Robert Henry.

The history of Great Britain : from the first invasion of it by the Romans under Julius Cæsar. Written on a new plan (Volume 5) online

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gentlemen, Thomas Burdet, of ArrowMn WarW'ickfhire,,
and John Stacy, a learned clergyman, fell vi6lims to this
cruel fufpicious fpirit. In the courle 6f this year, the
forrher of thefe was tried, condemned, and executed as'
a traitor, for an- angry expreffion, which at prefent would'
be a fubje6l of laughter, rather thail of punifhrnent ; the
latter w^as tried arid put to death for the imaginary crime
of necromancy ( 148).
^^larence 3ut this fpirit focn produced a" more tragical fcene,..
diiconteflt- arid hurried on king Edward to an unnatural a6i: of cru-
^'' elty, which iri the end proved fatal to his own family.

Ko cordial frieridfhip had ever fubfifted between the
duke of Glafence and the queen's relations, who, by
their influence with the king, produced a coolnefs be-
tween him and Clarence, which gradually increafed in-
to a moft rancorous animofity, by unfriendly ofiices oh
the one lide, ^ind too flrong exprelTioris of refentment on'
the other. The duke had become a wi:dower, by the
death of his duchefs Ifabella, 2%d December A. £). 1476 p
arid Charles duke of Burgundy being killed in lefs than
a forlTiight after,, his only daughter became the greateft
heirels in the world. Clarence, who wanted nbt'ambi-
tiouj naturally turned his eyes towards this rich fucccf-
• fion, and applied to his filler Margaret duchefs -dowager'
of Burguridy, to prortiote his views. That priricefs,'
' who' loved him better thari ariy of her other two brothers,
w^armly efpoufed his caufe, and eveiy thing w^ore a pro-
mifing afpecl. But Edwal'd, who ought to have pro-
moted this fcheme with all his powTr, from policy as
well as from natural aife^lion to his brother, oppofed it,
and caufed his queen's brother, Anthony M''idville, earl
Ki^ers, to be propofedas a proper huibaild to the young:
feeirefs; who was a.^jc6led with difdain. This cruel ia>-

(147) Cortiine?, 1. 4. c. 12. 1. 5. c. 1. 4. 3.

(!■.}«). Stow, p. 430. HiftiCrcyl. p. e,6u



jury funk deep Into the heart of Clarenpe, who feldom A- 0.2475-
afterwa/ds appeared at court, or in council; and when ^■*— v*"^.
he did appear, was fullen, filent, and vifibly difcon:-
tented. The execution of Burdet and Stacy, who were
his friends, and owed their death to their attachjnent to
him, overcame his patience, and threw him off his
guard. He went the day after to the .council-chambqr
at Weftminfter, attended by W- Gqddard, a celebrated
.divine, w^ho had affifted the fu£ferers inftheij laft mo-
;ments, and gave in copies -of the private and public de-
clarations they had made of theij iniiocencCj, and then
withdrew (149).

Edward, who wanted only a handle to wreak. his ytn- Clarence
^eancc on his unhappy brother, greedUy laid hold on ^°5 ITcclr^
this, called a council of peers and prelates, tp .which he ed.
Invited the mayor and alderme© of London, and, before
Aem, loaded Clarence with many accufationsj magnify-
ing every indifcretion into a crime^ and reprefentiHg his
laft a6^ion as no lefs than high treafon. The duke, with
the cpnjent of the,coancilj was committed .to the Tower,
and on January 165 was tried for treafon by his peers irx
parliament. The accufations brought againft him were
either .grofely abfurd or yery triiling (.150). The heavieft
articles were, — That he had caufed his fervants to report^
that the l^ing was a necromancer, — and that Burdet was
unjuftly executed- This trial was managed m a very
uncommon and indecent manner. The king was the
pnly pleader againft the prifoner; and the duke was the
only perfon whp dared to anfwer fuch a pleader. The
witnefies too (as we are told by a contemporary hiflor
rian, who was probably prefent) appeared more like
profecutors than wltneltes (i^ij* Clarence was conr
•de-mned;, -and a fentence of death pronounced upon him;^
by Henry duke pf Buckingham, who was high fleward
pn that occafioR. That one of the houfes pf parliament
might have no caufe to reproach the other with all the
guilt, or to claini all the honour of this tranfa61ion, the
comn^ons were prevailed upon to appear a.t the bar of
the houfe of peers, fome time after, and demanded the
execution pf this fentence. It was accordingly execute4

<i49) Hift, Croyl. p. 552. (i|o) See Stow^ p. 431, 43?,,

Ki'SO <^ontinvi?t, Hift. CroyJ, p, 564.





