Robert Hooper.

A new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine online

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" Nee araDeftrum sane texui ideo melior, quia ex se fiU
gignimt, nee notter rilior quia es alienb Ubamus ut apcg.*'

Just. Lin. Mmdt. PoHt. Lib. i. cap^ i*


0r Tm mnriKarrT 07 oxiomo, ash thb m|tal collui or phtstcliiis or lonmrs
rHTtieiAjr to tox st. MABt-^foin ummxaBT, &c. Ice.



Gdggt&Co. Piinten.

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tV hen Dr. Quincy published the first edition of his Lexicon Mc-
clicum, mathematical principles were generally adopted to explain the
actions of the animal frame : hence we find in his work a continual
recurrence to them. Since his time the functions of the animal econ«
omy and the knowledge of anatomy have received successive im-
provements, and the fashionable follies of mathematical explications
have been reduced to their proper standard. To preserve the name
which Dr. Quincy so deservedly .obtained, and to render his work as
useful as possible, such alterations and amendments were made in
every following edition, as were suited to the doctrine of the times.
It nevertheless has so happened, that his work, even in the thirteenth
edition, contains very many of the absurdities of hi9 day : The ana-
tomical explanations are given in the language of the old schools,
too often tedious, and abounding with every hypothesis ; the physi-
ology of the human body has been almost wholly overlooked ; and
' all useful nosological descriptions omitted. Similar deficiences and
useless exuberances occur in every, other department of the work.

Digitized by



When, therefore, the present editor was solicited to undertake its
rerision, he thought he could not do a more acceptable office to the
public, than almost whoUy new model it. With this view he has
been careful to collect such information as may render the work
generally useful. Particular attention has been paid to the deriva-
tion of the terms, the anatomical description of the yarioiiti parts,
and the explanation of their functions ; the diseases are considered
according to the most approved nosological arrangement, and their
symptoms and distinctions clearly enumerated : the materia medica
and the preparations, especially those which enter the last edition of
the London Pharmacopoeia, have been amply considered ; the im-
provements of modem Chymistry every where introdnced| and the
terms in Surgery, Midwifery, Medical Botany, and other Branches
of Natural Philosophy^ as far as connected with Medical Science,
have been fully treated. In doing this, the editor has availed himself
of the labours of the most eminent lifters on the different branches
of medicine, and has made, ^uch extracts, abridgments, translations,
and selections, as the extent of the work would admit. It was his
original intention to have given to each writer the merit of the par-
ticular description selected from his work ; but having occasion to
consult, frequently to abridge, and sometimes to alter various pas-
sages in works connected with his subject: and finding it difficult,
and in many instances impossible to discover the original writer of
several articles ; and at the same time attended with no particular
advantage, he prefers making a general acknowledgment of his obli.
gations than to particularize the respective labours of each individual.

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The following hare ptincipallj contributed toelncida te the several sub-
jects. Accum, Mktfh Minus, Bdly BergiuSj Blanchard, Bums, Burstrl"
us^ CatUsen, CasttUi, Chaptal, Cooper, Cruickshank, CuUen, Denman,
DwMOnf Ediviurgh IHspensatory, Endinburgh EneydopctdiOf Editors
ofMdherby^s Dictionary, Fourcroy^ Oreen^ HaUer, Hunter^ Innts,Latta,
Lavoisier, Lewis, Linnaeus, Meyer, Murray, Nicholson, Pott, Richerand,
Richter, Saunders, Sauvage, Scarpa, Smith, Soemmering, Swediaur,
Symonds, T^nnas, Thomson, Turton, Vaughan, Vossius, WiUan, WiU
licVs Encydopcedia, Wilson, WoodviUt.




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■■^• m

JnLm A.\. ANA. (From gast^ which signi-
fies of each.) A term in phannacy.

It 18 never used but after the mention of
two Of more ingredients, when it littpUes,
that the quantity mentioned of each ingre-
dient should he taken ; e. g. >. Potauie
nitratU .• Sacchari alM U ^j. i. e. Take tiie
nitrate of potash and white sugar, of eadi
one drachm.

Abah. A term used by some ancient
cbymists for lea<l.

Abictvs. AbiffeatuA. Among the an-
cient physicians, tliis term was used for a
miscarriage, procured by art, or force of
medicines, id contradistinction to abcrtnt,
which meant a natural miscarriage. The
modems know no such distinctions.

