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Harrison on the question of, 115

Professional Socialists in Germany,
42

Profit-sharing by employes, 295

Profits of industry, division of, 117

Proletariat, the, 387

Property, Spencer, Proudhon and
Ortolan on, 208 seq; collective, and
individual, legitimacy and justice
of, respectively considered, 210;
personal, in land, discussed, 205,
210, 229; inequality as regards, 318 ;
State not entitled to enforce equal
distribution of, 319; transference

of, 344
Proprietors of land, reasonable claims

of, 221 ; buying out, 222; peasant,

scheme examined, 224
Prosperity of communistic societies

almost exclusively of a material

kind, 84
Protestantism, 436
Proudhon, definition of Socialism, 23 ;

and French Socialism, 34 ; on the

nature of property, 184 ; definition

of property, 210; essay on Na'ure,

406 ; 416



Public opinion limits State action, 80
Pulszky, Prof., on individual initia-
tive, 78

QuiNET, 397

Rae, " Contemporary Socialism," 28,

97

Reformer and revolutionist, Christ
immeasurably the greatest who has
ever appeared on earth, 466

Reichstag, number of socialist depu-
ties in the, 43

Religion, 317, 319, 320 ; and Socialism,
426

Religion, societies and, 84

Religious teaching, individualist, 96 ;
dirticulties, none under regime of
Collectivism, 277

Rerum Novarum, Encyclical of Pope
Leo XIII., 439

Reybaud, Louis, one of the reputed
inventors of the word Socialism,

II, 13

Reynaud, Jean, 384

Ricardian creed of political economy
erroneous, 75

Ricardo on law of wages, 1 28 ; with-
out him no Marx, 136

Rich and poor, 3S6

Right, abuse of, 207

Rights, claim of, socialistic, 404

Rights, no absolute, in anything,
206

Rights, 421 et seq.

Rights of man, 385

Rodbertus, his indirect influence on
social democracy, 87

Rome, Greece and, ruined through
failure to solve the "social ques-
tion," 32

Roscher on primitive Socialism, 32

Rossi, 349, 464

Ruskin on the infiuence of educa-
tion, 2S1 ; references to, 359, 360,

363
Russia, 341

Saint-Simon, one of the foiinders of
French Socialism, 34 ; on standard
of wages, 125 ; 373, 450

Salviati, 366

Saving, on workmen, 262

Savings Banks, 293

Say, 357

Schilllie on Collectivism, 61 ; on
Capital, 167; on the marriage tie,
2S8 ; his objections to democratic



INDEX



509



Collectivism, 134, 250 ; " Quintes-
sence of Socialism," 254
Scheel's, Von, definition of Socialism,

27
Science, art and literature, and

Socialism, 291
Scottish Church Society Conferences,

498
Self-help limits State action, 77 ;

Mr. Goschen on, 77
Selfishness, Hobbes inculcates a

theory of, 64, 96
Self-love in relation to wealth, 364,

365, 366 ; Butler on, 366 ; Pope on,

366
Sermon on the Mount, precepts of,

379
Shakers, societies — Ann Lee, 60
Slavery created by the collectivisa-
tion of capital, 241 ; which Socialism
would introduce, 286, 465, 466 ;
demanded by Socialism, 465 ; Chris-
tianity meant to free men from all
such, 465
Smith, Adam, and laisser-faire, 71 ;
Professor Nicholson on, 72 ; quoted,

353
Social Democratic Federation, 43 ;

programmes, 87 et seq ; Democracy,
88; development, Engels on, 137;
Statics (Spencer), 209; practica-
bility of, 258 ; present prospects
of, discussed, 265 ; organisation,
Comte and, 274, 326 et seq. ; Dr.
Bonar quoted, 327 ; religion of,
330 ; a somewhat highly developed
form of Socialism, 373 ; S. S.
Laurie quoted, 374

Social Democrats, 353

Social questions, relation of the
Church to, 471

Socialism, proposes a renovation of
society, 10 ; discussion necessary
before acceptance of the proposi-
tion, II ; origin and date of the
word, 12 ; currency of the term, 12,
13; author's definition and use of
the word, 17, 21, 28 ; a tendency
and movement towards an extreme,
18 ; contrasted with Individualism,
18 ; no true and precise definition
of, possible, 18; not to be identi-
fied with sociology, 19 ; is it an
essential or accidental phase of
development ? 22 ; and Individual-
ism the Scylla and Chary bdis of
society, 23 ; to attain one's own
good is to strive for the good of



