Robert Henry.

The history of Great Britain : from the first invasion of it by the Romans under Julius Cæsar. Written on a new plan (Volume 4) online

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Prince, from the colour of his armour, the. darling of hi;
royal parents, was born at V/oodflock, June 15, A. D
1 330 ^239 j; married to his coufin fans, the Fair Maid
of Kent, in 1361 ; by v/hom he left an on,'y Ton, named
Richard, who fucceeded his grandfather in the thi'one

^ Jo-vv* ffic4^^ 2. William of Halfield, born 1336; died youns: (241).

3. Lionel of Antwerp, duke of Clarence, born No-
vember 29, 1338 ^242^; was married, firil, to Elifa-
bethdeRurgh, heirefs of Ulfler , by whom he left one
daughter, Philippa, married to Edmund Mortimer earl
of Marche. For his fecond wife, the duke of Clarence
married Violante, daughter of the duke of Milan ; bv
whom he had no children. He died in Itaiv, in
I 368 (243).

4. John of Gaunt, born in 1.340 ; was married, firft,
in 1359. to Blanche, one of the daughters and coheirefles
of Henry the Good, duke of Lancafter f after whofe

al a/*t i/tk^*^ death he was created duke of Lancaflerj ; by whom he

left a Ton, named Henry, fucceiTively earl of Derby,
duke of Hereford and Lancafl:er, and king of Englandj.]]

fa-^o) Walfineham, p. 1 30.

{2.40) Sandford's Geaeal. Kill. p. a!§, &c.

( 2,41 ) Ypod. Neuft. f. 51Z. i'^V^} Sandfort1,p. laa,

(i,43) Sandford, p. ii§. :.i5.» zzj.

. Ch. i.|4- CIVIL AND MILITARY. 191


' by the name of Henry IV (244). For his fccond wife, a. D. 1377,

i John of Gaunt married Conflantia, eldeft daughter of "^'^ ^
don Pedro king of Caliile ; in whofe right he affumed
that title ; and by whom he had a daughter, afterwards
queen of Cailile. For his third wife he married Gatha-

!, line Swinford ; by whom he had feveral children.

I ",.5. Edmund of Langley, born in 1341, created earl of

' Cambridge in 1362, and duke of York in 1384 ; mar-
ried Ifabella, youngeft daughter of don Pedro king of ,
Caftile ; by whom he had Edward, his eldefl: fon, who "1*.<V^,
died without liTue ; and Richard earl of Cambridge ;
who marrying his coufm Anne Mortimer, heircfs of the
houfe of Clarence, had Richard duke of York, who was

; father of Edward IV. king of England (245). ^

6. V/illiam of Windfor, who died in his infancy {246).

7. Thomas of WoodfLock, duke of Gloucefler, aiid
conftable of England (247).

The daughters of king Edward and his queen Philippa
were, i. Ifabel, married in 1365 to Enguerrandde Gou-
cy, created duke of Bedford ; 2. Joan, contracted to

; don Pedro king of Gaftile, but died of the plague at
Bourdeaux, in 1349, before marriage (248) • 3. Blanche,

^ who died in her infancy ; 4. Mary duchefs of Brittany ;
5. Margaret countefs of Pembroke, who died without

David Bruce, king of Scotland, who was taken Hiftory of
prifoner at "the battle of Durham, 06loberi7, A.D.^'^''^^^'^^'
1346, continued in captivity no lefs than eleven years,
though various negotiations were fet on foot for procur-
ing his deliverance (249). He was permitted to pay a
i vifit to his dominions, A. D. 1351, upon giving hofta-
ges, and making oath to return into cuflody when requir-
ed (250). This relaxation in his confinement (which had
been very ftrifit) was probably granted to promote the
fuccefs of a private agreement which he had made v/ith
i the king of England, by procuring the confent of his
; fubje£ts to that agreement. The nature of this fecret

(244)'VVairing. p. 148.

(145) Ypod. Neuft. f. 514. Sandford, p. 357, 358. 350. 355.

(2.46) Sandford, p. 178. (2.47 ) Id. p. 127.

(248jRymer, vol. 5. p. 412.425, 426, 417, 428, &c.

(249) Rynieri Fctd. t. 5. p. 618. 686. 699, -jao.

(150) Id. ibid. p. 711, 7ii. 724. 727.