Abacus. (From a Hebrew word, signi-
fying du^) A table for preparatioi»s, so
calkd from the usage of mathematicians
of drawing their figures upon tables sprin-
ted with dust

Abaisir. Abasii* SpoMnm Arabum,
hrory black ; and also calcareous powder.

Abalibmatio. a decay of t)ie body, or

Abalibhatus. Corrupted. A part so
destrojred as to require immediate extirpa-
tion ; also the fiiult or total destruction of
the senses, whether external or internal,
by disease.

Abavbt. (Hebrew, the girdle worn by
the Jewish priests.) A girdle4ike bandage.

Abavoa. A(fy, The palm of the Island
of St. Thomas, from which Thei-nal's re-
storative is prepared.

Abaftista. (From et, priv. et /gatsr7«,
to plunge.) Abaptitton, The shoulders of
the old trepan. This term is employed by
Galen, Fabricius ab Aquapendt* nte, Sculte-
tus, and others, to denoie the conical saW
with a circular edge, (otlierwise called mo-
^lus, or terebra,) which was formerly
used by surgeons to perforate tlte cranium.

Abaphstux. See AbaptUta-

A b ABM ARAB. OvuM ruffuM. A chemi-
cal term formerly used in the transmuta^
tion of metab, signifying tuna plena^ mag*
pa, or ma^^netiii.

' ABABTAimr. Plumbum, or lead.

ABABTicujuiTioif. (From ab, and orfi-
culuM, a joint.) That species of articulation
which has evident motion. See IHarthrod§^

Abas. (An Arabian word.) The tcald*
head; also epilepsy.

Abasis. See JiiKdrir,

Abbbbviatiob. The principal uses of
■medicinal abbreviations are in preserip*
tions ; in which they are certain marks, or
half words, used by physicians for despatch
and conveniency when they prescribe, thus 5
— Jit readily supplies the place oT recipe"^
h. 9. that of hitra tonrni — n. m. that of 9ur
motcJutta — elect, that of eUctatium^ Sic. i
and in general all the names of compound
medicines, with the several ingredients, are
frequeiuly wrote only up to their first or
second syllable, or sometimes to their third
or fi)urth, to make them clear and expret*
sive. Thus Croc. Anglic, stands for Croau
AngbcanuB-^Conf. AronuU. for CwnfectU
Aromatica, Sec. A point beinsr always pla-
ced at the end of such syllable sh^ws tho
word to be incomplete.

ABDOMEN. (From t^do, to hide, be-
cause It hides the viscera. It is also deri-
ved from abdere, to hide, and omentum, the
caul ; and by others it is said to be only a
termination, as from lego, legumen, so f^m
abdo. abdomen ) The belly.

The abdomen is the largest cavity in the
body, bounded superiorly by tlie diaphragm
by which it is separated from the chest ;
inferiorly by the bones of tlie pubis and
ischium ; on each side by various musclea,
the short rtbs and ossa iVii , anteriorly by
the abdominal muscles, and posteriorly by
the vertebrae of tne loins, the os sacmm and
OS coccygb. Internally it is invested by a
smootli membrane called peritoneum, and
externally by muscles and common integu-

In tlie cavity of the abdomen are coO'*

1. Anteriorly sjidilaterdlhf,

1. The epiploon. % The stomach.
3. The large and small intestines. 4. The
mesenter)'. 5. The lacteal vessels. 6. Tht



pancreas. T. The spleen. 8. The lirer
and gall-bladder.

P^9ierior^, without the peritmeum, are,

1. The kidneys. 3. The supra-renal
glands. 3. The ureters. 4. The recepU-
culuiD chylL 5. The descending aorta.
6. The ascending vena cava.
3. Jhferwrbf in she pelvU^ and without the


In men, 1. The urinary bladder. 2. The
spermatic vesseb. 3. The intesUnum rec-

In women, beside the urinary bladder
and intestinum rectum, there are,

1. The uterus. 2. The four ligaments of
the uterus. 3. The two ovai-ia. 4. The
two Fallopian tubes. 5. The iragina.

The fore part of this cavity, as has been
mentioned, is covered with muscles and
common integuments, in the middle of
which is the navel. It b this part of the
body which is properly called abdomen ; it
is distinguished, by anatomists, into regions.