> .D. 1478. privately in the tower, March i r ; but by whom, or in
' what manner, the contemporary hiftorian who gives the
fuileft account of this matter doth not fay, and probably
did not know (152). Fabian, who was then a young
man, tells us, *^ he was drowned in a barrel of Malve-
" feya(i53)."

Several of Clarence's cftates were granted by Edward
to the queen's brother, Anthony earl Rivers, on this hy-
pocritical pretence, that as he had done the earl great in-
juries, it would be an advantage to his foul after death,
that the earl got his eftates (154). The king became
more and more luxurious and expenfive, and at the fame
time more oppreffive and rapacious (i55). Delighted
with the regular payment of the 50,000 crowns a- year
by the king of France, wliich enabled him to piurfue his
pleafures; flattered with the profpc6l of a marriage be-
tween the dauphin and his eldeft idaughter; and influenc-
ed by the advice of his penfioned minifters ; he permitted
Lewis to attempt the ruin of the houfe of Burgundy with-
out interruption. ^ ■ •

Though England enjoyed peace at this time, the peo-
ple were far from being happy. ' A deftru6live peftilcnce
racked at London and in other places during the greateft
part of this year (156). • Edward, funk in (loth and lux-
ury, permitted himfelf to be amufed with treaties and pro-
mifes by the artful, perfidious Lewis,' v/hich that prince
intended either to keep or violate as he found convenient.
It is a fufHcient proof of this, that though he now agreed^,
by a very folemn treaty, that he and- his heirs fhould pay
50,000 crowns a-year to Edward during his life, and to
his heirs for one hundred years after his death, he witk-^
dr^w that payment as foon as he could do it with'

fafety(i57). ' '' '

.pit was one of the peculiarities in the character of Ed-
ward IV. that he engaged in treaties for the marriages of
all his children almoft as foon as they were born. But-
of all thcfe marriages, he had none fo much at heart as
that of his eldeft daughter, Elizabeth, with the dauphin,
which had been agreed upon in the treaty of Amiens,

(15^) Continuat. Hifl. Cro)l. p. 562. (i53) Fabian, an. 14780

(154J Rym. Feed, ton^, iz. p.'ps- (155) Hift. Croyl. p. ^6%.

{iS6) Stov,', p- 431. ■ (i57) Ryra. F«d. torn. li. p. 204.-

A.D. 1479.

A.D. 1480.
Breach be-
tween Ed-
T.ard a»id
the king of



&i, I. § 4. CIVIL AND MILITARY. %€j

A. D' 147 5 (158). By one of , the articles of tliat treaty^ A. D . 1489.
jiewis engaged to coriduci: the young princefs into ^^'O^"^
^vance^ at hi^ ovvn expence, and to put her in pofieifion
pf 60^000 livres a-year; but as he never intended the
marriage fnould take elfecSl, he \^as in no perform
(this article. Edward at length became impatient and
iufpicious, and fent the lord Howard;, in May this year^
^o the court of France, to demand the irnrnedia4-e execu-
rtion of the above article. But Lewis being no longer un-
der a neceffity of difiembling, refufed tp coxnply -with that
idemand;, and threatened to withdraw the payment of the
jfifty thoufand crowns a-year^ ftipulated by the fame

Edward now began to open li^is eyes, ar^d to perceive Alliance
Xhat he had been deluded by the deceitful Lewis. En- with Eux-
raged at this, he renewed^ with Mary duchefs of Bu-r- ^^^^'
gundy, and her hufband, Maximilian duke of Auftria
j(to whom fhe had been mairied, A. D. 1477), the alli-
ance which had been made between him and the late duke
Charles ; and engaged to fend them a-n aid of fix _^ thou-
fand archers, if Lew^is d'^^ not agree to a truce ,or peace^
under his mediation. Maximilian and Mary, on their
part, agreed to pay him the 50,000 crowns a year, which
had formerly been paid by France^ if he engaged in a
war with that crown on their account f 150). FoUpwing
the bent of his genius, he at the fame time cpntra6led a.
marriage between his daughter Ann, a child about four
years of age, and^ Philip, fori of Maximilian and Mary,
an infan,t in his cradle; which, like all his CGntra6ls of
ihat kind, came to nothing (160).

