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its dismemberment, 454-483, 552-556;
general remarks upon her policy, 497-
502.

CernySev, Count, Russian statesman, 51.

Champagne, 349, 371.

Charlemagne, 41, 143.

Charles X Gustavus, king of Sweden
(1654-60), 32.

Charles XII, king of Sweden (1697-
1718), 33, 35.

Charles of Saxony, Prince, 36, n. 2.



INDEX



S77



Charles Augustus.duke (later grand duke)
of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1775-1828),

143-
Charles Theodore, elector of Bavaria
(1777-99), iS9» I 74, 262 f., 315, 316,
3*7, 33i» 335, 359, 360, 366, 402, 432,

433-
Chmielnicki, Bogdan, Cossack hetman,

87.
Choczim, town in Bessarabia, 140, 386,

39°-

Choiseul, French statesman, 38, 45, 47.

Chreptowicz, Polish minister, 292, 293.

Cities, decline of, in Poland, 14 f.

Clergy, the, in Poland, 15.

Clovis, 41.

Coalition, the First, against France, 4,
72, 337, 425, 427,428.

Cobenzl, Count Louis, Austrian ambassa-
dor at St. Petersburg, 68, 79, 80, 81,
106, 107, 108, 109, no, 137, 138, 140,
182, 206 ff., 214, 223 ff., 253 f., 266,
303 f., 307, 319 (., 333 ff., 339, 341,
37i (-, 373, 375, 377, 378, 383, 388,
398, 401, 404, 407, 409, 412, 420, 426 f.,
428, 439, 531 L, 539, 540, 550.

Cobenzl, Count Philip, Austrian vice-
chancellor, 7 2 f., 1 73, 176, 21 1, 255, 262,
318 ff., 322, 328, 329, 332, 341, 343-
347, 369 ff., 374, 398-406, 531 f., 538 f.
542, 543, 547, 550.

Coblenz, 229, 360.

Colloredo family, the, 401.

Colloredo, Prince, chancellor of the Em-
pire, 399.

Colloredo-Wallsee, Count, Austrian gen-
eral and conference minister, 255, n.

1, 328, 343-
Cologne, 360.
Committee of Public Safety, First, in

France, 451 f.
Committee of Public Safety, Second, in

France, 452 f.
Condillac, French philosopher, 61.
Condorcet, French philosopher, 55.
' Confederations,' 10, 12, 13, 21 f., 24.
Consenvoye, 349, 355, 382, 408, 544,

549-



Constantine, grandson of Catherine II,

154, 293, 294.
Constitutional party, the, 454.
Convention, the, in France, 448, 450.
Cossacks, 31, 86 f., 138 f., 191, 298, 449,

474, 478, 516.
Council of the Empire, the, in Russia,

277, 279.
Counter-Reformation, the, 24.
Courland, 25, n. 1, 44, 85, 126, 313, 318,

386, 387, 391, 466, 492, 512 f., 515.
Cracow, 13, 32, 391, 399, 480, 554.
Crimea, the, 69, 70, 72, 73, 76, 120, 153,

449, 45°, 5*3-

Croatia, Turkish, 142, 144, 145.

Custine, French general, 349.

Czarniecki, Stefan, Polish general, 25.

Czartoryski, Prince Adam Casimir, Pol-
ish reformer, 97, 103, n. 1, 221, 288.

Czartoryskis, Polish noble family, 28,
48, 49, 62.

Czgstochowa, town, 349, 352, 391, 407,

409, 549, 554-

' Dacia, Kingdom of,' 69, 85, 138, 139,

487, 5i3-

Dacia, proposed principality of, 154.

Danton, French revolutionist, 451 f.

Dantzic, Polish city, 65, 66, 67, 77, 86,
113, 123, 124, 125, 132, 134, 145, 146,
151, 154, 161, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171,
174, 176, 179, 205, 252, 263, 318, 342,
n- 4, 39 1 , 394, 445, 488, 49 2 , 49 6 -

Danubian Principalities, the, 120.

Denmark, 90, 94, 114, 157, 162, 166.

Descorches, French diplomat, 449 f., 452.