A. D. 1351. treaty between the two kings is not known ; but it is bc-
^'•''~\-^-^ lieved to have been unfavourable to the independency of
Scotland ; and David having failed in his attempts to
procure its confirmation, returned into confinement,
A. D. 1352 (251^. After long conferences, a treaty
for the liberation of David, and a truce of nine years,
was concluded at Newcaftle, 13th July A. D. 1354,
ratified by the commilTioncrs ot Scotland 12th November,
and by the king of England and the prince of Wales 5th
V* r 3)ecember (252). But the efl'ccl of this treaty was pre-
vented by the intrie;ues of the king of France ; ivho, by
fending a body of foldiers and a fum of money into Scot-
land, prevailed upon the Scots to continue the war ; and
they had the good fortune to defeat fir Thomas Gray,
keeper of Norham caftle, in Ottober, and to take the
town of Berwick in November, A. D. 1355(253). But
they did not long enjoy this conqueft ; for Edward having^
inverted the town with a great army, it was furrendered
by capitulation 13th January A. D. 1356 (254).

Edward, having recovered Berwick, and obtained a
formal furrender of the crown and kingdom of Scotland
from his wretched tool Edward Baliol (January 20),
marched at the head of a great army into Lothian, attend-
ed by a fleet of victuallers in the Forth. But the Scots
having removed all their cattle and provifions, and the
Englifh fleet having been difperfed by a florm, he found
it impofllble to proceed any further than to Edinburgh.
His troops were harafied in their retreat by flying parties
cf the Scots, which provoked him to deflroy the country
with fire and fword, not fparing the moft magnificent
churches (255). This expedition was long rcmembet'ed
in Scotland by the nzmeoiT/ie burnt Candlemas.

Edward, convinced of the difficulty offubduing Scot-
land, began to think fcrioufly of making peace with that
country, and of procuring as great a ranfom as he could
for its king, who was ftill his prifoner. With this view,
he appointed William de Bohun earl of Northampton,
and others, his comfeiffioners, to treat with the prelates.

A.D. !3?6.
of Edwu'd
lil. into

King of
Scots ran-

(251 )Rymeri Fasd. t 5. p. 737. 745. Fordun, 1. 14. c.
(2Ci) Rymerl Fad. t. 5. p. 793. 8iz.
^53) Fordun, 1. 14. c. 9, 10.

(154) Fordun, 1. 14. c. la. Rymer. Feed. t. s;. p. 828,

(155) Fordan, !. 14. c. 15^




jiobles, aRcl people, of Scotland, about the redemp- A- '^- 1360-
lion of David Bruce, and a perpetual peace between "" — v^"—^
the two kingdoms (256). The parliament of Scotland
(17th -January A. D. 1357) named four commiffioners,
two bifliops and two barons, to treat with thofe of Eng-
land (257). That the conferences might not be inter-
rupted by hoftilities, a truce for fix months was con-
cluded 8th May (258^. The commiffioners of both king-
doms met, at Berwick, to which place the captive king
was alfo conducted (259). The chief difficulty in this ne-
gotiation was, to fettle the ranfom to be paid bv the
Scots for the redemption of their king. The Englifli de-
manded 1 00,000 marks, an exorbitant furo in thofe times,
containing as much ftlver as 20o,oool. of our money, and
more difficult to raife than a million would be at prefent.
As no abatement of this demand could be obtained, the
commiffioners, and alfo the parliament of Scotland, en-
gaged to pay it in ten years, by equal payments of
10,000 marks each year ; and to give twenty yoimg men
of quality hoftages, for fecurity (260). By one article it
was provided, that the truce between the two kingdoms
Jliould continue till the ranfom was paid. In confequcnce
of this treaty the king of Scots was fet at liberty, in Oc-
tober A. D. 1367.

The fatal expedition into England, A. D. 1346, which Treaties.
had involved the king and people of Scotland in fo
many calamities, had been undertaken at the inftigaticn
of France ; and therefore the Scots very properly applied
to France to affift them in paying the heavy ranfom of
their king. This application was at firil eluded by ex-
cufes ; but the French being ftill at war with England,
and (landing in need of the aid of their ancient allies, a
. treaty was concluded, April A. D. 1360, in which the
French engaged to pay the Scots 50,000 marks, and the
Scots engaged to renew the war with England (2G1). Eut
this treaty was never executed : for bv an article of the
famous treaty of peace between the French and Englifh
■at Bretisny, concluded cnlv about a month after, the
king of France renounced every alliance with Scotland,

(2,55)Rymcri Fc£i. t. 5. p. 847. (z??) Id. ibid. p. S31.