When Edward nieditated a war againft France, he re- ^'■^^di mtl^
folved to prevent all inteiTuption from Scotland, by af- ^°^^^'>'
iifting the difcontented nobles of that kingdom, and em-
broiling it in a civil wsr» With this view, he appointed
his brother Richard duke of Gloucefter his lieutenant,
and fent orders to the lords, knights, and gentlernen of
the northern counties, to array all the men who w^re fit
for war in thofe counties (161). Nothing, however,
happened this year, but a few mutual incurfions of lit;tle
^onfequence, and an unfuccefsful attempt on the towaof

(158) Id, ibid. p. ip. (JSp) Ryin. Feed. toni. 12. p. 12,3 — 128.

{i6oj Id, ibid, p. 128—135. Ci^O Id. ibid. p. 115 — u^.



A.D. uSi. King Edward made great preparations, in the fpring
'^^^'^^'^^ of this year, for invading Scotland, both by fea and
Scotland.^ land (162). King James was no lefs acSlive in preparing
for a war 'with England, in which he was heartily fup^
ported by his fubje61s, who feem to have been much ex™
afperated againft the Englifh, and particularly againft the
king. This appears from the a6ls of a parliament held
at Edinburgh, in Aprii, in which the moft vigorous mea-
fiires were '-adopted for refifting the rieffar (robber) Ed-
ward, as he is conftantly called in thefe a61s (163)^ In
confequence of this fpirit, the people crowded from ail
parts to the royal ft and ard; and an army of forty thoufand
men, it is faid, alTembled at Edinburgh, in Auguft, and
froni thence marched tow^ards Ehglarid (164). ■ Edward
, was fo much alarmed at the approach of this formidable
army, that he refolved to'ftand on the'defenfive; and that
all men might be at leifure to take arms, he commanded
all tiie" courts to be fhut, and put a ftop to all' proceed-
ings at law till Michaelmas (165). ' But after all thefe
preparations on both fides, no a6tion of great importance
happened in the Gourfe of this year.' «■
A.D. uSa. Alexander' duke of Albany," brother to the king of
s'o^bnT'^^ Scotland,* having efcaped out of the'caftle of Edinburgh^
in which he had been imprifoned, was at this time in the
court of England, and concluded a treaty of alliance
with Edward', June I'Oo "In this treaty Alexander called
himfelf king of Scots, engaged t) do homage to Edward
for his crow^n, and to deliver the town and caftle ot Ber-
wick to England ; and Edward engaged to affift him
with an army to obtain the crown (166); In confequence
of this treaty, the duk'es of Albany and Gloucefter en-
tered Scotland with a gallant army of2550oo men, took
the town., but not Ac- caftle,- of Berwick, and theii
marched to Edinburgh, into v/hich they were received
Vv-ithout any oppofition (167)0'^ •Scotland vi^as at this
time in a moft diftra6ted ftate - The king, at variance
w^Ith his chief nobility, was imprifoned, or had fhut him-
felfup in tlieeaftle of Edinburgh, and ail government

(l6^) Rvm. Fed, torn. iz. p. 135,
( 163 J Black a^;', fol. 65, 66. ■.

(164) Piti'coilusHiftory of Scotland, edit. 1718, p. 77.

(165) B.ym. Feed. torn. la. p. 141. .

(iCe) Kym Feed. torn. i%. p. 15^, . (j^y) H\L Qroyl p. $62.

» ■ 4, ........... ,,


d^Jt^ U,A.

px. I. § 4. CIVIL AND MILITARY. 16^

was almoft dlffolved. In this extremity, a number of AD. 148s-
.the nobility met at Haddington, and fent propofals for a ^""^
peace to the dukes at Edinburgh ; and, alter a fhort ne-
gotiation, a peace was concluded, Auguil 2(168).
Two days after, the provoft and community of Edin-
burgh granted a bond to repay all that part of the mar-
riage-pprtion of the princefs Cecilia, contra6led to the
prince of Scotland, which had been paid, provided the
king of England declared that it was his pleafurethe con-
traA fhouid be dilTolyed (169). Peace being thus con-
cluded, the duke of Gloucefter, who feems to have
a6led with great moderation, returned with his army
into England, and took the caftle of Berwick in his way.
This expedition coft Edward loo^oool. a great fum ia.
thofe times ; but the nation was fp well pleafed with the
recovery of Berwick, that" the next parliament thanked
the duke of Glbucefter for his good condu61, and conr
firmed feveral valuable grants that had been made to him
by the king, his brother (170),

