Robert John Thornton.

A grammar of botany; containing an explanation of the system of Linnæus, and the terms of botany, with botanical exercises, for the use of schools and students .. online

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ed figures. The Elements of Botany, in three vo-
lumes, illuHrating all the Classes and all the Or^
ders of the Ldnnoean Syftemy is the work uniform-
ly referred to when the Class arid Order of the
plant are mentioned.

London f April 1, 1813.



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Id by Google






DICTIONARY

or

BOTANICAL TERMS.



The Latin word in Italic characters denotes that it is of-
ten combined widi ihe previous word; and the explanation
Implies that conjunction. The Latin words themselves are
eiplained according to their alphabetical order.



ABBREVIATUM perianthiunL When the calyx
is shorter than the tube of the corolla. See
Tobacco, EUfnents of Botany y Class v. Order 1.

Abortiens, Jlos^ A l^arren flower, such as pro-
duces neither fruit nor seed ; as the stamini-
ferous blossoms of Dioecious plants. See Ele-
merits of Botany^ Class xxii. Vallisneria spi"
talis, Cannabis, Juniperus, &c.

Abruptum, folium pinnatum, A term used only
in pinnate leaves, which are said to be abrupt-
ly pinnate when they have neither leaflet nor
tendril at the end^ as Mimosa pudica. Class
xxiii. Order 1.

ACAULIS, without stalk or stem, as Carduus
acavlis,

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234 DICTIOKART OF

Ac^roscmi folimm. A fioear and pennanent leaC
as in the Pioe-tree. Class xxir Order 8. la
form of a needle, usually inserted at the base
into the branch by articulalion, as in the cone*
bearing tre^. Philot. Bat.

Acicularis, needle-shaped, as in Scirpw acieu*
larts.

Acinaciforme folium^ falchion or cimeter-shs^i*
ed, as in Mesemhrycmthemum acinaciforme.

Acini. The small external hemes which com-
pose the fruit of the mulberry, blaciEberry»
and raspberry.

Acotyledones planUB. Plants whose seeds have
no cotyledons or lobe& to the seed or seed-
leaves.
. Aculei. Prickles, fixed in the rind or Mi%e
of the bark, as in the stem of the Rose. See
Class xii. Order 3.

Aculeatus. Armed with pnckles, as the stem of
the Rose. «

Acuminatum /o/nim. A leaf ending in a point.
See Rmcus actdeatus. Glass xxii. Order 3.

Acutangolus. Sharp-angled.

Acutum /o/mm. A leiU* terminating in an acute
or sharp angle.

ADNATUM/o/twrn, The upper surface of flie
leaf pressing close to the stem of the {^ant

Adpressum/o/tttm. The upper surface of the
leaf so near to the stem, as to seem as if press-
ed towards it

Adsceodens, ascending from a horizontal direc-
tion gradually across, or bowed upwards, as

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B0TAK1€AL TEllili. 236

Hii^. V$£iU'um of the coroHa of papilionaceoui

flowers. See Spartium,
tAcendetia caulii, A stalk or branth iDclining

upwards,
^dversum /o/mm. When the upper side of the

lei^is turned to the south.
iEQ.UALIA. Equal, of the same length.
£stivatlo» The disposition of th^ petals within

the floral germ or bud.
A6GR£GATUi^/o«. An assemHEige of floweM

produced in clusters, ae in Scahiesasvccisa.

Class iv. Order 1. "^

Aggregate. The 48th Order of Linnaeos's Frag-
ments of a natursd arf afigement.
ALA ^plural Alae.) A wing, the side petals of a

p»ilionaceous blossom, or a membrane fixed

tc^ seed, stalk, ^c. See Spartium^ Class xvii.

and the seed of the Pinus Sylvestris, Class xxi.
Alatus petiohis. When the A>ot-stalk of a leaf is

winged with membranes, as the Orange, Class

xviii. Order 1.
Alburnum. The white and newly-formed %ood

which lies immediately underneath the inner

bark ; by workmen commonly called the sap.
Algae. Flags. One of the nine Linnaean tribes

of plants.
Alternayb/wt. When leaves qome out singly, and

follow in gradual order, as in the Mimosa.