(ipS ) Id. ibid. t. 6. p. I 5. (-Si;) l'^- i^''^- P- 3 ' ■ -

(■zrio) RvmtT. ?.-^d. t. 6. p. 46 — 5Z. ir "

{■■Jti) A:ina\r.0L r.y-r'.luri, \-o\. i. v.'xiS-, ",47, zaS.

%'QL. IV. O . ^r,d


A. D. isfi'o. and eng-aged, for himfelf and his fucceflbrs, never to
^•"—'^/'^-'^ make any new alliance with that kingdom (262). In this
manner do great kings fomttimes trifle v/uh their engage-
Peftiknce. After Scotland had been long involved in the calami-
ties of war, it was vifited by a defi:rii6live peftilence,
A. D. 1 361, which raged a whole year, a^d is faid to
have carried ofl' about one third of the inhabitants (26^,).
Johanna queen of Scotland, fifter of Edward III. died
m England, A. D. 1362 (^264).
Intrigues to King David Bruce paid frequent vifits to England
defeat the after he recovered his liberty, and was engaged in certain
Robert°thc ^^^^^et intrigues with that court, to defeat the fucceflion
Stewart,: of hi's Hephew Robert the Stewart, who had been regent
©f the kingdom during his captivity. After his return
from one of thefe vifits, A. D. 1363, he made a propo-
fal to his parliament at Scone, That if he died without
ifllie, they fjioufd chufe Lionel duke of Clarence, the
fecond fon of Edward III. to be their king.
pofal vi^as unanimoully rejected with fcorn and indignation
by the parliament, ■v^ho declared. That they would never
permit an Englifhman to reign over them ; but would
iupport the fettlement of the crown, which had been
made by parliament on the Stewart and his family (265).
David was not deterred by this refolute anfiver, or even
bv the civil commotions which his propofal had oceafion-
ed, from purfuing his pernicious fchernes : for on his
return to England he made an agreement with Edward^
that he, or the king of England for the time being, Hiould'
fucceed to the crown of Scotland, on the death of David
•without ilTue ; and a plan was formed for regulating" the;
government when that event took place (266). But it
was foon foimd, that thefe dark intrigues and private
conventions could hate no eiTe6l, while the Scots were
Einanimoully determined to defend their independency ;.-
and therefore thev were kept fecret.
MarHr.Ete David Bruce, being now a widower, fell in love with

aMdeathof 2nd married Margaret Logic, a gentlewoman of fingular
* ' beauty. For fome time the influence of this lady ovei?

|i5i>RymeriFa;d. t. 5. p 178 — 1^5.

(■x5jVP"''''""5 1. 14. c. i4, Z5. (i(J4) Walfinj. p. 179.

(265) Tordun, 1. I i. c. -2,5.
. (266) RVmeri Fotd, I. 6'. p. 416, 4^7. .\anais of Scotla^id, voL i.

p. iji, ic^^


-•(, z


i her amorous hulband was very great : but it was not of A- D. 1371,
' ■long duration ; arid they were divorced in February ^""^
I A. D. 1370 (267). David did not long furvive this
J event. He died in the cafile of Edinburgh, 22d Februa-
I ry A. D. 1371, in the forty-feventh year of his age, and-

forty-fecond of his reign (268). '

David II. though not defective in perfonal courage,. ehr,raa;r.

was a weak, capricious, and unfortiinate prince, having
■ fpent about one half of his reign in exile or in captivity. '^

I The veneration of the Scots for the memory of their illuf-
I , trloiis deliverer, Robert Briice, kept theni fleady in their
if attachment to his only fon, in fpite of all his failings.
':\ He was fucceeded by his nephew Robert the Stewart;^

the fii-fl: of that family who wore a crowni

(167) Fordiin, 1. 14. c. j8. 34^ (i63) Id. ibid.


T/ie civil and military hijlory of Britain y from the acceffioh
of Richard II. June '2.1 fl. A: D. it,'] ^^ to the acceffon of
Henry IV. Septem'ter 30, A. D; 1399.

