Robert Henry.

The history of Great Britain : from the first invasion of it by the Romans under Julius Cæsar. Written on a new plan (Volume 5) online

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died {"())' This turbulent, ambitious prince, who had
formed fo many conipiracies againfl: his too indulgent
brother, left two fons, Alexander bifliop of Moray, and
John duke of Albany, who became regent of Scotland
in the minority of James V (80).
Truce, Sec. The captivity of the earl of Douglas, and the death of
the diake of Albany, broke all the meafures of the earl
of Angus and his partifans, and obliged them to remain
quiet for fome time They were under the greater necef-
fity of doing this, that a three-years truce with England
was concluded at Nottingham^, September 21, A. D.
1484 ; and at the fame place, on the fame day, a contrail
of marriage was figned by the plenipotentiaries of both
kings, between James prince of Scotland and Ann de la
Pole, daughter to the duke of Suffolk, and niece to

(77) Buchan, Jib. iz. p. 236. (78) Ibid.

\ (79) Ferrer, f. 35^7. (80) Crawford's Peerage, p. 7, 8.

Richard '


Richard III. by his fifter(8i). A congrefs was ap- A. 0,1484^
pointed to be held at York, on the next feaft of the ^ ^
Virgin Mary, to fettle all particulars refpe61ing the in-
tended marriage (82).

King James laid the treaties of the truce and marriage A. D. 1485.
before his parliament at Edinburgh, May 26, A. D. P^^l^-^"^^^^'
1485. The parliament (in which the earl of Angus was
prefent) approved of both thefe treaties ; and appoint-
ed an honourable embafly to be fent to the con-
grefs at York, conftfting " of a bifhop, ane earl, ane
" honourable and wife clerk, a lord of parliament, a
*' knight yat is a baron, and a fquair yat is a baroun,
" and with yame fervandis to complete to the noumer
" of fifti-twa perfonis, and yat yai fall half to yr expen- >
" fis fivehundreth pundis Scottis(83)." But the trou-
bles in England, w^hich terminated in the death of
Richard III. prevented the meeting of the congrefs at
York. The parliament alio appointed an embaiiy to
be fent to the pope, to obtain, amongft other things,
his approbation of the diffoluiion of the priory of Cold-
ingham, and the annexation of its revenues to the cha-
pel royal in Stirling caftle, agreeable to the fentence of
two cardinals, to whom that matter had been refer-
red (-84). This is a fufficient evidence that the par-
liament approved of that meafure ; but as it pro -
duced very fatal effedts, it merits a more particular nar-

Stirling caflle, on account of its beautiful Gtuation DifafFeaiGa
and delightful profpe (St s, was the favourite refidence of ^^ •^^^ .

_ ^l' . ^ , . % , , ., 1 -1 1 Humes and

James III. in which he built a palace, with an elegant Hepburns.
chapel- To procure funds for the fupport of a dean^
prebends, a numereus band of fingers, muficians, and
other officers, he fupprelled, by a regular pyocefs, the
priory of Coldingham, arid endowed his chapel witli its
revenues. This gave great offence to the Humes (a nu-
merous and powerful clan in the Pvlerfe), who had been

(81) Rym. Fosd. torn. la. p. r^S— '!&,€. (82,) Id. ibid.

'(83) Records of ParliBtnent. I'he publication called the Black A6ls is
not a faithful tranfcript from the records. The above tranfaiSiion, for ex-
ample, and many others, are afcribed to a parliament that met February
a4i A. D. 1484.

(84) Records of Parliament.



A.l>. j4S$.accuftomed to receive profitable leafes and other advanta-^;

^'"^'^'Y"'**^ ges from the priors, w'-ho were generally of their nam^jj

and they having entered into a bond of mutual afiiftance

with the Hepburns, both became exceedingly turbuleiit;

, and difafFe6led to the king, and brought a great aeceffic^j

of ftrength to his fecret enemies (85).