Class xxiii. Orcjet 1.
Alveolatum. Divided into open cells, like a

honey-comb, with a seed lodged ijfi cfach, as in

'4)nopordMm.

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536 DICTIONARY OF

AMENTACEJE. The 10th Order of Linnaeus's
Fragments of a natural arrangement.

Amentum. A Catkin. A kind of inflorescence
consisting of many cbafify. scales ranged along
a stalk as slender as a thread, which is the
common receptaculum. See Lizard's-tail,
Class vii. Order 3.

Amplexicaule f6lium, A leaf embracing the
stalk. ^

ANCEPS cauUs, Double-edged, when a stalk is
compressed, and forms two opposite acate an-
gles. There is also an ancipital leaf, having
two prominent longitudinal angles with a con-
vex disk, as in Sisyrinchiuin, bermud{ana,C\dSi
xvi. Order 1.

Androgyna planta. Plants bearing staminftffld
pistilla in different flowers on the same root;
such as compose the Class Monoeci^, as the
common Cucumber, Carex, &c.

Androgynous flowers : such flowers as have on-
ly stamina, or only pistilla.

Angulatus caulis. Angulated stalks, as Ground
Ivy, &c.

Angustifolia. Narrow-leaved, as Bippurus vul-
garis. Class i. Order 1.

Angiospermia. The second Order in the Class
Dydinamia, containing plants whose seeds are
covered with a capsula.

Annua radix. A root which lives but one year.

Anomalous. Irregular. Applied to a plant, ca-
lyx, corolla, germ or bud, &c.

Anthera, (plural Antherag.) The summit of tife



BOTANICAL TERMS. 2d7

stamen bearing the pdUen. See Plate 1 and

2/VoLI.
APERTURA. An aperture. An opening in

some kinds of anthera.
kpef^Msflos, Without petal or corolla, as Hip-

gurisy Salicomia, Class i. Order 1.
j^^Bx. The top, summit, or end. When applied

to leaves, it is the extremity farthest from the

base or insertion. Ray cdls the ^tuhera by

this name.
Aj^jllus cauli$. A stem without a leaf, as Salu

corniay Class i. Order 1 .
i^physis. An excr^cence from the recepta*

colnm of mosses.
Appendiculatus p^iolus* A little appendage

nanging from the extremity of the foot-stalk,
ipproximata^ita. Leaves growing very near

to each other. Opposed to remote,
ARACHNOIDEUS. Cobwebbed.
Arbor. A tree.
Arbustiva. A copse of shrubs or trees. The

39th Order in Linna&us*s Fragments of a na*

tural arrangement.
Arcnatum leg^tmen. Arched. A legumen, curv-
ed or bent.
Arillus. The proper exterior coat of a seed
Y^hich falls off spontaneously, and is either
cartilaginous or succulent.
Arista. Awn : the beard of cora or grasses.
See ArUhoxanthum odoratum^ Class ii ./.Order 2.
Arma. Arms, Weapons. ^The prickles or spines
of plants.

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238 DICTIONARY OF

Articulata, interrupted by arched joints.
Articulatus, jointed, as in Salicomia annna.

Class i. Order 1.
Articuliis culmu The straight part of the stalk

between two joints.
ASPARAGUS. The fir«t tender sproot or young

shoot of an herb from the ground, before any

le<iye8 unfold themselves. Ray.
Asper. Rough without hairs.
Asperifolia. Rough-leaved plants. The name

of the 4dd Order in Linnasus's Fra^ents of a

natural arrangement.
Assurgentia/o/ta. First bent down, but rising

erect towards the apex.
ATTEND ATUS, tapered, lessening gradually in

thickness towards the point. '

AUG T US calyx. Augmented. Having a series

of distinct leaves surrounding the base of the

flower, as in the Scabiosa sucetsa. Class ir.

