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BR 515 .A57 1893 v. 6 c.2
Carroll, Henry K. 1848-1931
The religious forces of the
United States



(American C^xxxc^ giefot)^



A HISTORY



OF THE



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES
IN THE UNITED STATES



BY

ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, D. D.



^



Zf^t Cf}xiBtx(Xn literature Co.



MDCGCXCV



Copyright, 1895,
By The Christian Literature Company.



CONTENTS



PAGE..

Bibliography xi

CHAP. I. — Introduction : The Historic Antecedents in the
Old World. — The Reformed Polity. — The Ulster Plantation. —
Agreement among the Churches. — The Reformed Discipline. — A
Covenanted Nation T

CHAP. II.— The Day of Small Things, 1629-1713.— " The New
England Way." — Presbyterians in Maryland. — The First Presby-
tery. — Harmony with New England 13

CHAP. III. — Growth and Dissension, 1713-41. — The Great Immi-
gration. — Church and School. — Subscription Established. — " Bar-
barism the Danger." — The Great Awakening. — The Division of
1 741 22

CHAP. IV. — From the Schism to the Reunion, 1741-58. — The
Education Problem. — Faults of the Awakening. — The Presbytery
of Hanover. — Covenanters and Seceders. — Rous or Watts? 34

CHAP. V. — Reunion and Growth, 1758-75. — The American Se-
ceders. — Dissensions in the Synod. — New Side Rigor. — The Need
of a Bishop. — A Joint Convention 45

CHAP. VI.— Independence AND Reorganization, 1776-89. — Pres-
byterian Patriotism. — Beyond the Alleghanies. — Covenanters and
Seceders Unite. — The New Constitution. — Laying Bonds on the
Future. — Presbyterian Example Followed 56

CHAP. VII. — Revival and Dissension, 1789-1810. — Presbyterian
Strength and Losses. — The "Associated Presbyteries." — The
Great Revival. — The Lesser Bodies. — Statistics of Growth 68

CHAP. VIII.— The Era of New Methods, 1810-30.— The New l^
West. — Theological Seminaries. — Hopkinsianism. — Individualism.
— Church Life. — A Hasty Union. — An Era of Growth 79

CHAP. IX.— The New Age.— Theocratic Ideals.— " The Beauty of

Holiness."—" The Spirit of All Ages." 95

CHAP. X. — Years of Strife, 1831-36. — Division among Covenant-
ers. — Albert Barnes's Sermon. — " Misadelphi^." — Mr. Barnes's

V



vi CONTENTS.



PAGE



Second Trial.— The " Act and Testimony."— The Policy of Sepa-
ration I02

CHAP. XI.— The Division of 1837-38.— The Exscinding Acts. —
The New School Organize. — The Moderates. — Deliverances on
Slavery. — Boards, or Societies? — The Leaders in Debate 115

CHAP. XII. — From War to War, 1840-60. — Agitation and Work.
— Presbyterians and Slavery. — New-school Faithfulness. — Old-
school NeutraHty. — A New Atmosphere. — Eldership and Boards. —
Biblical Scholarship. — Church History. — Reunion of Seceders. —
Rigidity Relaxed 129

CHAP. XIII.— The War for the Union and Two Secessions,
1861-70. — The Assembly of 1861. — The Spring Resolutions. —
Religion and Politics. — The Confederate Church. — Reunion in the
South. — Revivals in the Armies. — The Border States. — "Running
the Churches." — The Assembly of 1865. — The Declaration and
Testimony. — Changes in the South 150

CHAP. XIV. — The Reunion of the Old and New School
Churches, 1869-70. — A Reunion Conference. — Bishops Mcllvaine
and Lee. — Answer to the Protest. — Dr. Stearns's Sermon. — Re-
union Consummated. — Reorganization. — Suspension of Mr. Stuart 172 ^ i

CHAP. XV.— Work and Growth, 1870-88.— Dr. McCosh and Sus- • ' ^
tentation. — Woman's Work in the Church. — The Color-line in the
Church. — Grant's Indian Policy. — Schools and Colleges. — Paro-
chi .1 Schools. — Missionary Advance. — Instrumental Music. — Chris-
tian Union. — The Historic Episcopate 187

CHAP. XVI. — Theological and Literary Life since 1870. — Dog-
matic Theology. — Biblical Scholarship. — Church Historians. — De-
votional Writers. — Hymnologists. — The Swing Trial. — Lesser
Heretics 209

CHAP. XVII. — The Congregational Life and Worship of the
Church. — Presbytery and Congregation. — The Eldership. — Poly-
pragmatic Pastors. — A Presbyterian Liturgy. — Innovations in Wor-
ship. — Loss and Gain in Spiritual Life. — Christian Nurture and
Work. — Church Discipline and Unity 226