Ciftfe of The caftle of Dunbar was ftill in the hands of tHe

Dunbar re* ERgiifli ; but being beiiegcd in the fummer of this yeat,

carere . j^. ^^^^^ taken without much difficulty, the gari'ifon de*-*

fpairing of receiving any iuccours(86).
A.D, 14Z6. Henry VII. fooA after bis acceffion, began to cultivate
Ttuce. tlie friendfhip of the king of Scotland ; and a truce for
three years, from July 3, A. E>. 1486, was concluded
by the plenipotentiaries of both kings, after a nefrotia'
tion of feveral days, in the months of June and July (87),
From this truce it appears, that Archibald earl of An^
gus ft ill enjoyed the favour and confidence of his fove-
reign, as he was appointed warden of the eaft and mid*
die marches, aiKi one of the confervators of the truce (S8);
It is alfo remarkable, that John Ramfey of Balmain,
lately created lord Bothwell, was one of the negociator$
of this truce ; which is the firft time we meet with any
of king James's favourites f about whom there had beeii
fo much noife) employed in any important or hatlona!
tranfacSlion. This treaty was ratified by king James at
Edinburgh, 06iober 24, A. D. i486 (89).
A»D. 14S7. Several infurre61ions in England, and the affaii of
Treaty. Lambert Simnel, having convinced Henry VII. that he
had many enemies both at home and abroad, he became*
verydeiirous ofa morefecure peace with the kingdom,
and a more intimate conne6lion with the royal family, of
Scotland. With this view he fent Richard bilTiop oF
Exeter, and Richard Edgecombe, comptroller of his'
houfhold, ambaffadors to Edinburgh, to negotiate thefe
affaii s ; and king James appointed William bifhop of
Aberdeen, and John loi'd Bothwell, to treat with themv
Thefe plenipotentiaries having agreed upon certain pre-:
liminaries for a ti-uce and intended intermarriages, one

^ (85 ) Pitrcottle, p. 86. Hawthornden, p. 108.

(86) Abercr-jmby, vol. z. p. 468.

(87) p.yin. Feed, torn, 12,. p. 2.^5 — 192.

(23) Id. ibid. (8^) id. ibid. p. 31^.


|Ch. I. § 3. CIVIL AND MILITARY. 2^3


copy of them was figned by Carlifle herald, commiflioned A.D. 1487.
by the king of England, and delivered at Edinburgh, ^^""^r^*^
November 17, to Snovi/^don herald, who, by virtue of a
commiffion from the king of Scotland, figned and de-
livered another copy to Carlifle herald at the fame time.
By thefe preliminaries,— -the truce was prolonged — a mar-
riage was propofed between- James marquis of Ormond,
king James's fecond fon, and the third daughter of the
late king Edward IV. ; another between king James and 1

queen Elizabeth, Edward's widow, and a third between \

James prince of Scotland, and fuch another daughter of
king Edw^ard as fhould be agreed upon by the two kings. .
As the king of Scotland infifted on the delivery of Ber-
wick to him, that matter was to be finally fettled before
any of thefe marriages took effe6l; To bring thefe im-
portant affairs nearer a conclufion, another meeting of the
plenipotentiaries w^as appointed to be held at Edin-
burgh, January 24, A. D. 1488, and a fecond in the
month of May, at a place to be agreed upon ; and
that the two kings fliould have a perfonal interview in
July (90).

King James called a parliament that met at Edm- Parliament.
burgh, 06lober i, A. D 1487 ; and both the earl of
Angus and his eldeft fon were p-efent. The parliament
made an affecting reprefentation to the king of the de-
plorable diftrefs and diforder of the kingdom, " throw
*' trefoun, flauchter, reif, birning, theft, and oppin
** heirfchip, throw default of fcharpe execution of juf-
^^ tice, and over commoun granting of grace and re-
*' miffiounis to trefpaflburis." The king, at the earneft
requeft of the three eftates, promiied to give no remiifion
to any perfon who was guilty of any of the above crimes
for feven years. This promife gave great latisfacStlon,
which is expreffed in the following ftrong terms : —
*^ Bacaufe our foverane lord has fo gracioufly applylt
" him to the counfall of his thre eftatis at this tyme in
'^ all thingis concerning thame, and the commoun prof-
" 'feit of the realme, and beninglie grantit to thaim all
*' thair defyre and requeiftis that thay have maid to his

(90) Ryna. Fad. torn. i%. p. 3x8 — 33Z.