others, 23 ; history of, 28, 35 ;
primitive, two views of, 28 ; be-
yond recall, 31 ; primitive, McLen-
nan, Lubbock, and Koscher on, 29,
32 ; the State absolutism of an-
tiquity, not, 32 ; diffusion over the
Continent, 34 ; founders of modern,
34 ; France, the birthplace of, 34 ;
pre-revolution theories in France,
34 ; Saint-Simon and Fourier, 34 ;
in Spain and Italy, 35 ; in Switzer-
land, 35 ; advocates of, in United
States supplied by European coun-
tries, 35 ; in Belgium, 36 ; in Russia,
36 ; Anarchism or Nihilism, not
Socialism, 36 ; Germany, progress
of, in, 40 ; success of, in, exagge-
rated, 40 ; indebted to German
thinkers — Eodbertus, Winkelblech,
Marx, LassaUe, Schiiffle, 40 ; Pro-
fessorial Socialists, 42 ; Britain, in,
43 ; Christian, of Maurice and Kings-
ley, &c., not socialistic, 43; British,
not unlike Nebuchadnezzar's " great
image," 49 ; Communism and Col-
lectivism, the two chief kinds of,
54 ; in Scotland, 54 ; and Commu-
nism, 84 ; in a sense, extremely
individualistic, 97 ; and Individual-
ism, antithesis of, fundamental in
politics, 98 ; Laurent, Professor
Carle, Mr. Wordsworth, Donis-
thorpe, and Mr. Maurice Block on
this aspect of the question, 98 ;
aims primarily and specially at a
thorough reorganisation of in-
dustry and property, loi ; economics,
of, the work chiefly confined ta
consideration of, 102; what would
it substitute for competition ? 123;.
Collectivist, rests on doctrines
propounded by Eodbertus and
Marx, 136; Utopian and Scientific
(Engels), 137; a theory as to the
organisation of society, 156; and
capital, 157 ; critical and construc-
tive, 202 ; its growth and outcome
(Morris and Belfort Bax), 203 ; and
social organisation, 256 seq. • and
social organisation, Dr. Flint's,
views on, criticised, 260 ; and
the organisation of industry,
275 , and the family, 283 ; and
marriage, 286 ; in relation to the-
Church, 290, to science, art, and
literature, 291, to employers, 292 ; to.
co-operation, 294 ; its various forms,
299 ; connection between, and De -



5TO



INDEX



iiiocracv, 299 ; the symptom of social
unrest, 32S ; dangerous to Demo-
cracy, 330 ; has no admiration of
the Parliamentary system, 332 ;
Economical (Mr. Bosanquet on), 333;
conteniporar_v, 335 ; desires to serve
itself heir to the Absolutism of past
ages, 335 ; from it society is in
danger of a fearful despotism in the
near future, 335 ; moralit_v of, 344
et xeq. ; Duke of Argyll quoted, 344 ;
has not ignored morality, 344 ;
moral presupposition and tenden-
cies, 345 ; bearing of on morality,
345 ; denounces Political Economy
as non-moral or even immoral, 345
et fteq.; ethics of, in direct conflict
with true ethics, 369 ; as a whole
rests on a non-religious conception
of the universe, 370 ; Karl Pearson
quoted, 370 ; reason why in con-
liict with morality, 377 ; its re-
lation to social morality, 380 ;
morally strongest in its recognition
of brotherhood, 381 ; condemns
war and the oppression of the poor
and feeble, 38 1 ; often contradicts
in practice the principle of brother-
hood, 382 383, 386 ; and religion,
427 et seq. ; Bosanquet quoted, 428 ;
economic and religious questions
in Socialism separable, 428 ; there
are religious Socialists, 42S ;
France, 430 ; Saint-Simon and
Enfantin, "New Christianity," 430 ;
opinions of Fourier, Considerant,
Cabet, Leroux, Comte, 430 ; in
Germany, Feuerbach, Dietzgen,
Stamm, Stern, 431 ; in England,
Bax (quoted), 431 ; Christian
Socialists, those who first bore the
name in England, 434 ; Rev. Abbot
Snow quoted, 443 ; in relation to
Catholic doctrine, 439 ; antago-
nistic to Christianity, 460, 463 ;
where it fails in its explanation
of history, 464 ; overlooks or
depreciates the importance of the
inward and spiritual, 464 ; pre-
tence of, that it would establish
and enlarge liberty absurd, 465 ;
demands slavery, 465 ; uncon-
sciously aims at a reversal of the
work of Christ in history, 466 ;
ethics of, devoid of transcen-
dency, infinity, and spirituality,
all is commonplace, 467 ; not re-
lated to Christianity in the same



way in Economics as in Ethics,
469

Socialist delusion regarding man and
society, 352

Socialist demands and persecution,
81 ; Deputies in the Reichstag, 43 ;
reasoners leave out of account
society altogether in the matter of
production, 115; error regarding
standard of wages, 225; chief reason
of the, 373

Socialistic Utopias, 33 ; League, 43 ;
periodicals in Britain, 43 ; criticism
of society, how it has been directly
and indirectly useful, 257 ; solution
of the social problem — Engels and
Liebknecht, 276

Socialists, professional, in Germany,
42 ; English, contemporary leaders
of, 43 ; number of, 43 : manifesto
of, 92 ; German, literature of, 42,
54 ; more successful critics than
constructors, and the reason why,
203; striving to convert Democrats
to their faith, 335 ; some retain
their belief in God and religion
(Anglican High-Churchmen, Roman
Catholics), though such are com-
paratively few, 370 ; in relation to
the poor, 386 ; peace recommended
^y, 394 ; French, 437

Societies and religion, 84

Society, iniluence of individual action
on, 271

Society, may sometimes exact sacri-
fices from its members, 375 ; Social-
ist delusion regarding, 352

