Robert Kerr.

A general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time online

. (page 24 of 53)
Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 24 of 53)
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Being put to the bar, after receiving the kings permission,
he made a copious and comprehensive speech with an un -
daunted countenance, in hi^ justification. After enumerat-
ing the services of bis ancestors and immediate progenitors
to the crown, he particularized his own from his early youth
4o the period of his imprisonment, and commented upon the
ii^ttries which bad been since done to him. He exposed the
xnalice of bis accusers, and justified his own proceedings.
Bv many apt examples of others who had been guilty even
rf greater crimes than those of which he was accused, and
who had been pardoned in consideration of their services, he
drew a parallel between himself and these persons, and con-
cluded by throwing himself entirely on the justice and mercy
of his majesty ; from one or other of which he trusted to re-
ceive a discharge, and hoped to have more cause of thankful^
ness for the future, than he had of complaint till then of the
kard usage he had been subjected to.

Having listened to him attentively, the king examined him
in regard to each separate article of his impeachment, forty-
three in all, to every one of which he gave apt answers.
The principal article allied against him related to Pedro
Mascarenas, all the others being such as would never have
been thought of except to fill up the measure of accusation.
Being carried back to the castle, he sent in his defence in
writing, as is usual in such cases. In the end, he was sen-
tenced to forfeit all his allowances as governor j to pay Mas-^


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CHAP. I. SECT. VII. Conquest; of India. lSi9

carenas a compensation of 10,000 ducats ; and to be banish.*
«d into Africa. He contrived however to get into Spain,
^where he disnaturalized himself^ as had been done by the
* fiimous Magellan ; and wrote a letter from Badajos to the
king, in which he affirmed that his sentence was t^njust, and
deckred his rescdution to try, by changing his country, to bet^-
ter his fortune and restore his honour. In consequence of
this he was restored to his countiy. .

We must now return to the affairs of India, where Die^
^ylveira reduced the people of Calicut to such straits that the
zamorin was constrained to sue to Nuno dc Cuna for peace.
This was granted on certain terms, part of which the zamo*
rin was willing to accept, but rejected the rest ; on which
Sylveira reduced the city to extreme distress, by intercepting
all provisions. Some relief was received however from Car-
nanor, and Simon de Sousa being driven in his brifantine
on shore, was blown up while bravely defending himsctf
against the Moors.

Malek Saca ^ being expelled from Diu, found it expedient
for compassing his ends with the king of Cambaya, to em*
ploy similar aitifices with Nuno de Cuna as had been former*
ly practised with Hector de Sylveira, by offering to deliver
up the city to him.. Accordingly he wrote to Nuno, that al^
though he could not now deliver up Ditt, he would assist him
to r^uce it ; and as it was convenient that a meeting should
take place between the governor and Malek Saca, Nuno sent
him a safe conduct, and ships to transport him and his re-
tinue, commanded by Gaspar Fbcz, who had ifbrmerly been
known to Maldc Saca at Diu. On this occasion Malek
Saca granted every condition required, not meaning to perr
form any, and made use of this sham alliance to get himself
restored to the favour of the king of Cambaya, putting off
Paez with various artifices, under pretence that the safe c(H1-
duct was not securely expressed, and that there were too
few ships. In revenge of this deceit, Paez was only able to
bum nine small barks belonging to Malek Saca. Being
much enraged at the duplicity of Malek, Nuno began to
make preparations for the reduction of Diu. In the mean
time, he visited and conciliated the rajah of Cochin, who-
had been much di^leased with the conduct pf Lope Vaz


5 He IS stated on a fomier occasion to have been the son of Malek
Azz.— E.

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^0 PorU^uese Discovery and njiT lu Moo% m*

Sampayo and Alfonso Mexia. He went next to Go», whence
he visited the king at Ckale, and satisfied- hiiaa in ali.thinfy^.
About liie middle of February 15S0 be came to Caqatior, &e
king of wbidi place he gratified by conforming to the cere-
menials of his court ; and being offered a present of jewdbi,
he accepted them lest he should affront that prince, but dt*
livered them over to the officers of the revenue, as belonging
to the king of Portugal*

