the victory of the House
of Anjou over Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, in the
15th century.

The 80th Division was formed of men from western
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia, and was
stationed at Camp Lee, Virginia. It went to France in
May, 19 1 8, and served on the Artois front, brigaded with
the British for training till August 22d; Meuse-Argonne
offensive, September 25th to 28th ; also October 4th to i ith,
and October 31st to November 5th. It was only one day
in a quiet sector, seventeen in active sectors; advanced
thirty-eight kilometres against resistance, captured 1813
prisoners, and lost 1132 killed and 5000 wounded — a
heavy record for only eighteen days of fighting. Known
as the Blue Ridge Division, its device shows three hills,
representing the Blue Ridge, one for each of the States
which furnished the personnel of the division. The

229



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authorized insignia consists merely of the three hills in
an outHned shield, the rest is omitted.

The 8ist Division was composed of men from the two
Carolinas, Florida, and Porto Rico, and was stationed at
Camp Jackson, South Carolina. It went to France in
August, 19 1 8, and served in the St. Die sector, Alsace,
brigaded with the French, September 21st to October i6th;
Sommedieu sector, November 7th to i ith. It was twenty-
nine days in quiet sectors, two days in an active sector,
advanced five and one half kilometres against resistance,
captured loi prisoners, andlost 25 1 killed and 973 wounded.

This is the division which is mainly responsible for the
adoption of these shoulder insignia. The wildcat, which
it chose in May, 191 8, is common in the mountains of the
Carolinas.

The cat is in different colours, according to the brigade,
as follows: Headquarters, Machine Gun Battalion, and
Engineers, black; i6ist Infantry Brigade, white; i62d
Infantry Brigade, light blue; 156th Field Artillery Brigade
and Ammunition Train, red ; Field Signal Battalion, orange;
Sanitary Train, green, and Supply Train, buff.

Men from Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee comprised
the 82d Division, stationed at Camp Gordon, Georgia. It
went to France in May, 19 18, the second National Army
division to go overseas, and went into the line on June
28th, in the Lucey sector, Woevre, brigaded with the
French, remaining there till August 9th ; Marbache sector,
Woevre, August 19th to September 19th, including the St.
Mihiel offensive; Meuse-Argonne offensive, October 9th
to 30th. It was seventy days in quiet and twenty-seven

230




90rH DIVISION 9IST DIVISION 92d DIVISION 93d DIVISION




1st CORPS



2d corps



3d corps



4th corps




5th corps



6th corps



7th corps



8th corps



SHOULDER INSIGNIA



in active sectors; advanced seventeen kilometres against
resistance, captured 845 prisoners, and lost 1298 killed
and 6248 wounded.

The letters "A. A." stand for All American, the name
by which the division was known. These letters are in
gold for officers and white for enlisted men. In the author-
ized insignia these letters are omitted.
' The 8jd Division was formed of men from Ohio and
West Virginia and was stationed at Camp Sherman, Ohio.
It went to France in June, 19 18, and was a depot division
at Le Mans, sending 193,221 replacements to the front.
One regiment, the 332d Infantry, served in Italy and was
in the battle of Vittorio-Veneto. The insignia consists of
the letters of Ohio in monogram.

The 84th Division was formed of men from Indiana,
Kentucky, and southern Illinois, and was stationed at
Camp Taylor, Kentucky. It went to France in Septem-
ber, 19 1 8, but never got into the line. The insignia was
originally adopted for marking property and baggage while
in the United States. The authorized insignia consists
merely of the hatchet in scarlet.

The S^th Division was formed of men from Michigan
and Wisconsin and was stationed at Camp Custer, Michi-
gan. It went to France in August, 191 8, was a depot
division stationed at Pouilly and Cosne, and sent 3948
replacements to the front. It was known as the Custer
Division, in honour of General Custer and also the camp
at which it was trained, the insignia consisting of the
initials C. D. One of the infantry regiments, the 339th,
served in northern Russia.

231



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The 86ih Division was formed of men from northern
Illinois, and was stationed at Camp Grant, 111. It went
to France in September, 191 8, never getting into the line.
It was known as the Black Hawk Division, which is repre-
sented in the insignia.

The 87th Division was formed of men from Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Mississippi, and was stationed at Camp
Pike, Ark. It went to France in September, 191 8, but did
not get into the line.

The 88ih Division was formed of men from the Dakotas,
Minnesota, Iowa, and western Illinois, and was stationed
at Camp Dodge, Iowa. It went to France in August,
191 8, and served in Alsace from October 7th to November
3d, twenty-eight days in a quiet sector. It captured
three prisoners and lost twenty-nine killed and eighty-nine
wounded.

The insignia was evolved by two figures "8" at right
angles, the result being a four-leaf clover, representing the
four States from which the personnel of the division came.
The insignia is in blue for the infantry and machine-gun
battalions, red for the artillery and black for the remainder
of the division.

