Robert Hooper.

A new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine online

. (page 65 of 177)
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perty alone ; they can be affected by external
agente^ at -well a* by certain /unction* pecu'
Uar to themtetoee in tvch a manner, that the
phenomena peculiar to the living state can be
produced. This proposition extends to
every thmg that is Vital in nature, and
therefore applies to vegetables.

The external agents are reducible to
heat, diet, and other substances taken into
the stomach, bloo4, the fluids secreted
from the body Mid air.

The functions of the system itself, pro-
ducmg the same effect, are muscular con-
traction, sense, or perception, and the
energy of the bram in tliinking, and in ex-
ciiing passion and emotion. These affect
the system in the same manner as the other
agents ; and they arise both from the other
and from themselves.

If the property which distinguishes living
from dead matter, or the operation of ei-
ther of the two sets of powers be wiili-
drawn, life ceases« Nothing else than the
presence of these is necessary to life.

The property on which both sets of
powers act Dr. Browne names ExdtttbUity^
and the powers themselves exciting powers.
The word body, means both the body simply
so called, and also as endued with an inteU
lectuai part, a part appropriated to passion
and emotion, or a soul: the usual appella-
tion in medical writings is syntem.

The effects common to all the exciting
|X)wers, are sense, motion, mental exer-
tion, and passion. Hieir efi*ects being the
same, it miut be granted, that the operation
of all their powers is the same.

The effects of tfie exciting powers acting
upon the excitability, Dr. Browne, denoipi-
nates excitement,
EXCITING CAUSE. Occasional cause.

Prtx^tarctic cause. Remote cause. That
which when applied to the body, excites a ,
disease. The exciting, or remote r&uses ot
diseasef*, are either external or internal.

EXCOlllATlON. (t-rom excorio, to
take off the skm.) Excoriatio, An abra-
sion of the skin.

EXCREMPJNT. (From excemo^ to se-
parate from ) The alvine fieces. «

EXr^RESCENCE. (From excretco^ to
grow from.) Excretcentia. Any preter*
naiural formation of flevh, on any part of
the body, as wens, warts, &c

EXCRETION. (From excemo, to se-
parate from.) Excretio, This term is ap-
plied to the separation or secretion of those
fluids from the blood of an animal, that are
supposed to be useless, as the urine, per-
spiration, and alvine fxx.

EXFOLIATION. • (From ex/olio, to
cast the leaf.) Exfokatio. The separa-
tion of a dead piece of bone from the living.
Exi'ouATivuic. (From exfoHo^ to shed
the leaf.) A raspatory or instrument for
scraping exfoliating portions of bone.

ExiscBios. (From ij, out of, and wx^t
the ischium.) A luxation of the thigh-bone.
ExrruRA. (From exto^ to come from.)
A running abscess^

Exrrcsv (From exeo, to come out) A
prolapsus, or falling down of the womb or

ExoGJEiAs. (From ifd», without, and i;^»,
to have.) Exoche, A tubercle on the out-
side of the anus.

ExocHs. See Exochas,
ExocTSTB. See Exocystie,
ExoCTSTis. (From ff», without, and
au^ic, the bUdder.) Exocytte, A prolapsus
of the inner membrane of the bladder.

EXOMPHALUS. (From •?. out, and
eju<^of, the navel.) Exomphaloa. An
umbilical hernia. See Hernia*

ExovcHOXA. (From if, and oy^fif^ »
tumour.) A large prominent tumour.

EXOPHTHALMU. (From tf, out,
and e^ecA/uof, the eye.) A swelling or pro-
trusion of the bulb of the eye, to such a
degree that the eyelids cannot cover it. It
may be caused by inflammation, when it is
termed exophthaUnia inflammatoria ; or
from a collection of pus in the globe of the
eye, when it is ternied the exophthalmia pu-
rulenta; or from a congestion of blf)od
within the globe of the eye, exophthalmia

EXOSTOSIS. (From t^ and o<r7w, a
bone.) HyperoetoM A morbid enlarge-
ment, or hard tumour of a bone. A g^nus
of disease arranged by CuUen in the class
locales, and oi^er tumores. The bones
most frequently affected with exostosis, are
those of the cranium, the lower jaw, ster-
num, humerus, radius, ulna, bones of the
carpu», the femur, and tibia. There is,
however, no bone of the body which may

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not become the seat of this diiease. It m
not uncommon to find the bonet of the era-
nittm affected with exoatofb, in their whole
extent The osta parietalia sometimei be-
come an inch thick.