At this time a rich merchant of Mangalore did great in-
jury to the Portuguese, as he favoured the ssamorin of Cali*
cot though living in the dominions of the king of Narsinga
who was in friendship with the Portuguese. Diego de Syt-
veira was ordered to punish that man, and went accordingly

SaiBst him with a force of 450 men and sixteen vessels.
e accordingly entered the river of Mangalore^ wb«re he
was opposed by a great number of ships belonging to the
Moorish merchant, which were put to flight after a ^hoft con-
test. Sylveirathen landed with 240 men and entered the
town without opposition, after which he took the fort whence
the merchant endeavoured to escape, but was slain by a mus-
^uet-ball. A vast booty fell into the hands of the Portuguese^
mt Sylveim ordered it all to be burnt, lest he might endanger
ills ships by- ovetloading them. As winter waa coming on
iSyfveira dismissed half of his fleet, yet ftfterwaids had occn^
sion for them all, as he soon after encountered Pati Marcar^
a tofnmander belonging to Calicut, who was going to Man-
galore with sixty paraos. The weather prevented him fronk
fighting at that time ; but Sylveira waited the return of the
Calicut fleet, to whifch he gave battle off Mdunt Dely, and
sunk six paraos, after which he returned to Cochin.

In the same year 15S0, Antonio de Sylveira commanded
^fi the coast of Cambaya with fifty-one sail of vessels, three
t>f which were gallies and two galliots, in which were 900
Portuguese soldiers. Withtbife force he went up the river
'Taptee where he burnt Surat and Reyner, the chiefest towns
in that part of India. Surat on one side of the river con-
tained 10,000 families, mostly Banians ^ and handicrafts of
no courage j while Reyner on the other side of the river had
six thousand houses inhabited by a warlike race, and was
well fortified. On sounding, the river was found too shallow


6 Called Bancanes in the text of De Faria ; perh^pi an enror of the
presf for Banianes or Banzane^. — ^£.

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GHAP« I. sscT. viu Conquest of Iniia^ Sil

%t the larger vesseb, which were left off the bar under the
command of Francisco de Vasconcelles ; while with liie
smaller, Sylvia went up the river about four miles to Surat.
He there found 300 horse and nearly 10,000 foot drawn up>
to oppose his landing, all well armed with bows and firelocks $
bat after one discharge this vast multitude fled in dismay
without waiting an sittack. The city of Surat was then en«
tered without farther resistance, and being plundered of every
thing worth Carrying off' was set on fire with some ships that
were in its arsenal The city of Reyner stood a little higher
up on the other side, and was inhabited by the Nai^ea^
MoorSj a race of more courage ^d policy than the Banians ;
yet they fled almost at the first fire, leaving all their property
to the Portuguese, who had all been enriched if they had-
been able to carry away the whole plunder. Having remove
ed dli. that their ships coukl carry, the town was set* on fire,
together with twenty ships and many small vessels. In both
actions Emanuel de Sousa was conspicuously v^ant, being
the first to land with much danger, especially in the latter,
where he was o^^sed by a numerous artillery. On return*
ing to the moutfi of the river, Sylveira found tiiat Vasconcel-
les had taken six vessds bouiKl with provisions for Diu«
After this, Antonio de Svlveira destroyed the towns of
Daman and Agazem on the coast, at the latter of whidt
places SOO vesseb belonging to the enemy were burnt.

On the 21st of January 1580, Hector de Sylveira sailed
jfrom Goa for the Red Sea with ten ships and 600 men.
Spreading his fleet acrp$s the mouth of that sea, that no
enemy might escape, several rich ships were captured. Ap-
pearing afterwards before Aden^ Hector induced the sheikh
of that place to subitiit to the crown of Portugal, and U>
an yearly tribute of 12,000 Xerephines. The sheikh of Zael^
who had only a short time before accompanied Jliustoja^, »
Turkish captain, with 20,000 meap^ to make war upon Aden,
submitted to simUar tenns.