CHAP. XVIII. — The Revision Controversy. — Scottish Relaxation.
— Friends and Foes of Revision. — Objections to Revision. — The
" Elastic Formula." — Presbyterian Losses. — Haifa Loaf, or None?
— The Vote on Revision. — National Confessions 243

CHAP. XIX. — The Briggs and Smith Trials. — Errancy and Iner-
rancy. — Dr. Briggs's Inaugural. — A Questionable Appeal. — A
Questionable Sentence. — Dr. Smith's Appeal. — Conservative Con-
cessions 261

CHAP. XX. — The Seminary Question, and other Matters. —
Status of the Seminaries. — Plan of Federation. — Political Dissent.
— Theocratic Reform. — Strife before Stagnation 274



CO.V7]EA'7'S. vii

I'AGE

CHAP. XXI. — Retrospect and Prospect, 1705-1895. — The Pres-
byterian Idea. — A Dual Church. — The Lessons of History. — The
Strength of Puritanism. — The Kirk's Discipline. — The Great Awak-
ening. — Faults and Merits. — A Mediating Church. — The Churchly
Age. — The Social Spirit. — Socialist Exaggerations. — The Begin-
nings of Schism. — The Perils and the PI ope of Union. — Unhistoric
Unionism. — A Trinitarian Church. — The Three Types 284

APPENDIX. — The National Covenant. — Solemn League and Covenant.
— Adopting Acts, 1647. — Adopting Acts, 1729. — Explanatory Act,
1736.— The Protestation, 1 741. — The Plan of Union, 1758.— The
Basis of Union, 1782. — The Adopting Act, 1788. — Declaration of
Principles, 1788. — The Plan of Union, 1801. — The Exscinding
Acts, 1837. — The Auburn Declaration, 1837. — Deliverances on
Slavery, 1 78 7-1853. — Basis of Union, 1858. — The Spring Reso-
lutions, 1861. — The Southern Address, 1861. — Basis of Reunion,
1869. — Concurrent Declarations, 1869. — The Charges and Sentence
in the case of Dr. Briggs. — Proposed Plan for Federation 317



A HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN
THE UNITED STATES.



Rev. ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, D.D.,
Philadelphia, Pa.



BIBLIOGRAPHY



I. The Reformed Churches of Europe.

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1st and 2d editions, New York, 1885.

Baird, H. M., History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France {ijis-ijy^).
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, The Huguenots a7id Henry of N^avat're. 2 vols.,, New York, 1886.

Baum, G., et Cunitz, E., Histoire Ecclesiastique des Eglises Reformees au
Royaunie de France. 2d ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1883-1884.

Calvini, Joh., Opera qme supersunt Omnia, ed. G. Baum, E. Cunitz, et
E. Reuss. In the Corpus Reformatorum. Brunswick, 1864 ff.

Comba, Emilio, Histoire des Vaudois d^ Italic depJiis leur Origines jusqW
nous Jours. 2 tomes.

, History of the Waldenses of Italy from their Origin to the Reforma-
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, Storia delta Riforma in Italia. Tom. i., Firenze, 1891.

Storia dei Valdesi. Turin, 1893.



Cunningham, William, The Reformo-s and the Theology of the Reforma-
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Dalton, Hermann, Johannes a lasco : Beitrag zur Reformationsgeschichte
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Dyer, T. H., Life of John Calvin, Compiled frofn Ajithentic Sozcrces, and
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Ebrard, Joh. Heinr. Aug., Handbuch der christlichen Kirchen- und Dog-
mengeschichte fiir Prediger und Studiercnde. Vols. iii. and iv., Erlangen,
Deichert, 1866.

Goebel, Max, Geschichte des christlichen Lebens in der rheinisch-tvestfhal-
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Haag, Eug. et Em., Z^- France Protestante, ou Vies des Protrstants Fran fa is
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tion, Paris, 1877 flf.

Henry, Paul, Leben Johann Calvins, des grossen Rcformators. 3 vols.,
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Heppe, Heinrich, Geschichte des Pietismus und der Mystik in der Refor-
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xii BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Herzog, Job. Jak., Abriss der gesammten Kirchengeschichte. Parts iii.
and iv., Erlangen, Besold, 1882; 2d ed., edited by G. Koflfmane, 1892.

Lclh-n unci aiisgrcvdhlte Schriften der Vdter und Begriinder dej' Reformirten
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Zwingli, von R. Christoffel ; Joh. Oekolampad und Oswald Myconius,
von K. R. Hagenbach ; Lambej-t von Avignon, von F. W. Hassenkamp ;
//. Bullinger und Leo Judd, von C. Pestalozzi ; Guillaume Farel, Pierre
Viret, und P. M. Vermigli, von Carl Schmidt ; Kaspar Olevianus und
Zach. Ursinus, von K. Sudhoff ; Johann Calvin, von C. Stahelin ; Theo,
Beza, von Ileinr. Heppe ; Bert. Haller, von C. Pestalozzi ; Afnbrosius
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Brandes.

