Robert Hooper.

A new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine online

. (page 119 of 177)
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field where it is reaped, they dig a h>und
hole, with a level bottom, about a foot
deep, and eight yards diameter, and lill
it with bundles of com. Having laid it
properly, the women drive about half a do-
»en oxen continually round the pit ; and thus
they will tread out forty or finy bushels a
day. This is a veiy ancient miethod of tread-
ing out com, and is still practised in Africa
ujion other sorts of grain.

Ortza hativa. 'i'he systematic name of
(he rice-plant. See Oryza,

OS. See Bane,

Os sxTKRxux. The entrance into the
vagina. It is so named in opposition to the
mouth o> the womb, which is called the os
internum, or os tim;^.

Os ixTBRwux. Oi tinea ^ and amphideonf
opampkideum. Galen calls it oscheoru The
oriBce or mouth of the womb.

Os LEOiris. The antirrhinum linaria.

Os Tiircs. See (h interrmm.

OscHxocELE. (From ofVMv, the scrotam,
and JUfXff, a tumour ) This term is some-
thnea given to a tumoiur of the scrotum,
from an accumulation of water, (see Hydro"
eele) \ and sometimes to a scrotal hernia,
(see Hernia,')

OscHBON. Oc^w, The scrotum. Galen
gives tl)e name to the ot uteri,

OscBsopHTMA. (From w^w^ the scrotum,
and ^vfAA, a tumour. (A swelling of the

OtciUatimt of Boerliaave. See Irritabi-

OscTTAJis. (Fromo9ci>, togpipe.) The
yawning fever.

OSCITATIO. (Prom ondto, to gape.)
Chasme. Ost^edo, Yawning. Gaping.

OscuLATonius. (Prom osculo, to kiss ; so
called because the action of kissing is per-
formed by it.) The sphincter muscle of the

OSCULUM. Dim. of oc, a mouth.) A
little mouth.

Osmund royaL ' See Otmunda regalit*

OSMUNDA. (From Osmund, who first
used ii ) The name of a genus of plants in
the Linnx in system. Class, Cryptogamia.
Order, Filicee,

OsmjHBA RBOALis. The systematic name
of the Osmund royal. Its root possesses ad-
stringent and styptic virtues.

OspHTs. Of <;»wc. The loins.

bones are 'Wo in number, and are called
oesa tpongiota inferiora. The ethmoid bone
has two turbinated portions, which are
sometimes called the superior spongy
bones. These bones, which, from their
shape, are sometimes called oeia turbinaia,
have, by some anatombtSy been described

at belonging to the ethmoid bone i and by
others, as por lions of the ossa paUtL In
young 4ul]jectSy however, they are evi-
dei|^ly distinct bones. They consist of a
spongy lamella in each nostnl. The oon«
vex surface of this lameUa is turned to-
wards the septum nariuro, and its concave
part towards the maxillary bone, oaveri^g
the opening of the lachiTitial duct into the
nose. Fix>m their upper edge arise two
processes : the posterior ot these, which is
the broadest, liangs as it were upon the
edge of the antrum highmorianum -, the
anterior one joins the os unguis, and forms
a part of tlie lachrymal duct. These bones
are complete in the foetus. They are lined
with the pituitary membrane ; anid, besides
their connection with the ethmoid bone,
are jomed to the ossa maxillaria superiora,
ossa pjtlati, and ossa un^is. Besides
these ossa spongiosa infemira, there are
sometimes two others, situated lower
down, one in each nostril These are
very properly considered aa a production
of the sides of the maxilUiy sinus turned
downwards. In many subjects, likewise^
we find other smaller bones, standing ouft
into the nostrils, which, firom their shape,
might also deserve the name of turbinaia^
but tliey are uncertain in their size, utuA»
tion, and number.

bones of the internal ear are four in number,
viz. the malleus, incus Upes, and os orbi-
eidare ; and are situated in the cavity of tlie
tympanum. Ste Malleut, lucm^ Sii^, tad

OSSIFICATION. (Rromo*, abone,and
fadot to make.) See- Bone,

Omifbaoa. (From m, a bone, and /roiifv,
to break.) A petrified root, called the
bone-binder, from its supposed virtues in
uniting fractured bones.