The posterior part of the abdomen b
called the loins, and the sides the EpicoUc

Abdominal Herrda. See Hernia Ahdomi-

Jhdotmnal muockt. See Muaciet.

Abdominal ring'. See AnnuUu Abdondnit.

Abdominal regiono. See Regions,

ABttucxirs Labiorux. A name ^ven by
Spigelius to the levator anguli oris. See
Levator ai^S orio.

Abducent nervet. See JVervi abditcenteo.
f Abducent Muoclet. See Abductor,

Abductio. (From abduco, to draw away.)
A species of fnusture, when a bone b divi-
ded transversely near a joint, so that each
part recedes firom the other. In Cktlius
Aurdbnus it siffniiies a strain ; and b men-
tioned as one of the causes of bchbdic and
psoadic pains.

Abductor. (Prom abihtco, to draw
away.) Abducent A name given to those
muscles whose office b to puU back or
draw the member to which it is affixed fi*om
tome other, as the abductor pollicb draws
the thumb fh>m the fingers. The anUgo-
ubts are called adduetoreo, or adductoi^.

Abductor auricukui: See Posterior auri$»

Abductor auris. See Posterior auris.

Abductor brexis aiter. See Abductor pot-
uds ifiimflt.

ductorc€ Douglas. Send-interosseus ind^
do of Winslow. Adductor indicts of Cow-

An internal interosseous muscle of the
fore^ger, situated on the hand. It arises
from the superior part of the metacarpal
bone, and the os trapezium, on its inside,
by a fleshv b^inning, runs towards the
metacarpal bone of iSc fore-finger, adheres
to it, and b connected by a broad tendon
to the superior part of the first phalanx of
the ftre-fkiger. Sometimes it arises by a

double tendon. Its use b t^Iraw tfr
fore-finger from the rest, tdHmls th
thumb, and to bend it somewhat towards
the palm.

ternal interosseous muscle of tiie fore-toe,
which arises tendinous and fieshy,t>y two
origins, from the A>ot of the inside of the
metatarsal bone of the fore-toe, from the
outside of the root of the metatarsal bone
of thegreat«toe, and from the oscuneiforme
internum, and b inserted tendinous into the
inside of the root of the first joint of the
fore-toe. Its use is to pull the fore-toe in-
wards, from the rest of tl^ small toes.

Abductor longus potUds manCs. See Ex'
tensm* osds tnetacarpi polUdo manHs,

An Interosseous muscle of the foot, which
arises tendinous and fleshy, from the inside
of the root of the metatarsal bone of the
middle toe internally, and b inserted tendi*
nous into the inside of the root of the first
joint of the middle toe. Its use b to pull
the middle toe inwards.

NUS. Carpo-phakmgien du petit doigi of
Dumas. Extensor tertU intemodH tAdmi
digiti of Douglas. Bypothentar minor of

A muscle of tlie little finger, situated on
the himd. It arbes fleshy (rom the pbiform
bone, and fi?om that part of the Hgamentum
carpi annulare next it, and b inserted, ten-
dinous, into ^he inner side of the upper end
of the first bone of the little finger. Its use
b to draw the little finger from the rest.

Cakaneo-phalangien du petit dtigt oi^.
mas. ilddtfcfor of Douglas. Parathenar
major of Winslow, by whom thb muscle is
divided into two, Parathenar major and
metatarsetio. Adductor minimi dSgiti of

A muscle ofthe little toe, which arises
tendinous and fleshy, from the semicircidar
edge of a cavity on the inferior part ofthe
protuberance of the os calcb, and from the
rest of the metatarsal bone of the little toe,
and b inserted into the root of the ftrat
joint ofthe little toe externally. Its use b
to bend the little toe, and its metatarsal
bone, downwards, and to draw the little
toe fh>m the rest.

AamTCTOR oculi. Adductor of Doug-
las and Winslow. Orbito^htus-scleroticieip
orbito-extus-oclerotkienoiUMmu. Bectuo
Adducens oculi of Albinus. Indignatoriuo^
'or the scomfiil mtiscle. Adducens Iracun*
dus. See Rectus extemus oeulL

phoous'phalanginien dupouce of DnmMB. Ad-
ductor poltids manHts, and Adductor brovio
alter of Albinus. Adductor tltenar Riolani
of Douglas, (the adductor brevis alter of Al-
binus b the inner portion of thb muscle.)