Dietines, the, 17 ff.

Diez, Prussian envoy at Constantinople,
77, 119, 120.

Dissidents, the, in Poland, 42 f ., 49 f ., 488.

Dolgoruki, Prince, Russian diplomat, 34.

Druja, town, 390.

Drunkenness, 63.

Dubienka, battle of (1792), 290, 291.

' Dumb Diet,' the (17 17), 34.

' Dumb Session,' the, 479, 480.

Dumouriez, French minister and general,
348, 441, 447, 449, 45°, 45*-



578



INDEX



Eastern Church, the, 26.

Eastern Question, the, 3, 163.

East Prussia, 5, 40, 44, 65, 143, 314, 387.

Eden, Sir Morton, British ambassador
at Vienna, 413, 442.

Edenkoben, village in the Lower Palati-
nate, 435.

Education Commission, the, 59.

Egypt, 481.

Elgin, Lord, British diplomat, 172, 188,
209, 521.

Elizabeth, empress of Russia (1741-62),
36, 40.

England, 15, 75, 78, 90, 94, 107, 108, 114,
116, 118, 119, 121, 130 ff., 134, 141,
146, 147, 148, 209, 210, 232, 268, 351,
365, 375, 42i, 425, S°2, 503; diplo-
matic defeat of, by Russia, 153-191,
310; relations to the Bavarian Ex-
change project, 327, 328, 329, 331, 336,
352, 367, 368, 369 f., 401, 402, 415 f.,
420, 430, 432-436; relations to the
Second Partition, 384, 388, 412, 413 f.,
419, 422 f., 428, 440-445; relations to
the First Coalition and the French
Revolution, 431, 432.

Enlightenment, the, 61, 62.

Ermeland, see Warmia.

Essen, Saxon diplomat, 220.

Eternal Alliance, the (1773), 166.

Eternal Peace, the (1686), 42.

Ewart, British envoy at Berlin, 164,
187 f., 189, 202, 209, 521.

Favier, French writer, 446, 447.
Fawkener, British diplomat, 188, 189 f.
February alliance, see Berlin, Treaty of.
Federative System, the, 94, 115, 116, 126,

203; downfall of, 158-191, 445.
Finckenstein, Prussian minister, 189, 337.
Finland, 449.

First Great Northern War, the, 32, 33.
Flanders, French, 329, 420.
Floridablanca, Spanish minister, 166.
Foc§ani, battle of (1789), 120.
Four Years' Diet, the (1788-92), 56, 59,

60, 62, 95-109, 192-216, 280, 283-286,

485, 486, 487 ff., 491.



Fox, Charles James, British statesman,
185, 190, 441.

France, 4, 5, 26, n. 1, 35, 37 f., 40, 43, 44,
50, 61, 70, 106, 115, 158, 159, 160, 165,
166, 167, 174, 185, 212, 217 ff., 228 f.,
313, 348 f., 430; declares war on
Austria, 266; attitude towards the
Second Partition, 446-453, 502 f.

Francis II, Holy Roman emperor (1792-
1806), emperor of Austria (1804-35),
255 f-, 303, 3i3, 315-320, 326-347, 352,
356, 357, 360, 362-373, 392, 401 f.,
404 ff., 408, 410-414, 416, 418-439,
546-550.

Frankfort, 348, 349; imperial coronation

at (1792), 3 J 7, 3 2 4-327, 329-
Frederick I, king of Prussia (1701-13),

35-
Frederick II, ' the Great,' king of Prussia
(1740-86), 32, 40, 45, 47, 52, 53, 55, 65,
66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 76, 119, 143, 314,

33o, 349, 496.

Frederick Augustus I, ' the Just,' elector
(later king) of Saxony (1763-1827),
116, 126, 195, 199, 202, 203, 206, 210,
218, 219, 220-223, 225-228, 234, 241,
257, 288, 489, 523, 525.

Frederick William, elector of Branden-
burg (1640-88), 32, 40.