O^siFBASus. See OeieoeoUa,
OssivoRiTs. (From 0$, a bone, and vorOf
to devour.) Applied to a species of tumour
or ulcer, which destroys the bone.

OsTARGA. (From eo^nu, a bone, and ttyp^
a laying hold of.) A forceps to take out
bones with.

OsTARius. (A porter, from ottivm, a
door J so called as being the passage into
the bowels.) The lower orifice of the sto-

OsTxiTKs. (From onw, • bone.) The
bone*binder. See Oiteocolh,

O9TEO0OLLA. (From osw, a bone,
and jwxx*^ to glue.) 0»Hfraga. Hol^-
stem. Osteitee. ^mosteue. OsieoUthmw*
Stehchites, glue bone, stone, or B^m-hmder^
A particular carbonate of lime, found in
some parts of Germany, particularly in
the March^ of Brandenbui|r> »"d *" **^**
countries. It is met with in loose t^dy
grounds, spreading from near the sorfilee
to n considerable depth, into n MOiber rf

Digitized by





Tunificationt, Hke the roots of a tree ; it
18 of whitish colour, soft whilst under
the eartn, fr able when dry, rou}^h on the
surface, for the most part either hollow
within, or fiUed with a solid wood, or with
ft powdery white matter, ii was formerly
celebrated for promoting^ the* coalition of
fractured bones, and tbe formation of callus ;
which virtues are not attributed to it in the
present day.

OSTEOCOPUS. (From •rwf , a bone, and
KOTTof, uneasiness.) A very violent fixed
pain in any part of the bone.

OsTBOGBHiCA. (Prom oriory a bone> and
ym^, to beget.) Medicines which promote
the generation of a callus.

09TB0GBNY. (Otteogema, from o^v,
a bone, and ymici, generation.) The
srowth of bones. Bones are either formed
between membranes or in the substance of
cartilages^ and the bony deposition is ef-
fected by a determined action of arteries.
The secretion of bone t^kes place in car-
tilage in the long bones, as those of the
arm, leg, &c. and betwist two layers of
membrane, like the bones of the skull,
where true cartilage is never seen. Often
the bony matter is ibrmed in distinct bags,
and there it grows into form, as in the
teeth ; for each tooth is formed in its
little bag» which by injection can be filled
and covered with vessels. Any artery of
tbe body can assume this action, and depo^
sit bone, which is formed also where it
ahould not be, in the tendons, and in the
joints, in the great arteries, and in tlie
valves, in the flesh of the heart itself, or
e?en in the sofl and pulpy substance of the

All the bones in the foetus are merely
cartilage before the time of birth; this
cartilage is never hardened into bone, but
from the first it is an organized mass. It
has its vessels, which are at first tran.<ipa-
rent, but which soon dilate ; and whenever
the red colour or the blood begins to ap-
pear in them, ossification very quickly suc-
ceeds, the arteries being so far enlarged as
to carry the coarser parU of the blood.
The first mark of ossification is an artery
which is seen running into the centre of
the jelly which is formed. Other arteries
soon appear, and a net work of vesseb is
fbnned, and then a centre of ossification
begins, stretching its rays according to
the length of the bone, and then the car-
tillage begins to grow opaque^ yellow,
brittle ; it will no longer bend, and a bony
centre may easily be discoverer!. Other
points of ossification are successively
formed, preceded by the appearance of
arteries. The ossification follows the ves-
sels, and buries and hides those vessels by
which it is formed. The vessels advance '
towards the ends of the bone, -the whole
body of the bone becomes opaque, and