Sociology, neither Socialism nor In-
dividualism to be identified with,

19

Sociology, 454

Soil, rent value of, 204

Spain, 288

Speculation, the source of the
greatest fortunes, 181

Spencer, Herbert, on Socialists, 15;
on State intervention, 67 ; for-
mula of liberty, 68 ; his error re-
garding the duty of the State to-
wards the destitute, 121 ; on the
right to use and abuse, 209 ; his
argument for legitimacy of private
property criticised, 209, 298

Stamm, 431

State intervention, Mill on principle
of, 66 ; Spencer on, 67 ; in demo-
cracies, 79 ; functions of the, 69;
and the Fabians, 71 ; action limited



INDEX



511



by moral laws, 71 ; by certain
fundamental human liberties, 73 ;
by official machinery, 75 ; interven-
tion, change of opinion in regard to,
76 ; by economic laws, 73 ; by self-
help, 77 ; by the state of public
opinion, So ; functions divided into
necessary and facultative, 80 ; duty
of, to repress excesses of compe-
tition ; and destitution, 121 ; wis-
dom of, in not interfering with
earned and unearned incomes, 219 ;
management of the land, Carlyle
on, 228

State, the, as an organism, 425 ; Gron-
lund quoted, 425

Stern, 352,431, 462

Stewart, Dugald, 357

Stirner, Max, a representative of
ethical individualism, 96

Stocker, 438

Suffrage, universal, 318, 331, 332 ;
manhood, 301 ; womanhood, 301

Supply and demand, the just stan-
dard of wages, 124

Surplus population, Marx on, 198 ;
value, deductions of Marx from
his doctrine of, 153

Sweaters, 297

TENANT-farmers' scheme, under na-
tionalisation of land, 225

Theocracy, 308

Theocratic idea, the, 314; democracy
the form of government which can
least afford to dispense with it,

314
Third Estate, the, 3S3 ; victory of, in

France and other countries, 384
Thomas Aquinas, 375
Thompson, Wm., 416
Todt, 43S
Trade, foreign. Collectivism would

curtail benefits of, 246
Turgot, quoted, 409
Turkey, 341

Undeserved decrements, 218

Unearned increments, 215

United States of America, supreme
court of justice can veto the legis-
lature, 313

Universal brotherhood, 393

Use and abuse, Herbert ISpencer on
the right to, 209; Prudhon and
Ortolan on, 209, 210

Utilitarianism, 371, 372

Utopias, Socialistic, 33



Value, Marx theory of, examined, 139
and production, Marx theories as
to, 183 ; of land, 217

Vaughan, Canon, on the Christian
Socialism of Maurice and Kingsley,

436
"Vita del Diritto " (Carle), 98
Vogelsang, Baron von, 439
Votes, do not necessarily imply

equality, 318

Wage, Professor, 491

Wages, supply and demand the just
standard of, 124; socialist error re-
garding standard of, 125 ; Saint-
Simon on standard of, 125 ; Blanc,
Louis, on, 125 ; Marx on, 126 ; law
of Ricardo and Lassalle on, 128 ;
as a badge of slavery, as it is
stated to be by Engels, Marx, Las-
salle, Hyndman, Morris, and George,
is a misrepresentation, 129

Wages-contract, alleged injustice of,
contrary to fact, 131

Wages-system, voluntary, contracts
with compulsory system of Collec-
tivism, Schiifile quoted, 134 ; though
not perfect, may be defended, 135 ;
question. Prof. Francis A. Walker,
on, 161

Wallace, A. R. , recommends national-
isation of land, 204

War, 395

Wealth, the result of labour and
capital intelligently combined, 112;
no one class alone produces, 116 ;
Condorcet on equality of, 201 ;
and happiness, Hobbes, Spencer,
Morris, and Belfort Bax on, 262;
345 ; man in relation to, 347 ;
Pelegrino Rossi quoted, 349, 350 ;
Ruskin's definition of, 351, 359 ;
Davidson on, 354, 364

Webb, Sidney, " Socialism in Eng-
land," 54

Weiss, Father, 439

Weitling, 400

Westcott, Bishop, his definition of So-
cialism, 25 ; on the family, 282 ;
" Social Aspects of Christianity,"

497
Whateley on coUectivist organisation,

238
Will, mere, not righteous will, but

may be tyrannical or slavish, 315
Wolf's, Prof., of Zurich, criticism of

Marx, 191
Womanhood suffrage, 301



512



INDEX



Women and cliildien, appropriution

of labour power of, 197
Women, 2S5 ; movement for securing

equal rights with men, 286
Woolsey (President), on Communism,

in Herzog-Schaff's EncyclopiEdia,

85
Working men specially interested in
" Socialism, 9 ; classes, Morris and



Belfort Bax on the position of the^

263
Workmen, payment of, 351; Ruskin

on, 351, Scotsman on, 351
Workmen saving on, 262
Workmen's combinations, 295
Workmen's grounds of complaint

against capitalists, 179
Wyzewa's definition of Socialism, 27




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Online LibraryRobert FlintSocialism → online text (page 38 of 38)