Th« ezoetosia, howeyer^ mostly risea
from the surfiice of the bone, in the form of
a hard round tumour, and venenal ezosto-
|ea, or node*, are observed to arise chiefly
on compact bones; such of these as are
only superficially corered with soft parU,
asb for uistance, the bones of the cranmm,
and the front surfiice of the tibia.

EXPECTORANTS. {ExpectorUntia,

ic. maHeameniOt from txpeckn^ to dis-
charge from the breast) Those medicines
whieh increase the discharge of mucus from
the lungs. The different articles referred to
this class may be divided into the following
orders : 1. Homeating expecttanu, ag squills
ammoniacum, and garlic, which are to be
p r e ferred for the a^d and phlegmatic 2.
SHmuUuing expecfnmUf as mamibiam,
which is adapted to the young and irritable,
and those easily affected by expectorants.
3. •intispatm&tUc expectaranta, as resica-
tories, pediluvium, and watery vapours;
these are best calculated for the plethoric
and irritable, and those liable to spasmodic
affections. 4. Irritating expeetoranta, as
iiimes of tobacco and acid vapours. The
constitutions to which these are chiefly
adapted, are those past the period of youth,
and those in whom there are evident marks
of toroor, either in the system generally,
or in the lung^ in particular.

EXPIRATION. (From expin>, to
breathe.) Expiratio. That part of t*espi.
ration in which the air is thrust out from
the lungs. See Reapiration,

ExFBssssD oiu. Such oils as are ob-
tained by pressing the substance con-
taining them, as olives, which give out
olive oil, almonds, &c.

ExBuccATio. (From ea:, out of, and
9UCCU9, humour.) An ecchymosis, or ex-
travasation of humours, under the integu-

EXTENSOR. (From «x<««/o, to stretch
out) A term given to those muscles
whose office it is to extend any part ; the
term is in opposition to flexor.

PEDIS. Extenaor brevit of JkmglM. Col-
cano phalanginien commune of Dumas. A
muscle of the toes situated on the foot.
It arises fieshy^ and tendmous from the fore
and upper part of the os calcis, and soon
forms a fleshy belly, divisible into four
poKions, which send off an equal number
of tendons that pass over the upper part of
the foot under the tendons of the extensor
long^s digitorum pedis, to be inserted into
its tendinous expansion. Its office is to
extend the toes.


VlOa Mmdiaks emtermu bmiar of
Aibiuus. MadiaUt aecutuhu of Winalow.
An extensor muscle of the wrist, situated
OB the fore-arm. It arises tendinous from
the exumai condyle of the humerus, and
from the ligament that connects the radius
to It, and runs aioqg the outside oi the ra-
dius. It is inserted by a long tendon into
the upper and back part of the metacarpal
bone of the middle finger* It assisu in
extending and bringing the hand backwards

GlOli. RaduUit externum hngior of Al-
binus. RadiaUt extermu pritnu9 of Wins-
low. An extensor* muscle of the carpui^
situated on the fore-arm, that acts in coo-
iui>ction with the former. It arises ttuQ,
broad, and fleshy, from the lower part or
the external rulge of the os humeri, abote
its external condyle, and is inserted by a
round tendon into the posterior and upper
part of the metacarpal bone that sustains
the fore-fingers.

narii extemut oi Albinus and Winslow.
It arises 6t>m the outer condyle of the ps
humeri, and tbea receives an origin from
the edge of the ulna: its tendon passes
in a groove behind the styUnd pnxMess of
tlie ulna to be inserted into the inside of
the basis of the metacarpal bone of the
little finger.