Order 1. Centaurea cyanus^ Class xix. Order 3.
Auritus. Eared.

Avenia/o/ia. Leaves without any visible veins.
Auriculatum /oZ»um. An ear-shaped leaf, when

the leaf towards the base has a lobe on each

side.
Awn. The beard of com or grasses. See M-

ihoxanthum odoratum^ Class ii. Order 2.
AXILLA. The angle formed bj a branch with

the stem, or by a leaf with the branch ; so

named from its similarity to the armpit.
Axillariayb/tV/. Leaves growing out of the an-
gles formed by the branches and the stem, ^

"ea-tree, Class xiii.

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BOTANICAL TERMS. 259

BACGA. A berry ; or a pulpy pericarpium
without a valvular covering, in which the seeds
are naked, as Barberry, Cla$s vi. and Missel-
toe, Class xxii. &c.

Bacciferous. Berry-bearing.

Barba. A beard. A kind of pubescence, some-
times on the leaves of plants, as on the Mesem^
hryapthemum barbatum,

B^batus. Having parallel hairs, or tufls of



ECMSULARIS. Two Capsul®. Tricapsu-
kuSs, &c. three CapsulaB, according to the
J^amber.

Bicornqs. Plants whose antherse have the ap-
pearance of two horns. The name of the
24th Order in Linnaeus's Fragments ofanata-
ral arrangement.

Biennis rac^ia?. A root. which continues to ve-
getate for two years, and thien perishes.

Bi^ia^b/m. Each leaf pointing two ways, or
coming out only on opposite sides of a branch.

h\fer2d plantce. Flowering twice a year. *'£/-
Jlsrique rosaria PcestV^ Virg.

tm^um folium. A leaf divided or cloven into
tWo parts, two-cleft.

Bifioms pedunctdis. Bearing two flowers, on a
footstalk.

Bigeminum folium. A forked foot-stalk, with
two little leaves on the apex of each division.

Bijugom/o/m//i. A winged leaf, bearing two
pair of foliolae.

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ito IMCTIOUARY of

Btiabiata corolla. A corolla with bvalipe, 9S ia

the Class Dydinomia.
Bilamellatam stigma. The (otm of a flatted

sphere longitadiaally two-clefl.
Bilobum /o/tum. A leaf consisting of two 1(^.
Bilocnlaris, Two cells, kc. according to the

number.
Bina /o/ia. Two-fold leaves ; or rather coming

ont two and two together from the same pJace,

or at the same joint of a branch.
3inatum/o/««f7i. Having a simple foot-stfl& con-
necting two leaflets at the top of it : a (lad of

digitate leaf.
Bipartite. Divisible into two : as the fmt o(

umbellate plants, into two seeds.
Bipartium folium, A leaf di nded into two s^*

ments or parts, almost down to the base.
Bipinnatum/o/t«m. Doubly -winged, when the

leaflets of a pinnate leaf are pinns^te.
Biternatum /o/tt«m. When there are three leaf-
lets on a foot-stalk, and each leaflet is teniate ;

as in Epimedium^ Class iv.
Bivalve pericarpium. Consisting of two vabes,

as in siliqaa and legumen.
BOLE. The naked trunk of a tree.
BRACHIATUS caulis, A stem branching in

pairs ; each pair standing at right angles with

those above and below.
BRACHIUM. The arm. Tenth degree in the

Linnaean scale for measuring plants, being

twenty-four inches.
Bfactea (plural, Bracte» ) A floral leaf ; these



n&TAmcAL n&Ksts. 241

are getierany of a different shape and colour
from the other leaves of the plant, and are al-
Waya seated near th^ fructification. See Ho^
lostium umbullatum^ Class iii; Order 3. Fig. 2.

Bracteatds. Filmished with floral leaves.

BULBIFEROUS caulis. A stalk bearing bulbs,
as in a speciei^ of Lily, called Lilium hulhiftt
rum.