*' majeftle;


A.D. 1487. « majeftie; all the lordis fpiritual and temporal, barro-
^^•'^'^C^^*^ <^ nis, frelialders, and communities of the eftatis of the
*' real me hes freelie grantit, that erer ;lk ane of thame
'*^ for himfelf, fall faithfully promit and fweir, that they
'^ fall not in tyme to cume maintein, fortifie, fupplie,
^f defend, nor be advocatis, nor ftand at the bar, with
*' manifell tratouris, nor commoun men flayares, theiffis,
'' reifFaris, nor other trefpaffburis." The parliament,
in this fellion, made many excellent regulations for pre-
venting the crimes above mentioned, and for bringing
tiiofe who were guiky of them to juftice. In particular^
they made it high treafon, '^ to do or attempt to do con-'
^.' ti-are the union and annvxatioun maid of the pryo-"
*^5 rie of Coldinghame to the king's chapel royal (91)."
A.D. T48P. The fecond felfion of this parliament began at Edin-
Second fef- burgh, January 29, A. D. 1488 ; and from the records,
^^^ it feems to have been animated by the fa^e fpirit of loy-

alty, and entire fatisfa61ion with |:h^'k)rig and his admi-
niftration, as the former. The three ellates approved of
the pi'eliminary treaty refp,e61ing the propofed maiTiages,
between the tvv^o royal families, and appointed plenipo-
tentiaries to attend the meeting that was to be in May
about that matter, and gave them exprefs infl:ru6lions,
not to confent to a peace, or |o any of the marriages,
unlefs the king of England agreed to reflore, or at leaft
to dcftroy, the town and cpille of Berwick. The king,
in full parliam.entj created his fecond fon duke of Rofs,
and the barons Drummond, Yeiler, Sanquhar, an4
Ruthven, lords of parliament. The laft a6l of this feA .
fion is remarkable. The Humes and Hepburns hacj
paid no regard to the late acl, declaring it high treafor^
to obftru61 the annexation of Coldinghame to the chapel
royal, but had oppofed that meafure with the greateft
violence. The parliament therefore appointed a com-
mittee, with parliamentary powers, to try all who had
violated that a61 ; and the earl of Angus, with the chief
men of his party, were members of that committee (92).
So artfully had they concealed their treafonable machi-
nations, that the king, at this time, believed them to be
illsbeft friends. The parliament was then adjourned to the

(91) Record? of Parliament. Black Ad?, f. 75—78.
(^a) Records of Parliament.


^h. 1.^3- CIVIL AHD Military. 285

5th of May; but it was difTolved by proclamation, Fe- A. D. 1488.
briiary 2i, and a new parliament was fummcned to meet, ^ v-'*-'
May 12, at Edinburgh (93). The troubles that foon
after arofe prevented the meeting of that parliament.

The earl of Angus and his partifans were greatly Confplracy.
alarmed at the intended imermaniages between the two
royal families. Confcious (}f their own guilty fufpe6l-
incT, or perhaps knowing, that queen Elizabeth was not
Ignorant of it, they jufily dreaded that fhe would com-
municate the knowledge of their treafonable intrigues
with her late huiband to her future fpoufe, and perhaps
produce the original treaty of Weftminfter, A. D. 1483,
which would render their guilt evident, and their ruin. ^
certain (94)' They determined, therefore, to prevent
fhe intended marriages at any rate, and to detlireiie ot ■■

even deftroy their fovereign, as the only means of pre-
venting their own defl:ru61ion. They began by fpreading
tlie moil odious calumnies againft the king, reprefenting
him as a blood-thirfty tyrant, becaufe he w^as then en-
deavouring to execute the laws againft traitors, murder-
ers, thieves, and plunderers, according to his promife;
as an enemy to all his ancient nobility, becaufe he had
f aifed John Ramfay 6f Balmain, an old and faithful fer-
vant, to be a lord and mafter of the houfehold. The
earl of Angus gave out, that tlie king had formed a plot
to deHroy many of the nobility at the laft meeting of Par-
fiament; had communicated the delign to him, and de-
fired his a{lift.lnce; than which nothing can be more im-
probable (95). Thefe, and other calumnies, poifoned
the minds of the common people, and made too great an
imprelTiofl on fome perfons of rank. Andrew lord Gray,
tlie chief affociate of Angus in the affair of Lauder, and
^11 his other treafons, engaged with great atdour in this
Confpiracy ; and John lord Drummond, though advanced
to the Deerage only a few weeks before, a6led the fame
pait. Sir Alexander Hume, afterwards created lord
Hume, Patrick Hepburn lord Haiies, with all the gerv-
tlemen of the names of Hume and Hepburn, being al-
ready obnoxious to the law, entered warmly into th'^ de-
fign of dethroning the king, to prevent their own coa-

(93) Records of Parliament. (94) Sea p. 476— 478.