Edward, being at laft convinced of the perfidy of the A.D. 14S3*
king of France, by receiving the news, that the dauphin, '^f'^^f,^
who had been contracted to his daughter Elizabeth, ^^^
A. D. i477j was a(Slually betrothed to J^argaret, the
infant daughter of Maximilian duke of Burgundy, at
Paris, 4th January this year, that the contract was con-=
firmed by the parliament of Paris, and celebrated with
great rejoicings in that city, was enraged beyond mea-
fure, and breathed nothing but revenge (171). To exe-
cute this revenge, lie prepared with great ardour for an
expedition into France ^ and, to prevent interruption frorn
Scotland, he concluded a new treaty o! alliance with the
dnkeof Albany^ 'who had again revolted (172). But an
enemy againft whom there is no defence foon put a pe-
riod to all his projects. He died at Weflminfter, April
Q, in the 41ft year of his age, and the 23d of his reign >
but of what difeafe is not certainly known (173). A

(16S) Rym. Fcjed. torn. ii. p. i6i. (i<?9) Id. ibid.

1^170) Hift. Croyl. p. 563.

(171) Monftrelet, torn. 4. f. 71, Philip de Comiiies. 1. ^, c. 9*

^172) Rym. Feed. to^. 12. p. 173.

(173) Hjft. Croyi, p. 564. Sto\v, p. 433,


1 70 H I S T O R Y O F B R I T A I N. Book V.

A.D. 1483. contemporaiy wi'iter fays, that he was not affecled with
^•^"V"^*-' any paiticular difeafe, and fcems to afcribe his unex-
pe6led death to the anguiij:! of his mind, and the bad
habit of his body, brought on by his ex cell es (;74).
HiS ifTue. Edy/ard had by -his queen three fons and feven daugh-
ters, of whom one fon and two daughters died before him ;
and two fons and five daughters furvived him, viz. Ed-
,ward, his eldeft fon and fucceifor, born in the fan(51uary
at Weftminfter, November 4, A. D. 1470 ; — Richard,
duke of York ; — Elizabeth, who was contra61ed to the
dauphin, and afterwards married to Henry VII. — Ce-
cilia, contracSled to James prince of Scotland, and mar-
ried to John vifcount Wells ;— Anne, contra(Sed to Phi-
lip of Burgundy, and manied to Thomas Howard duke
of Norfolk ;— Bridget, who became a nun 2t Dertford {
« — -and Catharine, contracled to the infante of Spain, anc)
married to William Courtenay earl of Devonrnire".
Though he had many niiilreffes, he had not many natu-
Tik\ children. He left a fon by Elizabeth Lu.cie, named
Arthur, who, having married Elizabeth heirefs to her
brother, John lord Lifie, was raifed to that title by
Henry V III. and a daughter, named Elizabeth, wh(^
was maiTied to Thomas lord Lumley ( I75)'
Clarence's The unhappy duke of Clarence left aifo two childrei^
iflue. by his duchcis Ifabel, viz. Edward earl of Warwick,

who fell an innocent vi61im to the cruel jealoufy of
Henry VIL A. I). 1499 i — and Margaret, of whom wq
ihall Lear in the progrefs of this work (176).
Char-.a^r Edward lY. was much admired, in his youth, for the
o^r.dvvarti v^g^^y^y of |,js facc and the handfomencfs ofhis perfon^
' hut before his death he became corpulent and bloated,

by his intemperance (177). His add refs was eafy, en-
gaging, and familiar, y/hich gained him the hearts of
many, and the money of not a few, particularly, pf thp
fair JTex (178). He never forgot the name or fa.ce of any
perfon with whom he had once converfed ; and he is
even faid to have known the chara61:ers and circumftances
of every nobleman or gentleman of a:jjy confequence ir^