NIS. Cum extenaore pr^nio auricuUf
ria of Albinus. Extenaor digUorum com-
munia manua of Douglas and W inslo w. EX'
tenaor digUorum communiaf aeu ' digitorum
tenaor of Cowper, and Epichondglo-nupha-
(angettien commune of Dumas. A muscle si-
tuated on the fore-arm, that extends all the
joinu of the fingers. It vises from the exter-
nal protuberance of the humerus : and at the
wrist it divides into three flst tendons,
which pass under the annular ligament, to
be inserted into all the bones of the fore,
middle and ring fingers.

See Extenaor longua digitorum pedU.

ExTsirsoB iiTDicis. See Ltdicatcr.

PEDIS. Extenaor longua peroneo tilnaua
phalangittien commune of Dumas. A muHcle
situated on the lee, that extendsall the joints
•f the four small toes. It arises from the

upper part of the tibia and fibula, and the in-
terosseous ligament; iu tendon passes under
the annular Egament, and then divides into
five, four of which are inserted into the
second and third phalanges of the toes, and
the fifthgocs to the basis of the meutarsal
bone. This last Winslow reckons a dis-
tinct muscle, and calls it Peronatua brevia.

ExTBFSOR Loiraus poLLicis PSDis. See
Extenaor propriua poUida pedia.

ExTBXsoB MABWB. Sce Ooatroenendua

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BxnvtoB uuoa, pouicif maws. See
ExienMor tecundi inSemodii'


Exten99t' trim iniemodii.

LICIS MANUS. Mductor Umgm poiHcU
mania of' Albmiit. Exietuor primi inier'
nodii of Dougliifl. Exterumr primua poUich
of Winstnw. Extetuor pHmd iMtemodii poU
McU of Ck>wper. CiMo-radinu metacarpten
du pouce of Dumas. It urises flehsy (roin the
middle and posterior part of the ylna, from
the posterior part of the middle of the
radius, and from the interosseous ligament,
and is inserted into the us trapezium, and
upper part of the metacarpal bone of the

RxTSHBOB poujcis rmixrs. See Exten"
9or primi intemodiL ^ .

^CTBHsoii POUJCIS sscinrDns. Set Ea>
tentor tecumM intemodfL

Extentor minor poUicia marutt of Albinus.
This muscle, and the Extensor ommm metO'
carpi poUtdt mamtt^ are called Extensvt poU
lids primus by Winslow. Extenssr gectm-
di intemodH by Douglas. Extensor secundi
tnternodd ossU pslHds of Cowper. Cubits'
susphaJangien du psnce of Dumas. A mus-
cle of the thumb, situated on the hand, that
extends the first bone of the thumb ob-
liquely outwards. It arises fleidiy from the
postpnor part of the ulnar, and from the
interosseous ligament, and is inserted ten-
dinous into the posterior part of the first
bone of the thumb.

l^DlS. ExfeiMsr /bn^t of DougLts. £x-
. tensor poinds lon£^ of Winslow and Cow-
per. Peroneo susphalcmgien du pouee of Du-
mas. An exterior hiuscle of the );reut toe,
situated on the foot. It arises by an acute,
tendinous and fleshy beginning, some way
below the head and anterior part of the
fibula, along which it runs to near its lower
extremity, connected to it by a number of
fleshy fibres, which descend obliquely, and
form a tendon, which is insertea into the
posterior part of the first and last joint of
the great toe.

Extensor majus polUds mtmus of Albinus.
Extensor po&dssecundusoS'WMV>ir. Ex-
tensor tertH tnternodd of Douglas. Exten*
sor tntemodH ossis poJUds of Cowper. €hdn'
to'susphalangettien du ponce of Dumas. A
muscle of the thumb, situated on the hand,
that extends the lust joint of the thumb
oblioiiely backwards. It arises tendinous
and nesny from the middle part of the ul-
na, and the interosseous ligament ; it then
forms a tendon, Which runs trough a small
groove at the inner and back part of the
radius, to be hwerted into the last bone of
the thumb. Its use is to extend the last
phalanx of the thumb obliquely back*

ExTxvsoB sscuni uraauroBii nmcis
VBOpanjs See buUcator,

ExTsxsoa TASsi xivoB. See PUmta*


nendus ititemus,

EiTSHsoR TXETii nmBBOMi xnrx-
XI DI0ITI. See Abductor minimi digits


See Prisr indids.