(55J Buchaa. 1. li, p. 2.37. Godlcroft, f. 2,*8,





A.D. i488.demnation. All the borderers, the mofl warlike people
m the kingdom, dreading the execution of the late laws
againft murder, theft, and robbery; and in a word, all
vagabonds and outlaws, who feared the punifhment they
knew they deferved, joined in this confpiracy, and added
greatly to its ftrength. The earl of Argyle, the bifhop of
Glalgow, and the lord Lyde, alfo joined this party. The-
earl of xlrgyie had lately been deprived of the chancellor's
office ; the bifhop of Glafgow had a conteft with the arch-
bifhop of St. Andrew's, and the lord Lyile was at vari-
ance with James earl of Buchan, the king's uncle, which
might have iome influence on their condu6l on this occa-
(ion (96).

King James, perceiving the impending ftorm, endea-
voured to guard againft it, by furnifhing the caftles ot.
Stirling and Edinburgh with every thing neceifary for,
their defence. Havmg committed- the cuflody of the
former,' and of his three fons, to James Schaw of Saur
chie, in whofe fidelity he placed the moft perfecSl confi-
den<;e, he embarked at Leith with a fmall retinue, and
landed in -Fife. The confpirators now broke out into
open rebellion, feized part of the king's baggage, and
feme boxes of his money at Leith, and took the caftle of
Dunbar by furprife, in which they found money, arms>
and ammunition (97)-

The king proceeded northward, by Aberdeen, to In-
vernefs, ilfuing proclamations to all his fubje61s in thofe
parts to join his ftandard on a certain day. Thefe pro-
clamations were favourably received ; the earl of Craw-
ford, who had been lately created duke of Montrofe, the
eails of Huntly, Errol, Athol, Rothes, Sutherland, Caith-
nefs, and Marifchal, with the lords Forbes, Ogilvie, Fra-
fer, and all the chieftains of the north (except the lords
Gray and Drummond), applied themfelves to raife their ^
followers to fupport their fovereign (98 ). At Invernefs>
James gave a frelli proof of his merciful and forgiving
difpolition, by pardoning the lord Crichton (who there
threw himfelf at his feet), though he had been one of his
moft inveterate enemies (99). But when he was thu&

The king
retires into
the north.

(95) Ferrer, f. 399.
i^l) Pitlcottie, p. '$'
(58) Fevi-er. f. 400.

Crawford's Peerage, p. 159. 292.
87, Hawthornden, p. no.

(99.) Hawthornden, p. iii.


:h. I. § 3. CIVIL AND MILITARY. 2^7

;mployed, he received intelligence that overwhelmed him A< D. 148^.
vith furprife and forrow. '^•^^r"^

When the confpirators alTembled their forces, they The prince
ound themfelves flrong and well appointed, but without delivered ta
iny perfon they could propofe to fubftitute in the place '^^^^^^^*
>f the prince they intended to dethrone ; and without this
hey knew they could hardly hope for fuccefs. Having
aft their eyes on the king's eldeft fon, as in all refpe^ls
Itteft for their purpofe, they found means to open a cor-
efpondence with the governor of Stirling caftie, and by
;reat bribes and greater promifes, prevailed upon him to
>etray his important truft, and deliver the prince into their
lands at Linlithgow 1 100) • As the prince was only-
bout fifteen years of age at this time, it would not be
difficult to deceive him by fpecious arguments, particu-
arly by threatening (as we are told they did), that if he
lid not join them, they would fubjeA the kingdom to
he Englifh (loi).