there is left a small vasctilar circle only at
either end; the heads are separated from
the body of the bone by a thin cartilage,
and the vessels of the centre, extendrng
still towards the extremities of the bone,
perforate the cartilage, pass into the bead
of the bone, and then its ossification also
begins, and a small nuclaeus of ossification
is formed in its centre. Thus the heads
and the body are at first distinct bones,
foijned apart, joined by a cartilage, and
not united tilltlic age of fifteen or twenty
years. Then the depomtion of bone be-
gins, and while the bone is laid by the ar-
teries, the cartilage is conveyed away by
the absorbing vessels ; and while they con-
vey away the superfluous cai^llage, tli'ey
model the bone into its due form, shape
out Hs cavities, cancelli and holes, remove
•the thinner parts of the cartilage, and
harden it into due consistence. The earth
which constitutes the hardness of bone,
and all its u.seful properties, is dead, inor-
ganized, and lies in the miersiices of bone,
where it is made up of gelatinous matter,
to give it consistence and strength, fur-
nished with absorbents to keep it in health,
and carry off its wasted parts; and per-
vaded by vessels to supply it with new
matter. During all the process of ossifica-
tion, the absorl^ts proportion their action
to the stimulus which is applied to them ,
they carry away the serous fluid, when
jelly is to take its pUce ; they remove the
jelly as the bone is laid ; they continue
removing the bony particles also, which
(as in a circle,) the arteries continually re-
new ; this renovation and change of paru
goes on even in the hardest bones, so that
after a bone is perfectly formed, its older
particles arc continually being removed,
and new ones are deposited in their place.
The bony particles are so deposited m th^
flat bones of the skull as to present a ra-
diated structure, and the vacancies be-
tween the fibres which occasion this ap-
pearance are found, by injection, to be
chiefly passages for blood-veMsels. As the
fcetus increases in size, the osseous fibres
increase in number, till a lamipa is pro^
duced ; and as the bone continues to g^Wf
more lamina are added, till the more solid
part of a bone is formed. The ossification
whidh begins in cartilage is considerably
Uter than that which has its origin between
membranes. The generality of bones are
incomplete until the age of puberty, or be-
tween the fifteenth and twentieth year, and
in some few instances not until a later pe-
riod : the small bones of the ear however are
completely formed at birth.

OSTEOGRAPHY. (From esw, a bone,
and >f«^, to describe.) The description
of the bones. See Bone.

OsTMLrraos. (From or«or, a bone, and
xidocy a stone.) See 0*te9coUa.

Digitized by LjOOQ'IC




OSTEOLOGY. (From ot*ov, zhone, and or ovk, jto the amount of tweitty-two, of
h^ypft a disc Mirse.) The doctrine of the different sifes, joined to the internal sur-

bones. See Bone.

Ohtioli. -(Dim. of o«f/ urn, a door.) The
valves or gates of the he rt.

OsTHEUM. (From oTfAxn^ a shell.) The
oyster. The shell of this fi*.h is occasion-
ally used medicinally ; its virtues are simi-
lar to those of the carbonate of lime. See

face of the ovaiia by cellular ihreatis or
pedicles ; and that they contain a fluid
which has the appearance of thin lympk.
The^e vesicle^ are, in fiiet, to be seen ii
the healthy -ovaria of every young woman.
They differ very much in their number in
different ovaria^ but are very seldom so
numerous as isas just been strnted. Att

OsTamuM. (Blanchard calls it a coirjip- have agreed, that the ovaria prepare what-
~ '" * ' — ^ ' ' ever the female supplies towards the for-

mation of the foetus; and this is proved
by the operation of spaying, which con-
sists in the extirpation of the ovana, afUr
which the animal not only loses the powder
of conceiving, but desire is for ever extin-
guished. The outer eoat of the ovaria,
together with that of the uterus, is given
by the peritonaeum ; and whenever an
ovum is passed into the Fallopian tube, a
fissure is observed at the part tbrougk
Ote»chttk8, (From arroc, the genitive of which it is supposed to have been trans-
ovt, an ear, ana ry^fMh to pour in.) A sy- ferred. These fissures healing, leave small

"' *• -«- longitudinal cicatrices on tbe surfko^

which are said to enable us to deteniiifie^
whenever the ovarium is examined, the
number of timetr a woman has conceived.
Tlie corpora lutea are oblong glandular
bodies of a yellowish colour, found in. the
oVana of all animals when prfgnant, and.

tion from las^rpitium.) ^ Imperatoria, or
masterwort. '

OsTRUTHiuM. iKuerpitittm. See Impe-

OsTRis. Catsia poeHca LobelUi. CatHa
latinontnu * Cassia Ugnea morupeiiennum.
Casiia monspelirnshtm. Poet's rosemary.
The whole shrub i;* a.stringent. It grows in
the snuthei-n parts of Europe.