ExTERHus 1IA1.1.XI. See Laxator iFym-

EXTIRPATION. (Erom extirpo, to
eradicate.) Extirffatio, The compheTe re-
moval or destruction of any part, eitta*
by cutting instruments, or the action id

EXTRACTION. (Fh>m extraho, to
draw out.) Exiractio. The taking extra-
neous substances out of the body. Thus
bullets and splinters are said to be extract-
ed fVom wounds ; stones from the urethra,
or bladder. ■

Surgeons also sometimes apply the term
extraction to the removal of tumours out of
cavities, as, for instance, to the taking of
cartilaginous tunoours out of the jomts.
They seldom speak of extracting any dis-
eased original part of the body; though
tbe> do so in one example, viz, the cata-

EXTR\CT. (Extraetumi firom gxtra-
ho, to draw out.) Tlic ^neric tenp ex-
tract is used pliarmaceutically, in art ex-
tensive sense, and includes all those pre-
parations from vegetables which are sepa-
rable by the agency of various liquids, and
afterwards obtained from such solutions, in
a solid state, by evaporation of the men-
struum. It also includ«« those substances
which are Md in solution by the natural
juices of fresh plants, as well as those to
which <)ome m'-nstruum is added at the
time of preparation. Now, such soluble
matters are various, and most^ compli.
cated ; so that chymical accuracy is not to
be looked for in the. application of the
term. Cbjrmists, however, have affixed
this name to one peculiar modification of
vegetable matter, which has been called
extractvoe^ of extract, or extractive prin-
ciple! and, as this forms one constituent
part of common extracts, and possesses
certain characters, it will be proper to
mention such of them as may influence its
pharmaceutical relations. The extractive
principle has a strong taste, differing in
different plants : it is Soluble in water, and
its solution speedilj runs into a state of
putrefaction, by which it is destroyed. Re-
peated evaporations and solutions render
It at lost insdiible, in consequence of its
combination with oxy^ from the atmos-
phere. It is soluble in alkobol, but inso-
hjihlt in ethen It unites with alum'me, and
If boiled with neutral salts thereof, prdci-

Digitized by LjOOQIC



piUtes them. It preclpitttes with strong
acids, and with the oxyds from solutions of
most metallic saltsy especially iquriate of
tin. It readily unites wilh alkalies, and
forms compounds with tbem, whidi ar^ so-
luble in water. No part, however, of tjiis
subject has been hitherto sufllcicntly ex-

In the preparation of all the extracts,
the London Pharnvacopoeia requires that
the water be evaporated an speedily as
- possible, in a broad, .shallow dish, by
mt-ans of a water-bath, until they have
acquired u consistence proper for making^
pills ; and, towards the, end of the in-
•pissation, that they should be constantly
stirred with a wooden rod. These general
rules require minute and accurate atten-
tion, more particularly in the immediate
evaporation of the solution, wheiher pre-
pared by expression or decoction, in the
mainer as well as the degree of beat by
which it is performed, and ttie promotion' of
it by changing the surface by constant stir-
ring, when the liquor begins to thicken, and
«ven by directing a strong current of air
over its surface, if it can conveniently be
done. It is impos'^ible to reguUte the tem-
perature over a naked fire, or if it be used,
to prevent the extract from burning ; the
use of a water-batl^ is, therefore, absolutely
necessary, and not to be dispensed with,
ind the beauty and precision of extrncts
•o prepared, will demonstrate their supe-

EXTRACTIVE. See Extract,

ExTEACTUM AcoH^rri. Extract of aconite.
** Take of aconite leaves, fresh, a pound ;
bruise them m a stone mortar, sprinkling on
a little water; Uien press out the juice, and,
without any. separation of the sediment, eva-
porate it to a proper consistence." The
dose is from one grain to fire grains. For
its virtues, see Aconitum.