Bulbus. A hybernaculum, or winter receptacle
of a^plant, vulgarly called the root, but in re-
aUty, is a «h3lglet>ud, enveloping the whole
plant ' ' }

Bnlbbsa radix. A bulbous root ; squamosa, sca-
ly, as in the Lily ; tunicata, coated, as in Ce-
pae; duplicate, double, as in Fritillaria; or
solida, as in Tulipa.

Ballatufti/o/2«w. Wheti the surface of the leaf
rises above the veins, so as to appear like blis-
ters.

CADUCUS ca/yaf. Td fall offj a term signify-
ing the shortest time of duration of the calyx,
iailing off at the ^rst opening of the flower, as
in the •Poppy* This term alk> applies to
leaves which fall ofl* before the end of the
samtner.

Calimari® (from Calamus,, a reed.) The 19tU
Order in LinnaBus's Fragments of a natural ar-
rangement in the Philosophia Botanica. It
contains sedges and other plants allied to



Calcar. Spur.

^alcariatnm nectarium . A kind of nectarium re-



21



242 DtCTIOffART OF

sembHng a spar, ag in the Delphimumt Cha
xiii. Order 3.

Calycalatus calyx* A little calyx added to a
larger one, as in DiasUhuSy Class x. Order 2.

Caljcanthemi. The 40th Order in Linnaos's
Fragments of a natural arrangement.

Calyptra. A veil, in mosses, wher« it is placed
over the pericarpium, and is supposed to be
the ^x>rona.

Calyx (plural Qalyses.) A floirer-cup, of wiuch
there are seven kinds enumerated. See Vo). 1.
p. 7.

Campanaceae {Campanoy a bell.) The 32d Or-
der in Linnaeus's Fragments of a natural ar-
rangement, containing plants with bell-shaped
flowers.

Campanulata corolla. Bell-shaped flowers, •«
Harebell. See Elements of Botany, Class Ti.
Order 1.

Canaliculatum foHum. A leaf having a deep
channel from the base to the tip.

Cancellatus. Latticed. *

Candeiares {Candela, a candle.) The- 62d Or-
der in LinnaBus's Fragments of a nataral ar-
rangement.

Capillaceum/o/t«m. (Froth capillm, hair,) ex*
empltfled in the leaves of Ranuncolos aquatSM,
&c.

Capillaris. Hairs undivided.

Capillarus pappus. Hairy down, as in the Dao-
delion. See Elements of Botany y Class xix.

CepiUns. Hair. The first degree of the Lis-



BOTANICAL TBABTS. 243

nsean scale for measuriog plants, the diiam^ter
of a hair, the twelfth part of a liDe.

Capitati ^orM. Flowers collected into heads, as
Thistles and other' plants, with compound
flowers growing with a head.

Capitatus. Headed.

Capitulum. A little head, a kind of infloresccn-
tia, in which the flowers are connected into
close heads on the tops of the flower-stalks, as
in Adoxa moschatellina^ Elements of Botany^
Class viii. Order 4.

Capreolus. A tendril, one of the appendages of
plants. See Elements ofBotcm^f, Vol. II. p. 40.

Ct^nla (plural Capsulae. J A hollow pericarpi-

am which cleaves or opens in some determi-

j^e manner ; as the seed-vessel of the Tea,

'^lass xiii. the Fox-glove, Class xiv. kc.

Gftina. The keel of a hoat or ship. The lowi^
er petal of the papilionaceous corolla. See
Spartium, Elements of Botany, Class xvii. Or-
der 4.

Carinatum /oitwn. When the hack of a leaf re-
sembles the keel of a ship.

Cariophylla^us/o^. Clove tree, or flowers grow-
ing in the manner of carnations.

Carnosum/o/tww. A fleshy leaf; the substance
more stifl"than in the folium pulposum.

Cartilagineum folium^ A leaf whose brim ik
hard and tough, of a diflerent substance frote
the disk.