OSTALGIA. (From us, the ear, and ttxyocf
pain.) Tlie ear-ache.

ringe for the ears.

Othowna. (From oBon, lin*; so called
from tbe softness of its leaves.) A species
of celandine.

Otic A.. (From ac, the ear) Medicines
ag.'inst diseases of the ear

Otites. f From Kf,' the ear.) Anepitbtft _, ^_^ , ,

of the lit! le finger, because it is commonly according to some, when they are, sala<

made use of in scratching the ear

OTITIS. (From «c, the ear ) Inflamroa^
tion of the intemul ear. It is known by py-
rexia, and an excruciating and throbbing
pain in the internal ear, that is sometimes at-
tended with delirium.

Otoplatos. (From kc, the ear.) A stink-
ing ulcer behind the ears.

Otoptosis. (From »c, the ear, and
sroov, pus.) A purulent discharge from the

OTORRHiEA. (From »?, the ear, artd
^, to flow.) A discharge of blood or mat-
ter fi-om the ear.

ovale. )

OVARIUM, (bim. of ovum, an tgg.)

cious. The^ are said to be calyces, firom
which the impregnated ovum hat drop-
ped; and their number is alwa3rs in pro-
portion to the number of conceptions
found in the uterus. They are largest
and most conspicuous in the early state of
pregnancy, and remain for some time after
delivery, when they gradually fade and
wither till they disappear. The corpora
lutea are very vascular, except at their
centre, which is whitish; and m the mid-
dle of the white part is a small cavity,
from which the impregnated ovum is
thought to have immediately proceeded.
The ovaria are the seat of a partlctilar
kind of dropsy, which most commonly
happens to women at the time of the final

The ovaria are two flat oval bodies, about cessation of the menses, though tiot un-
one inch in length, and rather more than frequently at a more early oenod. of life,
half in breadth and thickness, suspended It is of the encysted kind, the fluid bein^
in the broad ligaments, about the distance sometimes limpid and thm, and at others
of one inch from the uterus behind, and a discoloured and gelatinous. In some cases
little below, the Fallopian tubes. To the it has been found lo contain one cyst, often
ovaria, according to the idea of their struc- in several, and in others the whole tume.
ture entertained by different anatomists, faction has been compo^^ed of hydatids not
various uses have been assigned, or tlie larger than grapes. The ovaria are also
purpose they answer has been differently subject, especially a short time afer deli-
explained. Some have supposed that tlietr very, to inflammation, terminating in sup-
texture was glandular, and that they se- {>uration, and to schirrhous and canceroua
' creted a ffuid equivalenMo, and similar to, diseases, with considerable enlargement,
the. male semen ; but others, who have ex- In the former state, they generally adhere
amincd them with more care, assert tliat to some adjoining par , as Mie uterus, rec*-
tbey are ovaria in tiie literal acceptation of tum, the bladder, or the external integu-
thetermyandincludeanumberof vesiolesy ments, and the matter is discharged from

Dig_itized byLjOOQlC


the vagina by stool, by urine, op fey any ex*
ternal abscess of tlie integuments of the

OVIDUCT. {Oviductiut from otmm, an
egg, and ducfvit a canal.) The Fallopian
tube, or canal, which runs from the ovary
to the bottom of the womb.

OVIPAKOU8. (Prom »vum, an e^, and
parie, to bring forth.) Animals which ex*^
olude their young in the egg, which are af-
terwards hatched.

iyvonxnt TsST.v. Egg-shells. A testa-
ceous absorbent.

OVUM. SeeJf^.

Orim PULOsopHicvx. Ovttmckymicuht. A
glass body, round like an egg.