Frederick William II, king of Prussia
(1786-97), 73, 76, 86, 94, 98, 107, 109,
"7-I5I, 154, i55f-, 157-162, 169,
173 ff., 177-182, 188 f., 202 f., 205,
209 f., 212, 214 f., 217-225, 230-239,
251 f., 256-261, 263 ff., 268-273, 279,
286 ff., 303, 305 f., 310-345, 348-396,
399, 400, 404, 408 f., 416 ff., 420 ff.,
424 f., 427-431, 433-438, 442, 445, 447,
449, 45 1 , 453, 47*, 475, 477, 49 2 -495,
497 ff., 519 ff., 530 f., 532-537, 54i I;

544-551-
Freemasonry, spread of, in Poland, 61.

French Revolution, the, 160, 216, 266,
348 f . ; relation of, to the Polish Ques-
tion, 217-242, 446-453, 502 f.

Furslenbund, the, 71, 94, 114, 143.

Galatz, Preliminaries of (1791), 190.



INDEX



579



Galezowski, Polish deputy, 468.

Galicia, 54, 66, 67, 76, 77, "7, "8, 120,
122, 123, 134, i37, 140, 142, 144, i4S,
146, 150, 151, 226, 320, 385, 407, 4ii,
420, 554-

Gambling, 63.

< Gegu,' 156.

Generality, the, of the Confederation,

394-397, 457-
George I, king of England (1714-27), 43.
George III, king of England (1760-1820),

107.
Germanic Empire, the, 351, 356, 381,

402, 431.
Germanization, policy of, 5.
Germans, 14, 26.
Germany, 4, 28, 43, 65, 174, 33°, 380,

420.
Girondists, the, 281, 447, 448, 449, 45*-
Giurgevo, town in Wallachia, 144.
Gnesen, city in Poland, 391, 495-
Gnesen, palatinate of, 331, 342, n. 4.
Gortz, Prussian diplomat, 67.
Goethe, 143.
Golitsyn, Russian ambassador at Vienna,

253, 257, 266.
Goltz, Count, Prussian envoy at St.

Petersburg, 181 f., 232, 234, 237, 253,

254, 258, 259, 260, 300, 303 f., 306, 307,
308, 311, 324, 334, 340 ff-, 354 f-, 375,
378, 379 f-, 382 f., 385, 386-389, 4i9,
420, 499, 525 ff., 530, 534, 55i-

Goltz, Count, Prussian envoy at War-
saw, 168 f., 202.

Grand Duke, the, see Paul I.

Great Diet, the, see Four Years' Diet.

Great Elector, the, see Frederick Wil-
liam, elector of Brandenburg.

Great Poland, 32, 40, 65, 66, 67, 113, 134,
146, 260, 393, 431, 488, 492, 49 6 -

' Greek project,' the, 69 f., 72, 5 10 , 5*3-

Grenville, Lord, British minister, 187,
188, 401, 442, 443, 444, 521.

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior, Baron, man
of letters, 168, 190, 244, 380.

Grodno, Diet of (1793), 394, 413, 426,
427, 428, 434, 436, 437, 444, 454"483,
552-556.



Gustavus III, king of Sweden (1771-92),
90, 119, 138, 144, 155, l6 6 f., 178, 183,
195, 217, 243, 310, 448.

Hailes, British envoy at Warsaw, 116,
170 f.

Hainault, 159, 329.

Halicz, district in Galicia, 134.

Hapsburg, House of, 13, 32, 37, 38.

Hartig, Austrian diplomat, 206.

Haugwitz, Count, Prussian minister,
301 ff., 325, 326, 330, 335, 338 ff., 342,
344, 345, 347, 348-356, 358-361, 367,
369-376, 407-410, 540-551.

Henry, prince of Prussia, brother of
Frederick the Great, 52, 73, 162.

Herault, French revolutionist, 450.

Hermitage, the, 382.

Hertzberg, Count, Prussian minister,
66 L, 70, 76-81, 84, 85, 90, 105, 109,
116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 123, 124 f.,
126, 132, 133, 141, 142, 144, i45, 146,
150, 151, 155, 160, 161, 162, 168, 173,
179, 189, 199, 314, 492, 496; his
'grand plan,' 66 f., 76-81, 132-148;
his hypothetical ' Anschlag auf Gross-
Polen,' 517 ff.