Caryophillas. Carnations or pinks^ a natursd Or-

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244 DICTIONARY &V

der of plants io LiDoeas's Fragments of a sat
toral arrangemeDt.

Catenulata scabrities. A kind of glandular rougln
oess, hardly visible to the naked eye, resem*
bling little chains, on the surface of some
plants.

Catkin. One of the seven kinds of calyx of Lin-
DKUS. See Elements of Botany^ Class vii. Or-
der 3.

Cauda. A thread terminating the seed.

Caudex. The stem of a tree.

Caulescens. Having a stalk or stem differoit
ffom that which produces the flower.

Caulina/oZi'a^ l^eaves growing immediately on
the stem*

Cauljs. {Mvx$t.) A stem. The signification
of the Greek word is more extensive than that
of the Latin, icttvx»i comprehending the trunk
of a tree, whereas the Latin term is confined
to the stalk of herbs only.

Cavus. Hollow.

CERNUUS, Prooping, pointing directly to the
ground.

Cespitosa. Plants which produce many stems
from one root, and form a surface of turf or
sod.

CILIATUM. Whose margin is guatdedby pa-
rallel bristles, formed like the eyelash.

Circinalea/o/io. A terna of foliation, expressive
of the leaves within the gemma being rolled
spirally downvf ard, the tip occtjpyipg the cenr
re.

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BOTA!?ICAL TEXUIS. 245

Circumci^sa capstda. Cut round. A capsula
opening, not longitudinally or vertically, as in
most Capsulae, but transversely or hori^^ontal-
ly, like a snuff-box, usually about the middle,
so as to fall nearly into two equal hemispheres,
as in AnagalltSf HyoscyamuSy &c.

Circumsepiens. When leaves growing in an ho-
rizontal position, erect themselves in the night,
by clasping together in the form of a funnel.

Cirrhiferus pedunculus, A peduncle bearing a
tendril, as in the Vine. Passion-flower, Class
V. Order 3, &c.

Cirrhosum/o/fum. A leaf which terminates in a
clasper, or tendril, as in Glortosa.

Cirrhus. A clasper, or tendril, one of the ful-
chra of plants, as in the Passion-flower anil
Anguria. See Elements of Botanyy Class v.
and Class xxi.

CLASiS. A class, according to the Linnasan
system, is an agreement of plants by those two
parts of fructification, the Stamen and Pistil-
lum.

Cluvatus. Clubbed, becoming thicker toward
the top.

Clavicula. A little key. A tendril, the sam6
as CapreoluSy or Cirrus,

Clausa corolla. When the neck of the corolla is
closely shut in with valves.

COADJJNATA. Several growing together at
their base.

Coarctatus. Close pressed together, opposed to
divaricatus.

21*

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tiS DlCTieNARV OP

Cochleatum legumen. A legumen like the shell

pf a snail, as in the seed-vessel of the Medica-

go. See Martyn'a Eclogues of Virgil, new

|;dition, Plate 3.
ColiaiQ. Neck.
Cploratum^o/iwm. When a leaf, which is gcne-

fally green, is of a different colour, as in the

common Beet.
Columnella. A little column, the suhstance that

passes through the capsula, and connects the

several partitions and seeds.
Cplun^niferi. Pillar-shaped. The name of the

34th Order in Linnawis's Fragments of anatu-

Xdl J^rrangement.
Coma, (K«/iA«, a head of hair.) A kind ofhrac-

tea, termiDating the stem in a tuft or husb, ss

\n Crown Imperial^ &c.
Cpinn]^unis gemma. Regards the contents of the

gemma, containing hoth flower and fruit.
Communis calyx. When a calyx contains bodi

receptaculum and flower.
Commoss. The name of the 36th Order in Lin-

nsus's Fragments of a natural arrangement
Cpmosa radix. The fibres which put lorth at

the hase of a bulbous root, resembling a head

pf hair,
Cpmpactum/o^mm. When the leaf is of a com-

p5ict and solid substance.
Cpmpl«tu8^os. When the stamen and pistillam

?iV^ both in the same blossom.
<?ompositus jfo« A compound flower, as those

pf the Class Syngenesia. The essential cha-

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BOTAITTCAL^ TERMS. -247

racter of a compoilVid flower is, that the ao^
therae should be united together, so as to form
a cylinder, and the filament separate at the
base. *

Compositus. Compound, as, when every foot-
stalk of a general umbel produces a partial um-
bel.