ExTRACTUM AuoBB. Extntct of aloes.
"Take of extract of spike aloe, powdered,
half a pound; boiling water, four pin's."
Macerate for three days in a gentle heat,
then strain the solution, and set it by, that
the dregs may subside. Pour oiT the clear'
solution, and evaporate it to a proper con-
sistence. The dose, from v to xv grs. Sec

ExTaACTUH AVTHEHiBis. Extract of cha-
momile, formerly called extractum chamoe-
meli. ** Take of chamomile flowers, dried,
a pound. Water, a gallon." Boil down to
four pints, and strain the solution while it is
hot, then evaporate it to a proper consist-
ence. The dose is x grs. to a scruple. For
its virtues, see Chamtemehm. .


belladonna. «* Take of deadly night-shade
leaves, fresh, a pound." Brtiise them in a
•tone mortar, sprinkling on a little water :
then press out the juice, and without any
previous separation of the sediment, evapo-


rate it to a proper consistence. The done
is from one to five grains. For its virtues,
see Belladtmna.


sinou8 extract of bark. ** Tuke of lance-
leiived cinchona bark, a pound ; rectified
spirit, four pintjj." Mitcerate for four days,
and strain. Distil the tincture in the heat of
a water-bath, until the extract has acquired
a proper consistence. This is considered
by many as much more grateful to the sto-
mach, and, at the same time, producing all
the effects of bark in substance, and, by the
distillatioaof it, is intendt-d that the spirit
- which passes over shall he collected and
preserved. 1 he dose is firom ten grains to
half a drachm. See Cinchona.

Extractum coloctitthtdis. Extract of
colocynth. •* Tuke of colocynth pulp, a
pound ; water, a gallon." Boil down to four
pints, and strain the solution while it is hot,
and evaporate it to* a proper consistence.
The dose is from five to thirty grains. For
its virtues, see Coloofnthit.


Compound extract of colocynth. " Take of
colocynth pulp, sliced, six drachms ; ex-
tract of spike aloe, powdered, an ounce and
half; scammony gum-resin powdered, half
an ounce ; cardamom-seeds powdered, a
drachm ; hard soap, three drachms ; boiling
water, two pints." Macerate the colocynth*
pulp in the water, for four days, in a gentle
heat ; strain the solution, and add to it the
aloe, scammony, and soap ; then, by means
of a water-bath, evaporate it to a proper
consistence, constantly stirring, and about
the end of the inspissation, mix m the car-
damom-seeds. The dose, from five to thir-
ty grains.

ExTRACTuii coKii, Extract of hemlock,
formerly called succus cicutc spissatu^
*• Take of fresh hemlock, a pound.** Bruise
it in a 'stone mortar, sprinkling on a little
water ; then press out the juice, and, with-
out any separation of the sediment, evapo-
rate it io a proper consistence. The dose
from five grains to s scruple.

Extractum BLATBRn. Extract of ela-
terium. "Cut the ripe, wild cucumbers
into slices, and pass the juice, very gently
.expressed, through a very fine hair sieve,
into a glass vessel ; then set it by for some
hours, until the thicker part has subsided.
Pour off, and throw away the thinner part,
which swims at the top. Dr>' the thicker
part which remains in a gentle heat*' The
dose from half a grain to three grains. For
its virtues, see Cucfsmu agretdi.

ExTEAcnm e£VTtAx& Extract of gen-
tian. * T«ke of gentian root, sliced, a ^
pound ; boiling water, a gallon.** Macerate
for twenty-four hours, then boil down to
four pints : strain the hot li<iuor, and eva-
porate it to a proper consistence. ))ose,
from ten to thirty grains. See Gentiancu


Digitized by ^OOQlC




liquorioe. ^'Take of Uquoribe-rbot, flked,
a pound; water, boiling, a gallon." Mace-
rate for twenty-four hours, then boil down
to foUr pints ; strain the hot liquor^ and
evaporate it to a prbper consistence. DosCi
Irom^ one drachm to half an ounce. See


logwood, fcrmerly called extractum ligni
campe^hensis. " Take Of logwood, pow.
dered, a pound ; water, boiling, a gallon.^
Macerate for twenty-foar hours, then boil
down to four pints ; strain the hot liquor,
and eiraporate it to a proper consistence.
Dose, fix>m ten grains to half a draclim.
For its virtues, see Lh^m ccmpecKente,