Hochheim, 330.

Hochkirch, battle of (1758), 143-

Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Prince, 159, 160,

524-

Hohenlohe (Kirchberg), Imperial gener-
al, 353-

Hohenzollerns, the, 4, 39 f., 65.

Holland, 78, 94, 114, "5, 13°, 148, 173,
352, 442, 45i, 502.

Holstein, 90.

Holy Roman Empire, see Germanic Em-
pire.

Hiiffer, Hermann, German historian, 430.

Humanism, influence of, upon Polish
thought, 24.

Hundred Years' War, the, between Po-
land and the Teutonic Order, 8.

Hungary, 9, 12, 13, 38, 117, 118, 120.

Igelstrom, Russian general, 395, 45 8 ,

462, 526 f.
Imperative mandate, the, 19 f.



5 8o



INDEX



India, 481.

' Infanta of Poland,' the, 200, 205, 213,

30 6 . 523-
Inowroclaw, palatinate of, 331, 342, n. 4.
International morality, at its lowest ebb

in the eighteenth century, 503.
Italy, 5, 28, 128, 209.
Ivan III, ' the Great,' grand duke of

Moscow (1462-1505), 41.

Jablonowski, Polish diplomat, 203.
Jacobi, Prussian envoy at Vienna, then

at London, 146, 256, 257, 264, 270,

272, 301 ff., 369 f.
Jacobins, 158, 166, 326, 351, 382, 423,

447, 45°-

Jagellonian dynasty, the, 9 f., 18.

Jassy, city in Moldavia. 138, 249, 250,
277, 283.

Jassy, Peace of (1792), 190.

Jemappes, battle of (1792), 3 02 , 3^4-

Jenkinson, English politician, 445.

Jesuits, the, 24, 59.

Jewish money-lenders, 15.

Jews, 14, 26, 488.

John II Casimir, king of Poland (1648-
68), 24, 31, 33, 296.

John III Sobieski, king of Poland (1674-
96), 25, 32.

Joseph II, Holy Roman emperor (1765-
90), 32, 45, 60, 66, 68. 71, 72, 73, 74,
79, 108, 114, 117, 125, 128, 256, 261,
262, 308, 331, 333, 503.

Juliers, 159, 239, 328, 335, 346, 347, 49 2 -

July Convention, see Vienna, Prelimi-
nary Convention of.

Kakhovski, Russian general, 276 f.,

289 f., 292, 293.
Kalckreuth, Prussian general, 143.
Kalisz, city in Poland, 391.
Kalisz, palatinate of, 77, 331, 342, n. 4.
Kamieniec, Polish fortress, 30, 399, 420.
Kanev, town on the Dnieper, 74, 83, 85,

5", 5i5-
Karski, Polish deputy, 468 f.

Kaschau, Privilege of (1374), 9-
Kaunitz, Prince, Austrian statesman, 45,
65, 68, 72, 74, 79, 81, 89, 105, 106, 123,



128, 131, 136, 141, 149, 160, i6r, 175,
177, 204-209, 211 f., 219, 222-226,
228 ff., 234, 236, 239, 248, 255, 256,
265 f., 268, 280, 300-304, 312, 315-
318, 325, 343, 403, 406, 525, 532.

Kayserlingk, Russian diplomat, 54.

Kiev, city in Russia, 154, 168, 183.

Kiev, palatinate of, in Poland, 140, 514,
S28.

Kimbar, Polish deputy, 469.

Kollataj, Hugo, Polish reformer, 97, 193,

295-
Konarski, Stanislas, Polish liberal, 61.
Korzon Polish historian, 59 f.
Kosciuszko, Tadeusz, Polish patriot and

general, 56, 289 ff., 450, 483, 491.
Kossakowski, bishop of Livonia, 461,

466, 470, 472, 555.
Kossakowski, Polish hetman, 461.
Kossakowskis, Polish family, 462 f., 465,

468.
Kostomarov, Russian historian, 501.
Krecetnikov, Russian general, 276 f.
Kunersdorf, battle of (1759), 143.
Kurow, town on the Vistula, 290.