'174) Hifl. Cfoyl. p. c,63, ^6a,

f 17c) Dugdale, vol. a. p. 31a. 175. (l?^) ^''' '^'^- P- i<^$«

(177} Philip deComines, tarn, i, p. 15(7. (*7^) K»i^ ^'Z7'





■h. I. § 5. eiVIL AND MILITARY. i^t

is dominions ( 179). His great fuccefs in war (having A. D. ^^3-
ained nine pitched battles, in which he was p-refent, and '
Dught on foot, and never loft one) may be admitted as
fufficient proof of his military ikill and courage, as
7ell as of his good fortune. In a word, if his virtues
ad been equal to his endowments, he would have been
oth a great and good king. But that was not the cafe.
lis piety is indeed celebrated by the monk of Croyland^
ut it did not prevent him from violating his moft folemn
aths, when he was prompted to it by palTion, or the
rofpe6l of advantage ( 180). He was guilty of many
6ls of cruelty ; and the unnatural murder of his brother
larence muft fix an indelible ftain upon his chara61:er.
^''henever he enjoyed peace, he abandoned himfelf to
leafure and the gratification of his appetites. On his
aifion for women he laid no reftraint ; and his impru-
ent and criminal indulgence of it plunged him into much
iftrefs and guilt, produced almoft all the diforders of
is reign, and all the calamities that befel his friends and
imily. The indulgence of vicious palfions is as perni-
.ous to princes as to private perfons«


^rom the accefftpn of Edward Y. A. D. 1483, to the ac^
cejfton of Henry VII. A. D. 1485.

W-/DWARD prince of Wales, the eldeft fon of^. 0.1483.
Idward IV. was proclaimed king in London, ApriK), \^,,:'^^ - ^^^
the day on which his father died), by the name of Ed- Eeward v.
^ard V. ( i). He was then only in the thirteenth yearpf P^^^^^^"^^^-
is age; but his title was io clear, that it was not ima-
ined any difpute could poffibly arife about his poffeifion

(179) Hid. Croyl. p. 5^4. (180) Id. ibid.

(i) Sir Tho, More, apudKennet, vol. i, p. 481*




A. p. SA

state of


S3-of che throne; though many dreaded that very vioki
difputes would arife about the admi,niftration of" the g(
vernment duiing his minority.

The court df England at this .tinie v-'as divided in
two parties. One of thefe parties confifted of the quet:
and her relations^ with fuch ^s attached themfelves •
them in order to obtain preferment ; the other was con
pcfed of certain noblemen, who, by their long and faitli
ful fervices, had gained the confidence of the lai
king, and had been thereby fuppoited in their pl;i
ces, without any dependence upon or conne6Hon wiv
the queeji's relations. The chiefs of this laft par;
were, — the dukes of Gloucefter an4 3uckinghar
with the lords Haftings, Howard, ^q.d Stank
While Edward IV. lived, his authority check
the paffions of both thefe parties, and kept the
I'/ithin decent bounds.. He was not, jhoweyer ignora
of tlieir fecret animolity; and therefore in his laft fie.
Refs, he bro/Jght about a reconciliatio;i beivvcen thei
which, like almoft all court-reconciliations^ \i^as neith
lincere nor permanent (2).

in The gi'eat obje61: which each of thefe parties had
view was, to get and keep poffeffion of the perfon oft
young kin^, that they might poifefs his power. At t
iime of his father's death, he refided at Ludlow caft]
under. the cafe of his uncle Anthony ea^l Rivers, '^'how
his governor, attendee! by lord' Richara Grey, his uteri
brother, lir Thomas Vaughan, his chamberlain, ai
others of the fame par^y (3). The queen and her frien
prapofed in council to raife a fmall army to efcoit t
king to London, in order to his coronation; but til
jneafure was ftrenuoufly oppofed by the other party, wjj
ihw its tendency; and particularly by the lord chambe
lain Hayings, who threatened to leave the court. T
queen, unv/illing to , raife any difturbance in the begi
ning of her fon's reign, agreed to limit the number oft
jattendants to two th'oufand (4). That the queen afpir
to the regency, was fufpecled, and is not improbabl
but cannot, I think, be proved : but that fhe wifhed, ar
hoped, that fhe and her relations would have as mui

(2) Hall, Ed. IV. f, 60.

(4) H^ftvCroyl. p. 564, 555.