XviCHAUb II. was in the iith year of his age, wheii

lie fucceeded his grandfather Edward III. on the throne ^'''^rTf'
, _ _ , , T_., ^ , t .- ,. .Richard U.

of England. His tender years, the exqunite beauty 01

his perfon, and the remembrance of his beloved father
the Black Prince, greatly endeared him to his fubjeftsi
who exprefled the highefc fatisfa£libn at his accelTion.
"When king Edward lay at the point of death, the citi-
zens of London fent a folemn deputation to the prince^
then at Kingfton upon Thames, to profefs their attach-
ment to his intercft, and invite him to take up his refi-
deiice in their city; with which invitation he complied.
He was crowned at Weftminfter July 16^ with great
magnificence, and every polTible exprefPion of univerflil

f I ) Walfir?-. p. I 93. Ryra»T, vol. 7. p. 157 — lio.

t , "" " O 2 Bin-



War with
' France.

A. D. 1377. But notwithilanding all thefe fair appearances, the af-
JTT"^^"^^ fairs of England were not in a very happy rimation at this
;'ble (late ^''^'iC - The young king being incapable of holding the-
oi Eiigland. reins of government, was whoiiv under the dircftion of I
his three uncles, John of Gannt duke of Lancaller, Ed-
{^AacA. X mund of Langlcy earl of Cambridge, afterwards duke of

/ ^^^t^ u^iy York, and I'homas of Woodftock earl of Buckingham^
* a,rterwards duke of Gloucefter. The duke of Lancalier,
who bore the chief fway, was proud, palTionate, and un-
popular, and very unfit for the difficult part he had to'aft.
The nation was involved in an unfortunate war with
J'rance, for which no preparation was made, and was
alfo on ill terms with Spain and Scotland ; and the com-
mons were greatly difcontented at the continual demands
which had been latelv made upon them for the fupport of
the French war. The ill etfeds of thefe unfavourable
circumftances foon appeared.

The truce with France having expired May I, the war'
was renewed ; and the French had fent armies into Gui-
enne, Brittany, and the marches of Calais, where they
had taken two forts before the late king's death. In Au-
guft, a bodv of French plundered the ille of Wight, burnt
the town of Haflinos, and made attempts upon Winchel-
iey and Southampton, though without ruccers(2).

To provide for repelling^ thefe infults, and profecuting
the war with vigour, a parliament was fummoned to meet
at Weftminfter, October 13. The houfe of commons,
after confulting with a committee of lords, £;Tanted two
fifteenths from the counties, and two tenths from the ci-
ties and boroughs, to be paid into the hands of John Phil-
pot, and W. Walworth, merchants in London, and ap-
propriated to the expences of the war, t02:ether with the
iubfidy on wool. Through the influence of the king's
uncles in this parliament, the famous Alice Ferrers was
lentenced to banifliment, and her effates confifcated. No
regent nor regency was appointed ; but - by the aflent of
the king and lords to a petition of the commons, a coun-
cil of nine perfons was chofen, to advife and alTifl the
kmg in the adniiniffration of government for one year,
and a like council ordained to be chofen every vear, by
p.arliamcnt, during the king's minority (^). This me-

(i) Wairi).?. p. fo8, 199. Froiffart, 1. i.e. 347.

(3) PiiliaiTient. Hill, vol, 1. p. 335 — 344. (4] Wolfing, p. Ji :.






thod was probably taken out of jealoufy of the duke of A.D. 1377.
i Lancaller, who had the beft claim to the regency, if a *"" sr— ■-'
j regent had been appointed.

The war between England and France was not car- A. D. 1378.

ried on with much vigour on either fide, nor did it pro- P^"?'''-''^ "'
: duce many events worthy of the attention of pofterity. '^ ^''''^"
i One Mercer, a Scotchman, infefled the north-eaft coafls
: of England with a fmali fleet, and feized fome fhip^ in
i the port of Scarborough ; but John Philpot of London
' fitted out fome fn ips at his own expence, with which he
i engaged Mercer, defeated, and took him prifonerf4^.
I : 'iJie duke of Lancailer, though not dire'Slly regent, had Duke of
fan almoH: unbounded influence over the council of admi- i-ancafter's
I niftration ; and pre-vailed with them to give him the dif- "f"^!'^""'

? ^, - , -f •■ .,, ,, ■: t I- into !■ ranee.