The 8gih Division was formed of men from Kansas,
Missouri, and Colorado, and was stationed at Camp Fun-
ston, Kansas. It went to France in June, 191 8 ; went into
the line in the Lucey sector, Woevre, August loth to
October 8th, which included the St. Mihiel drive; in the
Meuse-Argonne October 20th to November i ith. It was
fifty-six days in quiet sectors and twenty-eight in active;
it advanced forty-eight kilometres against resistance, the

232



S>f)oulber SnsJignia

second best record in this respect of the National Army
divisions, and exceeded by only five divisions of the whole
army. It captured 5061 prisoners, being surpassed by
only the ist and 2d Divisions. It lost 1433 killed and
5858 wounded.

This division was known as the Middle West division,
and the insignia is the letter "W," which when inverted
becomes an "M." The open central space is coloured to
show the organization as follows; 177th Infantry Brigade,
sky blue; 178th Infantry Brigade, navy blue; 164th
Field Artillery Brigade, scarlet; Engineers, scarlet edged
with white; 341st Machine Gun Battalion, half sky blue
and half scarlet; 342d Machine Gun BattaUon, half navy
blue and half scarlet; 343d Machine Gun Battalion, half
orange and half scarlet; Signal Battalion, orange; Supply
Train, piirple edged with white; Sanitary Train, white with
red cross; Division Headquarters, no colour.

The QOth Division was formed of men from Texas, Ari-
zona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma and was stationed at
Camp Travis, Texas. It went to France in June, 191 8,
and served at Villers in the Woevre, August 24th to Oc-
tober 9th, including the St. Mihiel operation ; in the Meuse-
Argonne offensive October 22d to November nth. It
was forty-two days in quiet sectors and twenty-six in
active; advanced twenty-eight and a half kilometres
against resistance, captured 1876 prisoners, and lost 1392
killed and 5885 wounded. The insignia consists of the
letters T and O in monogram, the initials of two of the
States from which the personnel came.

The gist Division, formed by men from Alaska, Wash-

233



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ington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Montana,
Wyoming, and Utah, was stationed at Camp Lewis,
Washington. It went to France in July, 191 8, and served
in the Meuse-Argonne offensive September 20th to Oc-
tober 2d; west of Escaut River, Flanders, October 30th
to November 30th; east of Escaut River, November loth
to nth. The division spent six days in quiet sectors and
fourteen in active ; advanced thirty-four kilometres against
resistance, captured 2412 prisoners, and lost 1414 killed
and 4364 wounded.

The fir tree was selected for the insignia as being typical
of the Far West, the home of the Division, and also, being
an evergreen, was emblematic of the state of readiness of
each unit of the organization.

The p2d Division was formed of coloured troops from
all States, and before leaving for France, in June, 191 8,
was divided among several camps — Dodge, Dix, and
Meade containing the largest units. It served in the
St. Die sector, Vosges, August 23d to September 20th;
Marbache sector, Woevre, October loth to November i ith.
It was sixty days in quiet sectors and two days in active ;
advanced eight miles against resistance, captured thirty-
eight prisoners, and lost 176 killed and 1466 wounded.
The buffalo was selected as the divisional insignia because
it is said the Indians called coloured soldiers ''buffaloes."
The colour of the buffalo varied according to the arm of
the service.

The gjd Division was never complete. It was formed
of coloured troops from all sections and went to France
between December, 191 7, and April, 191 8. There a

234



g)f)ouIber 3ns;ignia

provisional division was organized of these scattered units.
It never had any artillery and was brigaded with the
French until the signing of the Armistice, losing 584 killed
and 2582 wounded.

Owing to the fact that it was incomplete, and never
participated in action as a unit, the other statistics for it
are not applicable. The official insignia is a French hel-
met, but a bloody hand, said to have been assumed from
the insignia of a French coloured colonial division, with
which the 93d operated, was more common in actual
practice.

The I Corps — Normally a corps was supposed to con-
sist of four divisions, but this was by no means always
followed. Neither was any corps constant in the divi-
sions assigned to it. One would be withdrawn and another
substituted, according to the exigencies of the occasion.
So it is impossible to give the composition of the corps
which will be correct for all dates.

During the St. Mihiel offensive the I Corps consisted
of the 2d, 5th, 82d, and 90th Divisions with the 78th
in reserve and was the right of the attack, the 82 d being
the pivot on which the right wing turned.

At the beginning of the Meuse-Argonne operation the
I Corps consisted of the 35th, 28th, and 77th Divisions
in the line, with the 92d in reserve. On this occasion it
was the left of the American army, the 77th Division being
on the extreme left, next to the French, until relieved by
' the 78th, which was later relieved by the 42d.

After the Armistice the I Corps consisted of the 36th,
78th, and 80th Divisions.

235



The II Corps contained only the 27th and 30th Divi-
sions and operated with the British. The insignia, the
figure "2" in Roman characters, having the American


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Online LibraryRobert E. WyllieOrders, decorations and insignia, military and civil; with the history and romance of their origin and a full description of each → online text (page 16 of 19)