Lacy, Count Franz Moritz von, Austrian
field marshal, 255, n. 1, 328, 329, 343,

344, 398, 399-

Landriani, Chevalier, Austrian diplomat,
225-228, 241, 265 f., 283, 525.

Laudon, Baron von, Austrian field mar-
shal, 142 f.

' League of the North,' the, 453.

Lebrun, French minister, 448 ff., 452.

Leeds, 186.

Leeds, Duke of, British minister, 165,
187, 188.

Lehrbach, Count, Austrian diplomat,
262 f., 317, 429-438-

Leipsic, 297, 450.

Leopold II, Holy Roman emperor (1790-
92), 128-152, 203-211, 217-242, 261,
306, 308, 312, 319, 489, 49i, 493- 494,
502 f., 524 f.

Lessart, de, French minister, 530.

Liberum Veto, the, 7, 20 f., 24, 61, 62,
199, 464, 482.



INDEX



5 8l



Lithuania, 29, n. 1, 32, 276, 289, 290,
292, 462, 463, 465, 466, 475, 528.

Lithuanians, 26, 466, 555.

Little Russia, 138.

Little Russians, 26.

Livonia, 52, 178, 179, 183.

Lobarzewski, Polish deputy, 468, 469,
470.

Locke, John, English philosopher, 61.

Longuyon, town in France, 355.

Longwy, 349, 353.

Lorraine, 239, 348, 415, 420, 423, 432,

435. 535, 542, 544-
Louis XIV, king of France (1643-17 15),

37, 46, 153, 5°3-
Louis XV, king of France (1715-74), 38.
Louis XVI, king of France (1774-92),

218 f., 228, 229, 231, 232, 239 f., 317.
Louis of Anjou, king of Poland (1370-

82), 9.
Louis, Prince, son of Frederick William

II, 195-

Lower classes, degradation of the, in
Poland, 63.

Lower Palatinate, the, 360.

Lublin, 290.

Lucchesini, Marquis, Prussian diplomat,
envoy at Warsaw, 99 f., 102, 103, 105,
116, 117 f., 121, 122, 124, 126, 128,
146, 152, 160, 168, 227, 233, 286, 347,
n- 3, 353 i-, 368, 376, 409, 416, 417 ff-,
424, 425, 429, 432-437.

Lusatia, 174, 212, 326, 339, 344, 492.

Luxemburg, 348, 349 f., 360, 362, 375,
409,417, 542, 549-

Mably, French publicist, 55.
Matin, battle of (1791), 246.
Mainz, 326, 328, 329 ff., 332, 341, 342,

349, 409, 4io-
Malachowski, Stanislas, marshal of the
Confederation for the Crown, 97, 196,

295, 297-
Mamonov, Russian favorite, 109.
Manchester, 186.
Mannheim, fortress, 360.
Manstein, Prussian general, 237, 353,

437-



Manufactures, development of, in Po-
land, 60.

Marcolini, favorite of Frederick Augus-
tus I, 225.

Marengo, battle of (1800), 405.

Marie Antoinette, queen of France, 211,
228.

Maritime Powers, the, 316, 441.

Markov, Russian general, 290.

Markov, Russian minister, 252, 277, 304,
321, 333, 377, 389, 420, 429 f., 439.

Matuszewicz, Polish reformer, 198.

Mazarin, 37, 446.

Mazovia, district in Poland, 342, 463.

Mensikov, Russian statesman, 512.

Mercy, Count, Austrian minister and
diplomat, 232, 355, 358, 413, 423,

439-
Merle, Note of (Oct. 25, 1792), 337, 348-

361, 363 f., 367 f., 382, 383, 408, 409,

417,419.
Middle class, decline of the, in Poland,

14 f.
Mikorski, Polish deputy, 469.
Middleton, 199.
Milan, 210.
Mirabeau, 77, 166.
Model Parliament, the (1493), 17.
M Ollendorff, Prussian general, 143, 179,

394, 472, 475-
Mohilev, palatinate (later, government)

of, 54, 140.
Moldavia, 76, 83, 139, 154, 246, 247, 276,

279, 387-
Montmorin, French minister, 166.
Morals, deterioration of, in consequence

of the new culture, 61, 63.
Moravia, 13, 135, 142.
Murray, Sir James, British diplomat,

442, 443-
Muscovites, 9, 14, 31, 33.