■ polai ot the money arning trora tfte late parliamentary
\ grants, promifing not only to prote£t the kingdom from
all its enemies, but aifo to perform fome notable exploit
tor its honour and advantage. To pertorm this promife,
he raifed an army and equipped a <^eet for invading France.
Before the grand fleet was ready to fail, he fent the earls
of Arundei and Salifbury, with a few fhips and fom.e
troops, to take poffefTion of Cherburg, which was ceded
to England by tfie king of Navarre. The two earls had
an engagement on tJieir paiTage with a Spaniili fleet, in
v/hich chey fuPtained fome lofs, thou2;h they afterwards
executed their commiillon. About the end of July the
duke failed with' a gallant fleet and army ; and, landing
in Brittany, invened St. Maio. The conffable du Giief-
c'inhaftened with an army to the relief of the place; and
the duke, finding it would be irnpoiTible to take the town
in the prefenc-e of the, enemy, raifed the fiege, and re-
turned home, without having performed any thing worthy
of his mighty pronaifes-and great expences (''57.

A party of about eightv Scol'^., commanded by fir war with
Alejcander Ramfay, furprifed the caIHc of Berwick on Scothna.
November 25 ; but it.wasfoon aficr recovered' by the
earl of Northumberland, and all the Scots, except their
leader, put to the fword. After this the earl marched-
into Scotland ; but a part of his armv being defeated
near Melrofe, he difmilfed the reil, and put an cJiil to
the campaign|'6). k

(f) Walfing- p. 100. aio. 213. FroifTart, 1. i, c. 2'9'
.(.6) FroilVart, t. 2, c, 7—10. Walfini;. p. ;,i9,

A (>ar -


A parliament met at Glcucefler, OQiober 20, to which
it was reprefented, that the king was at a great expence
in maintaining the garrifons of Calais, Cherburg, Breft,
Bourdeaux, and Bavonne, and in defending the kingdom
from its numerous enemies \ and a fupply was demanded
fbr defraying thefe expences. The houfe of commons
difcovered ar extreme unwii'ingnefs to comply with this
demand ; alleging, li. / '': - ':i- mufi: be a great part of the ^
money granted by the lafl: parliament flill in thetreafury;
^ that the king's ordinary revenues were fufficient, with
good management, for anfvverlng all thefe purpofes ; and -y
that the people of England had nothing to do with the';;
great chars:e of 46,000!. for maintaining the garrifons in '
France. But at length, by the earnefi: and repeated en- '
treaties of the lords, the commons were prevailed. upon .
to continue the high duly on wool, v/ool-fclls, and lea- '
ther, and even to grant an additional duty of one mark ^1
on everv fack of wool, an"d every two hundred and forty • "
wool-fells, and two marks on everv lafl: of leather, be-
fides 6d. in the pound on all ruerchandife exported and :
imported (7). >

Resolution 'X\-yQ ]ate unfucccfsful expedition of the duke of Lan-
i : I ""carter into Brittany, was followed by the lofs of all that'
duchv, except Bvffl, which was put in<o the hands of the-
Fnglifli by John de Ivlountfort duke of Brittanv, for an"'
eftate in England, where he refidcd with ■'■•erv little hopes'
of, ever being redored to his dominions (^8^'. The con- ■
qiieft of this coufitry appeared fo complete to Charles V. ■
king of France, that by a folemn fentericfe he annexed the
duchy of Brittanv to thekingdoip of France for evei*(9). '
But fo uncertain are the principles of human policy, that'
this fentence, calculated to extinguifh the lall: hopes' 'oK'
John de Mountfort, was the means of reftorine; him t*"
the pciTefllon of his countrv in a very little time. Foi*
though the people of Brittany difiiked their duke for his^
inviolable attachment to England, and oh that accoun^'^
had aiTifled the French in expelling him, there was no-*
thing in the world they dreaded fb much as the fubje8:ion"
of their countrv to the crown of France. In ord-cr' to'
avoid this, they {^nt repeated invitations to Mountfort to^

{-) Carte, vol. a. p. ^.',i. e-. Sot. Parliament. Walfing. p. 115. P:ir-
iJan'cjit. Hilt. vol. I. p. ^48 — 3f;=;.