As foon as the king received the news of this unhappy PAclficatloji
nd unexpected event, he returned to the fouth with fuch^^^^^^"
CQOps as had joined him, dire6iingthe chieftains in thofe
>arts to follow him. Being wafted with his army over
he Forth by the famous fir Andrew Wood of Largo, he
ncamped at Blacknefs, within a few miles of Linlith-
ow, the head-quarters of the infurgents. There he was
oined by the earl of Glencairn, the lords Erlkine, Max-
L-ell, Ruthven, fir Thomas Semple, and fir Alexander
^oyde, with their followers, which rendered his army fu-
verior to that of his enemies. But James, naturally ti-
aid and avcrfe to war, entered into a negotiation with
be adverfe party; and having given a commifTion to the
)iiliop of Aberdeen, the earls of Huntly and Marifchal,
he lords Glamis and Alexander Lindfay, to treat with
he bifliop of Glafgow, the- earls of Angus and Argyle,
he lords Hailes and Lyfle; thefe commilTioners con-
;tuded a pacification, at Blacknefs, about the middle of
^ay A. D. 1488, on the following terms ;: i. the king
hall be fupported in his eflate, honour, and royal au-
hority, that he may adminifter juftice impartially to all
lis fubjeCls : a. The king's moft noble perfon Oiall be at

<ioo) Pltfcottie, p. 87, 88. Hawthoraden, p. HI. Bochaa. p. 438^

iioi) Euchan, f. 138.

. ■ ali


A. D. 1488.311 times, in honour, fecurity, and freedom, attended b^^
^^-'^^r^'*-^ prelates, earls, lords, and barons, of the greateft wifdom
and moft agreeable to him and his fabje6ls of all parties :j
3. All perfons now about the prince, who have offendecj
the king, fnall make fuch amends as the above commif-
lioners ihall determine, faving their honours, eflates, anc
lives : 4. The king fliall allow an honourable appoint-
ment to the prince his fon^ to be fettled by the faid com-
miiiioners: 5, That lords and honourable perfons of wif-
dom, and virtuous difpolitions, fhall be conftantly aboui
the prince in his tender age: 6. The prince fhall at al
times love, honour, and obey his father: 7. The lordS;
and others about the prince, ihall enjoy the king's favouij
and grace : 8 . The prince fhall take into his hearty lov(
and favour, all the lords and others, who have fervec
the king in thefe times of trouble : 9. The commiifioneK
Ihall endeavour to remove all perfonal and family feucji
between the lords of the different parties, particu-
larly that between the earl of Buchan and the lore

NegotlatI- This wife and equitable treaty did not produce tin
COS with happy effecls that might have been expecled. As feveral
Henry VII. j^p^'j-j-^nt matters ftiii remained to be fettled by the com- i
miifioners, both parties, full of mutual diftruft, flood on
their guard, and retained their forces. They both turned
their eyes towards England, the one expe6l:ing aid, and
the other dreading oppofuion from that quartei'.
Henry VII appointed commiflioners. May 5, to treat
w^ith thofe of his moft dear brother James king of Scot-
land ; and about the fame time he granted a fafe conuu61
to Robert bifhop of Glafgow, George bifliop of Dun-
keld, Colin earl of Argyle, Patrick lord Hailes, Robert
lord Lvile, Matthevv^ Stewart mafter of Darnly, and
Alexander mafter of Hume, who were all of the prince's,
party, to come into England (103). But no ufe, it isj
probable, Vv'as made of that fafe condu6^.
Thek^n^'s I" ^^^^ mcRn time, king James refided in the caftle of
inarch to Edinburgh; and if he had remained quiet in tliat place
Stirling, ^jn the commiflioners had fettled all the points referred to

(102) Records of parliamcn'. See this treaty at fijU length, Append.
Mo. 3. in thii volume.

(103) Rym. Fed. torn. iz. p. 340, 341.



them by the treaty of Blacknefs, and the ambalTadors ex-^-^- h88.
pe61ed from the courts of England, Fmnce, and Rome, ^^^'^T'^'^
had arrived, all might have ended well. But either his
own inclination, or the advice of his friends, induced
him to march to Stirling, as a more agreeable reiidence,
and more convenient for forming a jundion vi^ith his loy-
al fubje<Hs in the north ; and he met with no' int6'ruption
in his march, though the two armies muft have been very
near to one another.