Napoleon, 289.

Napoleon III, emperor of the French

(1852-70), 5.
Naruszewicz, Polish historian, n.
Nassau, Prince of, agent of Catherine II,

323, 325, 535, 530-



582



INDEX



National Assembly, the, in France, 166,

218, 229, 244.
Neerwinden, battle of (1793), 405, 451.
Netherlands, see Austrian Netherlands,

Belgium, Holland.
New Russia, 513 f.
Nieszawa, Statutes of (1454), 9, 17.
Nihil Novi, Polish statute (1505), 9, 13,

18.
Nootka Sound controversy, the, 141, 164.
Norwich, 186.
Nuncios, Chamber of. 18.

Oczakow, fortress at the mouth of the
Dnieper, 76, 109; diplomatic contest

over, 153-19 1 . 44o, 44i-

Oginski, Count, Polish nobleman, 103,
n. 1, 170.

Oriental war, the, 74, 75, 78, 83, 100, 107,
no, 120, 129, 138, 153-190. 5"-

Orsova, town on the Danube, 142, 148.

Ostermann, Russian vice-chancellor, 76,
81, 109, no, 157, 208, 253, 257, 304,
306, 320, 322, 324, 334, 341, 355, 374,
380, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388, 389, 400,
425, 428, 429, 519 f., 534 f., 536 f.

Ostrowski, Polish patriot, 295 f.

Ozarowski, Polish politician, 451.

Padua, Circular of (July 6, 1791), 217.
Panin, Russian statesman, 47, 50, 52,

510.
Parandier, French agent, 450.
' Parasites,' the, 95, 124.
' Paris, the promenade to,' 325.
Particularist spirit, the, in Poland, 16.
Partition of 1772 (the First Partition),

3, 49, 51-55, 337, 379, 39*, 459, 484,

485, 492, 497, 498, 504.
Partition of 1793 (the Second Partition),

3, 140, 216, 263, 310-505, 534-556.
Partition of 1795 (the Third Partition),

3, 439, 483, 484-

Partition of 181 5 (the Fourth Partition),

4, n. 1.

Passarowitz, Peace of (1718), 129, 134,

142, 144.
Patkul, Russian envoy, 44, n. 1.



'Patriots,' the, 71, 92-100, 112 ff., 151,

170 f., 194, 196, 204, 297, 393, 450,

487, 490, 491.
Paul I, emperor of Russia (1 796-1801),

109, 234, 512.
Permanent Council, the, 58, 99, 102 f.;

abolished, 100, 104, 108; restored,

457 i-

Peter I, ' the Great,' tsar of Russia
(1682-1725), 33 f., 35, 36, 43, 44, 45.

Philip II, king of Spain (1556-98), 296.

Piasts, Polish dynasty, 8, 16.

Piattoli, Italian adventurer, 195, 196.

Picardy, 423.

Pillnitz, 218, 219, 220, 525.

Pinsk, town in Poland, 386. 390.

Piotrkow, town, 342; Diet at (1493), 17.

Pistor, Russian general, 276 f.

Pitt, William, the younger, English
statesman, 75, 78, 114, 116, 130, 131;
his unsuccessful diplomatic contest
with Catherine II, 153-191, 197, 209,
365, 449, 502; his attitude towards
the Second Partition, 440-445.

Plock, palatinate of, 463, 476.

Pocutia, district in Galicia, 134.

Podhorski, Polish deputy, 476.

Podolia, palatinate of, 140, 249, 528.

Poland, Kingdom of (Russian), 4, n. 1, 6.

Polangen, district in Poland, 387, 389.

Polish Question, the, general discussion

of, 3-7, 484-505-
Polish-Saxon Question, the, 4, 200, 203,
206, 207, 208, 210, 213, 214, 219 ff.,
225-228, 234 f., 241, 257, 288, 489,

523, 525-

Polish Succession, War of the (1733-38),
449.