Compositum/o/tMw. When the foot-stalk {bears
more than one leaf, of which there are the
foUowkig kinds, Articulatum, Digitatum, Con-
jugatum, Pedatum, Pinnatum^ Decompositum,
Supra-decompositum.

Compositae. The name of the Slst Order in
LinnsBus's Fragments of a natural arrange-
ment.

Cwnpressa. Flatted, the opposite sides coming
nearly together.

Compressus eaulu. A stem resembling a cylin-
der compressed on the opposite sides.

Concavumyb/tM//i. Hollowed, the margin of the
leaf forming an arched disk.

Conceptaculum. A. pericarpium of a single
valy.e, which opens longitudinally, and tiie
seeds not affixed to it

Conduplicata. Doubled together. A term in
vernation or leafing ; signifying, that in the
bud, the two sides of the leaf are doubled over
each other at the midrib.

Confertus. Crowded or clustered together.

Conferti verticilli^ Jlores, When flowers are
crowded together, and formed intc^ whorles



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24C DICTIONARY OF

roond the stalk, as Lyihrum ialtcaria^ Class xi.
Order 1.

CoDfluentia/o/i'a. To flow together, as in the
pinnated leaf, when the pinnae run into one
another.

Congiobatus^os. When flowers are collected
into globular heads.

Congiomeratus^f. Flowers irregularly crowd-
ed together.

Congesta umbeUa. Flowers collected into a
spherical shape, as in garlick.

Conicum. Cone-shaped, rounded and lessening
towards the point

Conica scabrities. A kind of setaceous scabri-
ties, scarce visible to the naked eye^onthe
surface of plants, foraied line cones.

Coniferae. The 15th Order in Linnaeus's Frag-
ments of a natural arrangement, containiug
cone- bearing trees.

Conjugatum To join or couple together, a kind
of pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are by pairs.

Con'natum. To grow together, when two oppo-
site leaves unite at their base, so as to have
the appearance of one leaf, as in the common
Garden Honeysuckle, This term is applied al-
so to filaments or antheras, united into one bo-
dy, as in the Classes Monadelphia and Synge-
nesia.

Connivens corolla. When the tops of the petals
converge, so as to close the flower, as in Trol-
lius Europaeus.

'^onniventes anthercc. Anthorae approaching or

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BOTAKICAL TERMS. 249

inclining towards each other, as in the Class
Dydinamia^ *

Continuatum /o/iMm. Continued, when the leaf
appears to be a continuation of the substance
of the stalk.

Contorta corolla. A twisted corolla, where the
edg§ of one petal lies over the next in ah
oblique direction, as in Hennannia althaeifolia.
Class xvi. Order 2. Applied to the corolla
where the lips of the petals meet,

Catatortae. The 29th Order of Linnaeus's Frag-
ments of a Qatural arrangendent.

Contraria valvulce. Valves are termed contrarian
when the partition is placed transversely be-
tween them.

CoDvexum/o/iMw. A leaf rising from the mar-
gin to its centre.

Convolutus cirrhus. A tendril twining in the
same direction as the apparent motion of the
sun, as the Convolvulus,

Convolutus. A term in vernation or foliation,
when the leaves are rolled up like a scroll of
paper.

Conus. Cone. See Strobilus, Class xxii. Or-
der 8.

Corculum/ The heart or essence of a new
plant within the seed.

Cordatum/oZiwm. Heart-shaped leaf.

^ordiformus. Shaped like a heart.