X muscle of the thumb situated on tlie
hand. It arises hy abroad tendinous and
6eshy beginning, fixMn the t^amentum carpi
. <mniuare, and trom the 09 trapedum^ and
is inserted tepdinous into the outer side
of the root of the first bone of the thumb.
Ita use is to draw the thumb from the fin-

neo-phokmffien du pouce of Dumas. Abduetmr
ofDougJas. TVnarofWinslow. AbducUr
p9/ic/>ofCowper. ^

A muscle of the great toe, situated on the
Aet It arises fleshy, from the inside of the
root of the protubmnce of the os calcis,
liierc it forms the heel, and tendinous from
the same bone, where it joins the os nsTicn-
tare ; and is inserted tendinous into the in-
ternal sesamoid bone and root of tlie' first
joint of the great toe. Its use is to pull the
rreat toe from the rest.

An interosseous muscle of the foot,, that
aiises tendinous and fleshy from the inside
and the inferior part of the root of the me-
tatarsal bone of the third toe ; and Ib insert-
ed tendinous into the inside of the root of the
first Seint of the third toe. lU use is to puU
the third toe inwards.

A^SBJUM. (From «, neg. and B^fuot
^Tm.)M^ntu9, Weak» infirm, unsteady A
term made use of by Hippocrates de Signis.
ABfBjEvs. See •^](e6«tM.
Abbujcoscbus. (Arabian.) Grmvum nio»»
M, Jkfotckut Arabum. JEgyptia fMKkaUL
Bamidmatchattk Alcetu Ateea IndHea. Alcea
jEgytiacavilloKi, Abrette, Abelmotch. Abel'
nmik. The seeds of a plant called the musk
maUow, which have the flavour of musk.
The plant iUbUcut abelmnachm of Linnztis,
is indigenous ki l^Kypt, and in many parts
of both the Indies. The best comes from
JMhirtinico. Jly the Arabians the seeds are
esteemed cordial, and are mixed with their
coiFee, to which they impart their fragrance.
In this country they are used by the j)erfu-

Abelmuch. Set Abebno9chu9,
Abeltmukt Bee AbehndschM.
Aberbatio» (From ab and erra, to wan-
der from.) Luautnatvra, Dblocation.

Abbssi. (An^ian.) Filth. The alvine ex-
AsBsinc. Quick lime.
Abevacuatio, (From a5, dim. and eoa-
wo, to pour out.) A pirtial or incomplete
evacuation of the peccant humours, either
oaturally or by art.

ABIES. (From oAeo, to proceed, because
it rises to a great h^eht ; or firom «urio{,
a wild pear, the fruit of which its cones
sotBething resemble.) Etaie Theteia. The
fir. An evergreen tree. linncus includes
the abies in the genus ^nus. Botanists have
enumerated several secies : tlie four which
follow, are the principal that afford mate-
rials for Aedicimd use*

1. Pbiui Picea^ the silver fir4ree^ whidi
alibrds the common turpentine.

3. PinuM abiet alba^ the Norwav spruot
fir-tree, which yields the Burgtmdy mtdk

3. Pinut larixt the common white larch*
tree, firom which is obtained the Venice tufw

4. Pibtrt syA^ftri t, the Scotch fir, wfaidi
yields the pix liquids.

Abibs CAfTASBHSis. Scc BaUomum Oh

Abiobatvs. See Abacim*
Abiotos. (From dc, neg. andjBieiiytolive.)
A name given to hemlock, from its dead
qualities. See Cmthtm.

Ablactatio. (Prpm ab, from, and loe,
milk,) AUactadm, The weaning of a chU
frem the breast.

Ablatio. (From mjfero, to take a»ray.)
The taking away from the body whatever is
useless or hurtful ; it comprebend^i all kinds
of evacuations. Sometimes it sigmfies the
subtraction of a part of the diet, with a
medic«l view ; and sometimes it expresses
the interval betwixt two fits of a fever, or
the time of remission.

Chymical abkoitn is the removal of any
thing that is ehher finished or else no longer
necessary in a process.