OXALATS. Oxaias. Salts formed by
the combination of the oxalic acid i»ith
different bases; thus, oJtalat of ammwUii

OXALIC M^ID. ^cidum oxaHcum. Salt
of sorrel. Acid of sugar. This acid is ob-
tained by evaporating the fresti juice of sor-
rel almost to the consistence of honeys when
it is to be poured into a glass vessel witli
a narrow neck, and covereid with a stratum
of the oil of olives. After some weeks the
•ides of the bottle are invested with a crust,
which is the salt of sorrel, or oxaUt po*
tataa addulua. The salt of sorrel is then
to be dissolved in boiling water, and a small
quantity of the nitrate oif barytes added to
It, when the barrtes will "unite with the ox-
alic actd, and the potash with the nitric
acid. The oxalat of barytes, which is pre-
cipitated, is then to be decompounded by
digestion w^ sulphuric acid, by which
means the oxalic acid is let loose. Former-
ly this acid was considered as diifeient from
. that of sugar, but it is now proved by ex-
periments to be the same in all its proper-

OXALIS. (From cfw, sharp ; so called
from the sharpness ot its juice.) The name
of a genus of plants in the JJnnRan system.
Class, Decandria. Ord^r, Pentq^yma. Wood-

OXA.US ACXTocBLLA. (Dim. of acetosa.)
Tlie systematic n^me of the wood«sorreL
See Lujula,

OxALME. (From «^, sharp, and «ac,
aalt.) A mixture of vinegar and salt.

Ox-e^-daisy. See BeUi» major

Ox*9 tongue. See Pieria echioideo.

OxrcAKTiLi oADBiri. (Fpom ofoc, sliarp,
and asAirddt, a thorn; so called fitnn the
sicidity of its fruit) U'he barberry. See

OxTGEBBiTs. (From oft/, acutely, and
M^i^of, a cedar; so called from the sharp
termination df its leaves«) A kind of cedar.
Spanish] uniper, a species of jurdperuo.

OxTcoccos. (From of^c, acid, and icmc-
aof, a berry, so named from its acidity)
Vueehda paluatrio, Viti$ ideaa pabutrio*
Moo^beITy. Tke cranberry. The besries



ot the t^aeciwktm oxyeoecoi af Liflnseut aft
so termed in some pharmacopcsias. They
are about the size of our huwt, and are
pleasantly acid« with which intention they
are used medicinally in Sweden. In this
country they are mostly preserved and
made into tarts.

OxTCBATirx. (From ofw, acid, and MMfttf*
vvjuu, to mix.) Oxycrates. Vinegar mixed
with such a portion of wate^ as is required»
and rendered still milder by the addition of
a lit tie honey.

OxTcaocsiTM feMjPLAsnitat. . (From fl(w,
acid, and s^oae;, crocua, saffron.) A plas*
ter in wluch there is much saffron, but no
vinegar necessary, unless in dissolving some

OXYD. (XrydL Oxidd. Oxyde. OSydum.
A substance formed by the union of oxygen
with a basis: tliu^» oxyd ^f ifon^ oxyd af
topper, &c% ^

Oxyd of carbott, gauoue. See. Ctu^b^n,
§axeou$ oxyd of

OxTDATzoK. The operation by whioli
a substance is made to combine with ox^

OxTSUicicA. (From «fwc> acute, and
A(x«, to see.) Medicines Which sharpen
the sight.

OXYOUM. (So called from oxyge^
which enters into its composition) Sm

mony. This is the calx anUmonU, the crs*
coa antimonU lotna, and the antimottium du^
phoreticum, of old phafmacopoeiaa. It is
made thtts : ** Take of sulphuret of antt«
mony, powdered, two ounces, muriatic
acid, eleven- fluid-ouncel, nitric acid, one
fluid-ounce. The acids being mixed toge-
ther in a glass vessel, add the antimony
gradually thereto, and digest them in a
boiling heat for an hour, then strain th#
solution and pour it into a gallon of water,
in which two ounces of the subcarbonate
of potash have been previously dissolved ;
wash the precipitated powder by repeated
eff\isions of water until ail the acid is washed
away, then dry it upon bibulous paper/'
litis preparation possesses diaphoretic vir«
tues, and is given in the dose of fcom three
grains to tei.

OxTocM ABSSMict AI.BVX* SetAraetttopa

OxntiVrM. cemi vibidb acbtatum. See

OxTora vxaat &trfsitx. See Fnrri mr*

gynia wmrUaua Ox>-niuriat of mercury;
Take of purified mercury by weight two
pounds, sulpliuric acid by weight thirty
ounces, dried minriate of soda four pounds.
Boil the mercury with the sulphuric acid
in a g^ass vessel until the sulphate of mer-
cury shall be left dry. Hub this, when it

4 F uigitizedbyLjOOgle



if coldf with the muriate of «oda in an
earthen-ware mortar; then sublime it in
a f(las8 cucurbit, increasing the heat gradu-

An extremely acrid and violently poi-
sonous preparation.