Corolla. In common language, this part is call-
ed ihejlower. In Botany it is composed of one
t)r more petals. . As, Linne^a, Class xiy. which

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^ f qO dictioka&v ^p

i9 a corolla of one petal, and the Ro$a, Class
xii. a corolla of five petals.

CoroUiila. A little corolla.

Corona semtnis. A crown adhering to many
kinds of seeds, serving them as wings, bj
which they are dispersed.

Coronariae. The 9th Order of LinnsBUs's Frag-
ments of a natural arrangement.

Cortex. The rind or outer bark of vegetables;

Corticalis gemma: Having its origin from the
scales of the bark.

Corydalae. From »«^&«, a helmet. The 28th
Order of Linna&us't Fragments of a natural ar-
rangement.

Corymbus. (K«^t//tf««, from »«^y« a helmet, and
that from MMf» the bead.) An inflorescence,
where the flower-stalks are inserted at differ-
ent distances from each other in a common
stem, but produce their flowers nearly even
at the top, of which, Achillea is a good exam-
ple. Class xix. Order 2.

Costatnm/o/tum. A ribbed leaf.

Cotyledon. A side lobe of the seed. The terra
is used also to express the seed-leaves ofyoung
plants, as may be well seen in the Radish
when it first appears above the ground.

CRENATUM/o/i«in. A notched leaf, when the
mai^n is cut at right angles to the centre, in-
cliniog to neither of the extremities, as in 5i6-^
thprpia. Class xiv. Order 2. : obtusely ere-
nate, when the angles are rounded : act^t^^
crenate, wh6n the angles are pointed.



BOTANICAL <TKUM9. 25 1

Ctkitus. (Crinisy hair.) Hairy, having long
hair, or beards resembling hair, as in Phleum
crinitum,

Crispuxn fdlium. A curled leaf, when the cir-
cumference becomes larger than the disk ad-
mits of, as in Malva crispa.

Cnstatusjlo^. When the flower has a tufted
crest, as the flower of Poiygala. Class xvii.
Order 3.

Cruciformes Jlores. Cross-shaped flowers, con-
sisting of four petals, disposed in the form of a
cross, as in the Class Tetradynamia. See Ele-
ments of Botany f Dentaria bulbiferay Class XT.
Order 2.

Cryptogamia. The 24th Class of the Linna^an
system.

CUBITUS. A cubit, the ninth degree of the
Linna^an scale for measuring plants, from the
elbow to the extreooity of the middle finger, or
seventeen Parisian inches.

Cucullatum/o/tum. A leaf rolled up length way s^
from the base, forming an inverted cone in
shape like the paper rolled up contcally by
grocers ; as in Geranium cucullatum*

Ciicurbitacae. Gourds, and Gourd-like plants.
The 45th Order of Linn(FUs's Fragments of a
natural arrangement

CulminiaB. {Culmen, the top.) The 26th Or-
der of Linnsus's Fragments of a natural ar-
rangement The top or crown.

Culmus. A reed or straw, the proper stem ^f
grasses.

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252 DICTIOKART O^

CuspidaUxm folium. A leaf irhose apex reseni*
bles the point of a spear or laoce.

Cuneiforme folium. A wedge-shaped leaf, ta-
pering from the tip to the base.

CYATHYFORMIS corolla. A corolla in the
form of a cap.

Cylindracea spica. A spike of flowers in form
of a cylinder.

Cymbiformis. Boat-shaped.

Cymus. An inflorescence, which in general ap-^
pearance resembles an umbel, but the flower-
stalks of the smaller sub-divisions are irregu-
lar, and do not, as th6 larger ones, proceed
from a centre. See Comus mnguineay Class
iv. Order 1.

Cymo9us^o5. A flower with a cymus inflores*
cence.

Cymosse* The 63d Order of Linnaeus's Frag-
ments of a natural arrangement.

t) JED AhlUyi folium Winding and torn. Where


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Online LibraryRobert John ThorntonA grammar of botany; containing an explanation of the system of Linnæus, and the terms of botany, with botanical exercises, for the use of schools and students .. → online text (page 12 of 16)