(3) Sir T. More, p. 481.




mv in the prefent, as they had in the preceding reign, a. D. 1483,
i that Her enemies A\^ere determined to prevent this, if"^— V— '
ffible, is abundantly evident.

The duke of Gloucefter was in the north of England, Condua of
sparing for a fecond expedition into Scotland, when ^^ Gioucefte/'^
;eived intelligence bf the king his brother's death. He
mediately hafteiled to York, attended by lix hundred

his friends, befides' his ufual retinue, all dreffed in"

mrning. There he celebrated the late king's funeral,^

^claimed his foil Edward V. tbok an oath of fealty to

It young prince, and enjoined the magiftrates, nobility,

:1 gentlemen of thofe parts, to take finiilar o^ths. From

ince, too, he wrote letters to the queen, and to her bro-

;r the earl Rivers, full bf the warmeft profeffions of

sndfhip to them, and of toyalty to the king (5). What

; real ihteritions vi^ere when he liiadc thefe profelfions, I

ill not' fo much as conjecfturel

That the lord Haftings fent iriMligerice to the duke of ^^^o^ce^-

oucefter of thd tranfa6l:ions in council, and the defigns^" * vtews^

the queen aild her party at court, together with oft'ers

his affiftance to raife him to the regency, cannot be
ubted. For tiiougii that lord had' beeil ihoft finccrely
ached to Edward IV. (from whom he had received the
nourable and lucrative offices of governor of Calais
d chambeflaih of England) and Was 110 lefs fincerely
ached to his fon Edward V. ; yet there was nothing he
?aded fo much as to fee the adminiilration in fhe hands

the queen and her relations, by whom he kn'ew he was
ted. Gloucefter at the fame tirtie received limilar af-
rances from Henry Stafford duke of Buckingham, the
)ft powerfiil nobleman then in England, who promife<f

join hirii immediately, at the head of his numer^s
ffals(6). Having received thefe aflurances, and know-
g that the lioblemen, gentlemen, and people of the
)ith of England were warmly engaged in his intereil, he
rtainly determined to intercept the young king in his
\y to London, to take him out of the hands of his mo-*-
er's relations, and thereby fecu re to himfelf the admi-
ftration during his minority ; but w^hether his views ex-
nded any farther at this time or not, itfeems itfipoflible'
' difcovei'.

(5) Hift. Croyi: p. 565:

( 6 ) Hia. Croyl. p. 565. Sir T. 2^o?e, p. 454. col.'aV



A.D. 1483. To execute his defigns, whatever they were,, the duk^

*^ v'~* — ' of Gloucefter departed from York, with a numerous re

R^^/^'*'d tinue, and arrived, April 29, at Northamptoh, wher'
others im- he w^as joined by the duke of Buckingham, with nin:
priibaed. hundred of his followers (7). The king being then or
his way to London, lodged that night at Stony-Sti-atfor^
only ten miles from Northampton; and the earl Rivers,
the lord Richard Grey, and fome others, entertaining m
lufpicion of any ill defign againft them, waited on tli(i
two dukes, to conceit meafures about the king's journey
anfl approaching coronation. They were received b]
them with the greatell appearances of cordiality, aiic
they fpent the evening together in convivial mirth aiii
pleafanuy. But next morning, the earl Rivers, the lor<
Richard Grey, fir Thomas Vaughan, and fir Richan
Hawfe, were made prifoners, and fent" to the caftle e
Pomfret in Yorklliire(8). All the king's other attend
ants and fervants were difmified, and a proclamatioj
publiflied, forbidding them to come near the court, un
der the pain of death (9).
Gicucefter This tumultuous feizuic of his neareft relations^ an<
comforts arbitrary difmiffion of all his friends and fervants, ftrucl
tae -mg. ^^^ young king with grief and terror, and made him buri
out into complaints and tears. When the duke of Glou
ceftcr came into his prefence, he fell upon his knees
made the ftrongeft profefTions of loyalty and affe61iont(
his perfon; atoed him, that what had been done w^;
for his prefervation ; and, in a word, he laid and di(
every thing in his power to dry up the tears and difpel th'
terrors of the helplefs, unhappy prince (io)»

Online LibraryRobert HenryThe history of Great Britain : from the first invasion of it by the Romans under Julius Cæsar. Written on a new plan (Volume 5) → online text (page 17 of 49)