This imprudent meafure was difapproved, it is faid. Battle cf
by marly of his beft friends, and gave a great alarm to ^^^'J^'^J^'
the adverfe party, who conlidered it as a breach of the king's
pacification of Blacknefs (104). The king, with hisdeath,
army, took polTeffion of the town of Stirling ; but he
was refufed admittance into the caftle : and while he was
sxpoftulating with the governor on that fubje61:, intelli-
gence arrived that the prince's army was advancing to at-
tack him. There was little time for deliberation, and
t was rafhly refolved to fight. The two armies met'
md engaged, June 11, A. D. 1488, in the fields be-
ween the village of Bannockburn and'Toi-wopd. The
:onfli(5l was fieixe ; but the borderers (of whom the
iriiice's army chiefly confifted), being better armed, and
nofe ufed to arms than their enemies, foon threw the
oyal army into confufion. The king endeavoured to
aye himfelf by flight ; but riding down a fieep road in
he village of Bannockburn, he fell from his horfe, and ,
)i?as caitied into a mill, where he was difcovered and
&n by fome of the purfuers ( 105). Thus perifhed
iiis unfortunate prince, in the prime of life, when he
lad reigned almoft twenty-nine years, and lived thirty-
iVe years and five ihonths. He was buried in the ab-
ley-church of Cambufkenneth, near the remains of his^
![ueen ; by whom he left three fonj?, viz. James, who
tatceeded him, anothei' James, duke of Rofs, and John
^arl of Mar.

Few princes have been more calumniated during life, Charafter.
)r more ihifreprefented after death, than James III. of

1^104) Records of Parliafnent. Black Afts, f. 83.
(105) Records of Parliament, Ferrer, f. 400, 401. Buchan. 1. i2,
5. a39. HawthornUen, p. ii^. Pitfcottie, p. 50.

Vol. V. U Scotland

2^o filSTORY OF SCOTLAN^D. Book V.

A. D. i-489-S^9tland. rfliall therefore endeavour to draw his cha-

'ra61er as I have written his hiilory, with all the attention
and impartiality in my power. Ferrerius> who received
his information from thofe who were familiarly acquaint-
ed with him, defcribes his perion in this manner : " Iri
*^^ the beauty of his faee^ in the ftrerirgth and elegant'
^^ ihipe of his body, and fymmetry of all his limbs,
-" he far excelled ail the princes of his tIm€(io6)."'
in perfonal valour he was not confpiciious; nor did he

■ either delight or excel in riding, tilting,, and other mar-
tial, exerciics ; which funk him in the eilimation of his
nobility. By fome hiftorians, he hath been reprefente4
as an implacable unrelenting tyrant, refembling Richard
ill. in cruelty ;• than which nothing can be more dire61:^
ly op polite to truth (107) ; for an excelTive facility iii
forgiving the greateft injuries, and, pardoning the greateft
.crimes, was the moil fatal defe6l in his .chara6Ler, the
chief /caufe ef his own calamities, and of all the dif-^

• orders of his reign. Of this his parliaments frequently
jcomulalned, and intreated him to abllain from granting
pardons with fo much eafe, and to fuffer juftice t<?
-talfe^its courfe(io8). Though he u'as haraifed by a
Tucccirion of rebellions, no perlbn of ra-nk was put tb
death for tveafon,. except'^ Sir Alexander Eoyde,' wheii
James was ftiil. young, a^ui entirely in the. power of ^^
Alexander's enemies. He is accufed, by the farn€
liifiorian, of incontinence,: and that of the mofl criminal
■kjind ;•, but. without any proof, and contrary to all prob^
jbilky, as his confcrt >va§,^the moll amiable princefs in
.'t3i'e >i'orld ; and he. wa:s almofl the only prince of hig
jiame. and family who had no natural children (109)-
.He was his attendance en the'fervice bftj^^
•churchy look pi eaiL re in hearing eloquent fermons, a<
,V^'hich he always flood bare-headed, and taught his fcji^j
tp^ do the faiv.e(iio)* He had a^enius for learning
and was a generous encburager of leariied men ( i nj

, 5qt the moil fti iking feature in the charaG^er of tfiu

(lor) Ferrer, f. 401. (107) Bixhan. I. 12. p. 135 — 437

( i; f.) Records ot Parliament-. , Diiick AiSts, f. 71. 74.

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