Lorgion, Diest, De Nederduitsche Heii.winde Kerk in Friesland. Gron-
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Mayer, Lewis, History of the German Refortned Church. Vol. i., Phila-
delphia, 1850.

Niemeyer, Aug. Herm., Collectio Confessionum in Ecclesiis Reformatis
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Ritschl, Albrecht, Geschichte des Pietismus. Vol. i., Der Pietismus in
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Schafi*, Philip, Bibliotheca Symbolica Ecclesiie Universalis : The Creeds of
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Smith, Henry B., The Reformed Churches of Europe and America, in Re-
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II. The Presbyterian Churches of Great Britain and Ireland.

Blair, Robert, Autobiography and Life, ijgj-1666. Edited by Dr. Thomas
McCrie. Edinburgh, published by the Wodrow Society, 1849.

Calderwood, David, A History of the Church of Scotland [to 1625].
Edited by Thomas Thomson. 8 vols., published by the Wodrow Soci-
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Killen, William Dool, Ecclesiastical History of Ireland. 2 vols., Lon-
don, 1875.

Knox, John, A History of the Reformation of Religion zvithin the Reabn
of Scotland. Forms vols. i. and ii. of his Works edited for the Wodrow
Society by David Laing, Edinburgh, 1 846.

McCrie, Thomas, Jr., Annals of English Presbytery from the Earliest
Period to the Presejit Time. London, 1 872.

Mitchell, Alexander F., The Westminster Assembly: Its History and
Standards. London, 1883.

Reid, James Seaton, A Ilistory of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland,
cofnprising the History of the Province of Ulster from the Accession of
James the First. With a Preliminary Sketch of the Reformed Religion
in Ireland during the Sixteenth Century, and an Appendix, consisting
of Original Papers. 3 vols., Belfast, 1833-1853; new (third) edition,
with additional Notes by William Dool Killen, 3 vols., Belfast, 1867.



BIBLIOGRAPHY, xiii

Wodrow, Robert, The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scot-
land fro ?n the Restoration to the Revolution. Edited by Dr. Robert
Burns. 4 vols., Glasgow, Blackie & Son, 1841.



III. American Presbyterianism in General.

Beecher, Willis J. and Mary A., An Index of Presbyterian Ministers,
1706-1881. Philadelphia, 1883.

Blake, T. C, Old Log House : History and Defense of the Cumberland Pres-
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Crisman, E. B., Origin and Doctrines of the Cumberland Presbyterian
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Gillett, Ezra Hall, History of the Presbyto-ian Chtirch in the United States
of America. 2 vols., Philadelphia, Presbyterian Publication Com-
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Glasgow, W. Melanchthon, History of the Reformed Presbyterian Church
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Harper, R. D., The Chtirch Memorial, containing Important Historical
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Hays, George P., Presbyterians : A Popular Narrative of their Origin,
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W. J. Reid, D.D., and Rev. A. G. Wallace, D. D., of the United Pres-
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Rev. J. M. Humbert, D.D., of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church;
Rev. Moses D. Hoge, D.D., of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States; and Rev. W. H. Roberts, D.D., LL.D., American Secretary,
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Miller, James P., Biographical Sketches and Sennons of Some of the First
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Historical Introduction, containing an Account of the Rise and Progress
of the Associate Church for the First Half-century of her Existence in
this Country. Albany, 1829.

Nevin, Alfred, Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States of America, including the No^-thern and Southern Assemblies.
Philadelphia, 1884.



xiv BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Rockwell, Joel Edson, Sketches of the Presbyterian Church. Philadel-

pliia, 1854.

Scouller, James Brown, Manual of the United Presbyterian Chuj'ch of
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IV. The Colonial Period.

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A N^arrative of a New and Unusual ^ ican Imprisonment of Two Presby-
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for Preaching One Sermon at the City of A'e^o York. By a Learner of
Law and a Lover of Liberty. Boston, 1707 and 1755 ; Washington, 1845.

Alexander, Archibald, Biographical Sketches of the Pounder and the Prin-
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, A Vindication of the Brethren who were Unjustly and Illegally Cast

Out of the Synod of Philadelphia, from Maintaining Principles of An-
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1885.



BIBLIOGRAPHY. XV

Buell, Samuel, A Copy of a Letter to the Rev. Mr. Barber, in Groton, Conn. :
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xvi BIBLIOGRAPHY.

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The Case of the Scotch Presbyterians of the City of New York. New York^

1773-

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from a Few Days after his Arrival at Georgia to his Second Return
Thither from Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Franklin, 1740.



V. From Independence to Division.

A Brief Accotmt of the Associated Presbyteries. With a General View of
their Sentiments concerning Religion and Ecclesiastical Order. New
York, 1796.



BIBLIOGRAPHY. xvii

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