Polotsk, palatinate of, 54.

Poltava, battle of (1709), 33, 162.

Pomerania, 40, 315, 449, 492.

Poniatowski, Prince Joseph, Polish gen-
eral, 289 f., 292 f.

Poniatowski, Michael George, primate
of Poland, 295.

Poniatowski, Stanislas, see Stanislas II
Augustus.

Popov, Russian minister, 252, 275, 321.



INDEX



583



Portugal, 502.

Posen, city in Poland, 391, 495.

Posen, palatinate of, 77, 331, 342, n. 4.

Potemkin, Russian statesman and gen-
eral, 67, 68, 69, 84-87, 105, 107, 109,
no f., 138-141, 154. 155, 180-183, 207,
245 ff., 249, 250, 252, 275, 278, 390 f.,
487, 498, 510, 5". 512-516, 527 f.

Potocki, Felix, Polish magnate, 84, 85,
87, 88, 245, 246, 249, 274, 385, 395,

396, 527 i.
Potocki, Ignacy, Polish reformer, 97,
103, n. 1, 195, 196, 198, 284, 287, 288,

293> 2 95, 296.

Potocki, Stanislas, Polish orator, 97.

Potockis, Polish family, 28, 292.

Prague, 13; coronation at (1792), 332.

Protestant party, reform program of, 18.

Protestants, 26, 493.

Prussia, 4, 34, 37, 43, 46, 53, 54, 60;
designs of, in 1787-88, 75-81; atti-
tude towards the plan of a Russo-
Polish alliance, 89-91; woos Poland,
99-105; the Prusso-Polish alliance,
1 1 2-1 27; the Convention of Reichen-
bach, 128-152; as a member of the
Triple Alliance, 1 53-191 ; formation of
the Austro-Prussian alliance, 201-216;
hopes for a partition of Poland, 237-
240; negotiations with Austria and
Russia, 257-273; agrees and then dis-
agrees with Austria, 310-347; the
note of Merle, 348-361; Haugwitz's
final negotiation at Vienna, 362-376;
the Russo-Prussian partition treaty,
377-397; consummation of the parti-
tion, 454-483; remarks on the relation
of Prussia to the fall of Poland, 484,
487, 488, 489, 492-497; Prussian pol-
icy one of territorial aggrandizement,
492-496.

Pugacev, Russian pretender, 449.

Pulaski, Polish politician, 461.

Quadruple Alliance, the, 165 f.

Radom, Confederation of (1767), 50, 86.
Radziwill Palace, club of the, 95, 193.



Radziwills, Polish family, 28, 476, n. 3.

Ratisbon, Diet of, 356.

Rautenfeld, Russian general, 476, 479.

Rawa, town, 342, 349, 391, 409, 549.

Raynal, French philosopher, 55.

Razumovski, Russian ambassador at
Vienna, 263 f., 269, 318-323, 367, 374,
379, 4°o, 401, 403, 404, 412, n. 2, 413,
414, 421, 425, 433, 532, 537-540, 547-

Reichenbach, Convention of (1790), 137-
152.

Repnin, Prince, Russian general and
diplomat, 52, 98, 237, 246, 526.

' Republicans,' the, 96, 204.

Reuss, Prince, Austrian envoy at Berlin,
73, 144, 148, 159, 160, 176, 223, 229,
236, 269 f., 271, 272, 303, 310, 312-315,

325, 334, 335, 339 f-, 344, 347, 360, 366,

368, 412, 416, 417, 418, 437, 530.
Richelieu, 37, 446.
Richmond, Duke of, British minister,

187.
Riga, town in Livonia, 179.
Rimnic, battle of (1789), 120.
Robespierre, French revolutionist, 450,

452 f.
Roll, Baron, agent of the Count of Artois,

159-
Roman Catholics, 26.
Rosenberg, Prince, Austrian conference

minister, 255, n. 1, 328, 329, 343, 344,

346-

Rosicrucian Society, the, 301, n. 3.

Rousseau, 55, 61.

Royalists, Polish party, 96, 97.

Rumiantsov, 309.