(8j EyineVj vol, 7. p. (Qc—i^j. (9) D'Argentre HilT. Brit, 1. p, c. ?.


eh. I. §5. CnaL AND MILITARY. 199

return into Brittany, promifing to recejve him as their A- D. 1379.

•fovereign, and to fupport him with the lUmoft zeal and ' "^ '

H&yalty. Being at iength convinced of their fincerity, he
failed from Southarnpton, and landing near St. Malo, Au-
gufl: 3, with a few troops, he was every where received
with the loiideft acclamations of joy, and got poflefTion of
<Iie chief places of his dominions (^10).

Though the events of the war with France, Cafrilej
dnd Scotland, were not very memorable; the expence§
of it, and of the foreign gavrifons, were very great, and
occadoned frequent applications to parhament. One
was fummoned to meet at Weftminfrer January 14, A.
D. 13S0, which, after appointing commiflloners to ex-
amine into every branch of the adminiftratjon, granted
one fifteenth and a half from the counties, and one tenth
and a half from the cities and boroughs; and continued
the high du:-ies on wool, wool-felis, and leather, for ano-
ther year after Michaelmas next, when they were to have
expired (11). Having thus provided for the public ex-
pences, they requeued that there might be no meetino- of
parliament for one year after Michaelmas next.

Though the people of Brittany had received their duke Expedition
with great cordiality, he foon found that it y/ould be im- intoBriwn-
pollible for him to contend with the fuperior power of ">'•
France without afTiflance from England, which he foli-
cited with much earneftncfs. A great arm.v was raifcd
and fent to his relief, under the command of the kin^'^s
uncle, Thomas earl of Buckingham ; Avhich, m.^rchin^^
from Calais in the end of July, palled throiicrh Ficardie
Champagne, and other provinces of France, plunderin?-
the country, without meeting with any opnoiltion (i.a).

As this army approache<i the confines of Brittany, they Death of
received the news of the death of the king of France, Charles V.
Charles V. who expired on September 16, and wasJuc-
ceeded by his fbn Charles VL a youth about twelve vears
of age (13).^

, This event produced a great change in the defigns of chan-e in
the duke of Brittany. This prince, obferving that the ih. .luke of
nverfion of' his fubjedsto the F.ngliJ"h was not in the leail "L'r^-v-r;;-.
abated, and that feveral of his towns were rcfolved to

(tp^ Walfing. p. %7e,. FroiiTart, t.%. rh. 44.
(11) Parliament. HiU. ^'ol. i . p. 355 — 35 -.
(laJFi-oiiTifrt, 1. a. c. 50— 55.


20O H I S T O R Y OF B R I T A 1 N. Book IVJ

A.D. 1380. jfhut their gates accainfl them, began to think of making^
^-"^sr^-^ j^is peace with France, and with great fecrecy fent com-
miluoners to Paris to propofe an accommodation. But as
he hjd invited the Engliih army to his alTiftance, he found
it necefiary to receive them with feme degree of civihty ;
and fcnt fix of his chief nobiHtv to compUment the earl
of Buckina,ham on his arrival in Brittanv, and to pro-
pofe an intervif" -vith their duke. Thcfe princes accord-
inglv met at ? ; tziere, near Rennes ; where it was
agreed, that the Epglifh annv fhould undertake the frege •
of Nantes, in which the duke promifed to join them with
his forces, in a few weeks. TheEnghfn, in confequence
of this agreement, invefted Nantes, and continued the
fiege about two months; when, finding that the duke had /
failed in his engagement to join them, through the aver-
fion of his rubjr-<9:s to the EngHfh intcreft, thev raifed the
fiege, and retired to Vannes into winter-quarters (14).
r'Tl^d''^ The fcots invaded and phindered Cumberland and
, ' Weftm' eland in, and carried off m.uch booty;
particu! .r!y fevera! thoufands of cattle of different kinds.
When ihe earl of Northumberland was raifing an army
to retaliate this injury, he was retrained bv orders from
court. Thefe orders were probably procured by the in-
fluence of the duke of Lancafter, v/ho defigncd this em^
ploymcnt for himfelf. Accordingly he tiiade an expedi-
tion into Scotland, where he gathered no, laurels; bur

Online LibraryRobert HenryThe history of Great Britain : from the first invasion of it by the Romans under Julius Cæsar. Written on a new plan (Volume 4) → online text (page 20 of 53)