-Extractum Humru. Extract of hops.
** Take of hops, half a sound ; water, boiU
ing, a gallon." Boil down to four pints ;
strain the hot liquor, and evaporate it to a
proper consistence. This extract is said to
produce a tonic and sedative power com-
bined. The dose is from five grains to one
scruple See iMpubu,

EkTBACTUx BToscTAXi. Extract of hcn-
bane.. ''Take of Iresh henbane leaves, a
pound.'* Bruise them in a stone Anortar,
mrinkling on a little water; then press ou^
toe juice, and, without separating the fae-
culebcies, evaporate it to a proper consis-
tence. Dose, from five to thirty grains.
For its virtues, see Hyotctamtu,'

Extractum ialaps. Extract of ja-
lap. •* Take of jalap-root, powdered, a
pound ; rectified spirit, four pints ; water,
ten pints." Macerate the jalap-root in the
spirit for four days, and pour oil' the tinc-
ture ; boil the remaining powder in water,
until it be reduced to two pints ; then strain
the tincture and decoction separately, and
let the former be distilled and the Utter
evaporated, until each begins to grow thick.
Lastly, mix the extract with the resiii, and
reduce it to a proper consistence. Let this
extract be kept in a soft state, fit for form-
ing pills, and in a hard one, so that it may
be reduced to powder. The dose, from ten
to twenty grains. For its virtues, see Jo-

Extractum cm. Extract of opium,
fiirmerly called extractum thebaicum.
Opium colatum. ** Take of opiiim, sliced,
half a pound ; water, tliree pints." Pour a
small quantity of the water upon the opium,
and macerate it for twelve hours, that it
ma^ become soft; then, adding the re-
maining water gpradually, rub them together
until the mixture be complete. Set it by,
that tlie faeculencies may subside ; then
strain tlie liquoi^ and evaporate it to a pro-
per consistence. Dose, from half a grain
to five grains.

Extractum fapavxeis. Extract of
white poppy. «• Take of white poppy cap-
sules, bruised, a pound ; water, botUng, a
gallon." Macerate far twenty-ibur hours.

then boil down to ftxir pints ; strain the
hot liquor, and evaporate it to a proper
consistence. Six gntins are about equiva-
lent to one of opium. Dose, fixtm half a
grain to five grains* F6r its virtues, see
Papaner album.

Extractum rbbi. Extract of rhubarb.
••Take of rhubarb root, powdered, a pound ;
proof spirit, a pint ; water, seven pinta.**
Macerate for four davs in a gentle heat,
then strain, and set it by, that the faeculen-
cies may subside. Four oft' the clear liquor,
and evaporate to a proper cooaistence. This
extract possesses the purgative properties
of the root, and the fibrous and earthy
ports are separated ; it is, therefore a use-
mi basis for pilU> as well as g4ven separate-
ly. Dote, ir6m ten to thirty grains. See

Extractum sABSAPAmnuB. Extract of
sarsaparilla. ''Take of sarsaparilla-root,
sliced, a pound ; water, boiling, a gaUon.*'
Macerate for twenty-four hours, then boil
dow|n to four pints ; strain the hot liquor,
and evaporate it to a proper consistence.-
In practice this is much used, to render
the commen decoction of the same root
stronger and more efficacious. Dose, fi^m
ten grains to a drachm. For its virtues, see

Extractum sATuam. See Liquor accetO'

Extractum taraxaci. Take of dandelion
root^ fi«8h and bruised, a pound; water,
boiling, a gallon. Macerate for twefit}'-four
hours ; bou down to four pints, and strain
the hot liquor through a woollen cloth ;
then evaporate it to a proper consistence.
Dose, from ten grains to a arachra. For its
virtues, see T£traxacum.

EXTRAVASATION. (From «*fro, with-
out, and va», a vessel.) Exiravatctio. A
term applied by surgeons to fluids, which
are out of their proper vessels or recep-
tacles. Thus, when blood is effbsed on the

Online LibraryRobert HooperA new medical dictionary, containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy, physiology ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine → online text (page 65 of 177)