Rurik, legendary Russian prince, 41.

Russia, 4, 5, 12, 25, n. 1, 26, n. 1, 33,
62; relations with Poland after the
First Partition, 57-62; alliance with
Austria (1781), 64-74; pl an f° r a
Russo-Polish alliance, 82-91, 510 f.;
her rule in Poland overthrown, 92-1 n;
diplomatic contest with the Triple
Alliance, 153-191; prepares to attack
Poland, 243-282; reconquers Poland,
283-309; the Russo-Prussian parti-
tion treaty, 377-397; consummation



5§4



INDEX



of the partition, 454-483; general re-
marks on the relation of Russia to the
fall of Poland, 484, 485, 486, 487, 489,
491, 492, 497-502, 504.

Russification, policy of, 6.

Rzeszow, circle in Galicia, 144.

Rzewuski, Seweryn, Polish malcontent,
249, 395, 390-

St. Petersburg, Convention of (Jan. 23,

1793), 377-453, 47o, 472.

Saldern, Russian diplomat, 98.

Samogitia, 32, 92.

Sapieha, Prince, marshal of the Confed-
eration for Lithuania, 9 7 , n. 1 , 103 , n. 1 .

Sardinia, 70, 322.

Saxon Kings, the, 25, 33, 61.

Saxony, 40, 117, 174, 205, 206, 207, 208,
220, 226, 227, 228, 242, 256, 285, 455.

Saxony, Elector of, see Frederick Augus-
tus I.

Schonbrunn, 344.

Schonwalde, town in Silesia, 144, 146.

Schulenburg, Count, Prussian minister,
179, 189, 233, 234, 237, 259, 260, 271,
273, 287, 310-315, 318, 321, 322-325,
329 ff., 335-342, 353, 409, 411, 532,

534, 535 ff-, 542, 545-
Second Great Northern War, the, 33.
Semonville, French diplomat, 447.
Senate, the, 18, 200, 464.
Seven Years' War, the, 38, 40, 44, 71.
Siberia, 456, 469.
Sicinski, Polish deputy, 20.
Sieradz, city in Poland, 391.
Sieradz, palatinate of, 331, 342, n. 4.
Sievers, Baron, Russian ambassador to

Poland, 395, 396, 426, 455-482, 498,

552-556-
Sieyes, French statesman, 193.
Sigismund II, king of Poland (1548-72),

18.
Silesia, 5, 40, 65, 118, 123, 135, 141, 142,

143, 159, 3*4, 342, 537-
Simolin, Russian diplomat, 263, 531, 532.
Sistova, Congress of (1790-91), 160, 168,

209, 215.
Smila, estate in Poland, 514, 515.



Sodermanland, Duke of, regent of Swe-
den, 448, 452.

Soldau, town, 342, 349, 391, 409, 549.

Spain, 70, 106, 141, 164, 166.

Spielmann, Austrian minister, 73, 136,
141, 142, 144 f., 148, 149, 211 ff.,
255 ff., 258, 261 f., 264 f., 272, 273,
301 f., 312-319, 326-335, 343-353, 355,
358-361, 362-366, 369, 374, 379, 380,
383, 401, 404, 405, 406, 408, 409, 410,
411, 412, 525, 53°, 538, 539, 540-546,

549 i-

Spires, 349.

Stackelberg, Russian ambassador to Po-
land, 57, 85, 91, 97, 98, 99, 100, I 22 ,

139, 5ii-

Stadion, Austrian diplomat, 369, 375.

Stael-Holstein, Baron de, Swedish diplo-
mat, 448, 450, 452.

Standestaat, 7.

Stanislas II Augustus (Poniatowski),king
of Poland (1764-95), 47~49, 53 i-, 58,
60, 61, 67, 71; strives for a Russo-
Polish alliance, 82-91, 92, 93; his
policy at the beginning of the Four
Years' Diet, 96, 97; opposes the Prus-
sian connection, 99, 122 f.; ill health
of, 112; his enormous debts, 122,
456 f.; drafts a new constitution, 196;
the Third of May, 198 f.; makes
brave speech in response to the Rus-



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