Ablvuttla fAbhuntia^dc.medieammta^
from dbbf, to wash away.) Ab§itrgtnU.
Abluenu. Medicines which were fi>rmeity
supposed to purify or cleanse the blood«

ABLUTION. (From oMro, to wash ofi*.)
A washing or cleansing either of the body or
the intestmes.

In chemistry it signifies tlie purifying of
a body, by repeated effusions of a proper

Aboit. An obsolete term of Arabic ex-
traction for white lead.

Aboutio. (Proin aholeo, to destroy.) The
separation or destruction of diseased parti.
ABOBTION. CMortio, from abon$r, to
besteriU) Abonma. Ambloth. IHe^hvra.
Ectroais. Exambloma. ExambtniB, Apo*
paUeak, ApopaitU. Apftphthom,

Miscamage, or the expulsion of the ffftos
firom the utezus, before the seventh month,
after which it is called premature labour.
It most commonly occurs between tlui
eighth and eleventh weeks of pregnancv,
but may happen At a later period. £1 earlv
gestaticm, the ovum sometimes comes off
entire ; sometimes the foetus is first expell*
ed, and the placenta afterwards. It u fire-
ceded by flooding, pains in the back* loins,
and lower part of the abdomen, c^racuatioii
of the water, shiverings, palpitation of the
heart, nausea, anxiety, syncope, subsiding of
the breasts and belly, pain in the inside of
the thighs, opening and moisttire of the os

Abobttves. fAbifrtiva, sc nmSeamenia /
from aborior^ to be steril.) AtiMosica, Ecbt^
Medicines capable of occasioning sb

Digitized by L^OOQlC

4 AB3

ftbordon, or misctrria^, in pregnant wo-
men. It is now generally believed, that
the medicines which produce a miscarriage,
eflfect it by their violent action on the sys-
tem, and not by any specific action on the

Abrasa, (From abrado, to shave off.)
Ulcers attended with abrasion of pari of
their substance.

ABRASION. CAbrmm, from abrado, to
tear off.) This word is generally employed
to signify the destruction of the natural
mucus of any part, as the stomach, intes-
tines, urinary bladder, &c. It is also applied
to^any part slightly torn away by attrition,
w the skin, &c.

Abbathak. Corrupted from abrotanum,
southernwood. See Abrotanwn.

ABBnrx. See JlbelmotchuM.

Abbic. An absolete Arabic term for sul-

ABmoMA. (From a, neg. ct /^§*/uflt, food ;
i. c. not fit to be eaten.) A tree of New
South Wales, which yields a gum

ABBOT ANUM. (ACgoTwer, from «, neg.
and /%0T0f, mortal; because it never de.
cays : or from «tC#of, soft, and T»roc, exten-
sion; from the delicacy of its texture.)
Common southernwood. Abrotanum mas.

Ariendtia fryHcota, of Linnaeus :-^^
setaceU ramnnttitnit. Class, Syitgenetia,
Order, P9lygamia nperflua. A plant pos-
sessed of a strong and, to most people, an
agreeable smell; a pungent, bitter, nnd
■omewbat nauseous taste. It is supposed to
stimulate the whole system, but more par-
ticularly the uterus. It is very rarely
used unless by way of fomentation, with
which intention the leaves are directed.

Abbotaitum has. See abrBlanum.

Abbotovtt£s. (From abrotawtti^,) A wine
mentioned by Dioscorides, impregnated
with abrotanum^ or southernwood, in the
proportion of about one hundred ounces of
the dried leaves, to about seven gallons of

ABscBBBirTTA. (From abtcedo, to sepa-
rate.) Decayed parts of the body, which,
in a morbid state, are separated from the

' ABSCESS. (From absced; to depart;
because parts, which were before contigu-
ous, become separated, or depart from each
other.) Abtcetno Abtcetttu. Imposthumeu

A collection of pus in the cellular mem-
brane, or in the viscera, or in bones, prece*
ded by inflammation.

Abscissioh. fMsdnio; from od, and
tdnd», to cut.) Apocope, The taSung away
some morbid, or other part, by an edged
instrument The abseission of the prepuce
makes what we call circumcision. Abscis-
sion is sometimes used by medical writers
to denote the sudden termination of a dis-

Online LibraryRobert HooperA new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine → online text (page 1 of 177)