Given internally in small doses properly
diluted, and never in the form ot pill, it
possesses oxygenating, ant i syphilitica!, and
alterative virtues. Bxtemally applied, in
form of lotion, it facilitates the healing of
venereal sores, and cures the itch. In
gargles for venereal ulcers in the throat the
oxymuriat of mercury gr. iii. or iv., barley
decoction ifej., honey of roses §jj., proves
very service&Dle ; also in cases uf tetters,
from gr. v. to gr. x. to water tbj. 1 and for
films and ulcerations of the cornea, gr.
water §iv.

Mr. Pearson remarks that wh^n the sub-
limate is given to cure the primary symp-
toms of syphilis, it will sometimes succeed ;
more especially, when it produces a consi-
derable degree of soreness of the j^ums,
and the common specific effects oi mer-
cury in the animal ay-stem. But it will
often fail of remeving even a recent chan-
cre ; and where that hymptom has \aiiished
during the administration of c'ori-osive sub-
limate, 1 have known, says he, a three
months' course of tiiat medicine fail of se-
curing the paiient from a ct^nstitutionul af-
fection. I'he result of my observatijns is,
that simple mercury, calomel or calcined
mercury, are preparations mor6 to be con-
fided in for the cure of primary symptoms,
than corrosive sublimate. The latter will
often check the progress of secondary symp-
toms very conveniently, and I think it is
pecidiarly efficacious in relieving venereal
pains, in healing ulcers of the throat, and in
promoting the desquamation of eruptions.
Yet even m these cases it never confers per-
manent benefit ; for new symptoms will ap-
pear during the use of it ; and on many
occasions it will fail of affording the least
advantage to the patient from first to last.
I do, sometimes, indeed, employ this pre-
paration in venereal cases ; but it is eitlier
at the beginning of a mercurial course, to
bring the constitution under the influence
of mercury at an early period, or during a
course of inunction, with the intention of
increasing the action of simple mercury.
I FometinteA also prescribe it after the con-
clusion of a course of friction, to support
the mereurial influence in the habit, in order
to guard against tlie danger of a relapse*
But on no< occasion whoever do I think it
safe to confide in this prqiarfttion singly and
uncombined, for the cure of any truly vene*
real symptom.

Grey oxyd of mercury. ** Takeof submu-
fiate of mercury, m quocei lime-water, a


gallon.*' Boil the submurbte of mt^aaj
in the lime-water, constantly stirring, unt&
1 grey oxyd of mercury is separated. Wash
this with distilled water, and then dry it.
The dose from gr. ii. to x.

The black oxyd of mercury has received
several names. Ethops per te. /Hiiws «e«*-
curiaUt cinereut. Mercuriu» emereu9. Ticp-
peihum tngram. J^ercuritu prmcipUaiu* ni*
ger. There are four preparations of it in
High estimation :

One made by rubbing mercury with mu-
cilage of gum-arabic. Plenk, of Vienna,
has written a treatise on the superior efli-
cacy of this medicine. , It is veiy troubie^
some to make i- and doe9 not appear to pos-
sess more virtues than some other mercurial

Another made by triturating equal parts
of sugar and mercury togethy.

The third, composed of henej or liquo-
rice and hydrargv ruB purificatus. ■

The fourth is the blue mercurial ointment.

All these preparations possess anthelmin-
tic, antisyphilitic, alterative, sialagogue,
and deobstruent virtues, and are exhibited
in ihe cure of worms, svphiUs,amenorriMxa,
diseases of the skin, chronir dineasea, ob-
structions of the viscera, &c.

Bydrargynu caicinatua. Red oxyd of mer-
cury. " Take of purified mercury by weight
a pound." Pour the mercury into a glass
mattrass, with a very narrow mouth and

Online LibraryRobert HooperA new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine → online text (page 119 of 177)