Having completed his preparations for the expedition
against Dm, Nuno de Cuna sailed early in the year 153 1 with
a great fleet and army for that place. In a general review at
the Island of Bombay, the fleet consisted of above 400 sail
of all kinds of vessels, many of ^hich were large, more in-
different, and most of them small ; some being only sutlers^
fitted out by the natives for private gain. On lK)ard this fleet


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SS2 PortugH/ise Discaomf and past ii. book nu

were 3600 scddiars and 1450 seamen all Portuguese, besides
above 2000 Canara and Malabar soldiers, 8000 slaves, and
about 5000 native seamen. Landing at Daman, a fort be-
longing to the king of Cambaya, whicn was immediately eva*
ouated by the Moors, advice was brought that the Arabs,.
Turks, and others, to the number of 2000 men, had fortified
themselves in the Island of Bethy seven leagues from Diu.
This place was so strong by art and nature, environed with
rocks and fortifications, that Nuno gave no credit U} the
accounts respecting it till convinced by inspection. Coming
before Beth on the 7th of February, he summoned the gar^
rison to surraider ; but many of them shaved their heads, as
devoting themselves to death or victory, which they call mak-
ing themselves amoucof. The commandant of the barbarians
gave a brutal example of determined and savage resoluticm^
by lowing his wiie, son, and goods into a fire made on
jpurpose, in which they were all consumed ; that if the Portu-
guese succeeded in the enterprise, they might only gain a heap
of ashes. His example was followed by others. Being re-
solved to carry this place, Nuno made dispositions for an
assault, dividing his force into six bodies, which were ordered
to attack in six difierent places at the same time. After a
deq)erate conflict the place was taken, in which 1800 oi the
enemy were slain, and sixty cannons taken.

Departing from Beth, Nuno appeared with his powerful
armament l^fore Diu. This city is built upon rocks, and is
entirely encompassed by rocks and water. The entrance into
the river or haven was shut up by massy chsuns suspended
upon vessels, behind which eighty vessels were drawn up full
of archers and musqueteers to defend the passage. The gar-
rison consisted of 10,000 men, with a prodigious number of
cannon. On the 16th of February, the signal was given for
the attack, but after fighting the whole day without gaining
any advantage, and having soflfered some loss, it was deters
mined in a council of war to desist from the enterprise aa.
impracticable. It was agreed by all, that if ao much time
had not been fruitlessly employed in the capture of Beth,
Diu must have fallen ; as it had been reinforced only three
days before the arrival of the Portuguese by a Turk named
Musti^ha, who was the principal cause of its brave and effec-

7 Corruptly called by the British in India running a fnud.'-^E.

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CHAP. I. SECT. VII. Conquest of India. 22S

tual resistance. Nuno returned with the principal part of his
fleet and army to Goa, where he arrived or the 15th of March^
leaving Antonio de Saldanna with 60 vessels in the Bay of Caiii-
baya to annoy the enemy.

After the departure of the Portuguese fleet, Mustapha pr^
aented himself before Badur king of Cambaya, who received
him honourably, giving him the command of Baroach in the
Bay of Cambaya, with the title of Rsmi-khan. He was called
Jlumif as having been born in Greece ; as the Moors of India,
being ignorant of the divisicmsof the European provinces, call
the whole of Thrace, Greece, Sclavonia, and the adjacent
countries by the general name of Uum, and the inhabitants
Bumis though that term ought only to be applied to Thrace,
the modem Romania. The Turks and Rumes are different
nations ; the former being originally from Turkistan, and the
natives of Greece and Thrace consider themselves as of more
honourable descent than the Turks ^. The title of Khan now
bestowed on Mustapha is a dignity among the Tartars equi«
valent to that oi Duke in Europe, and is bestowed in the east
on persons of distinguished merit.

Antonio de Saldanna, who was left in command of the sea
of Cambaya, with 60 vessels and 1500 men, took and faumt
the town oi Madrefavat^ y five leagues from Diu towards Beth.
He then went against Gogo, twenty-four leagues farther, for-
merly a strong and populous place ot great trade. There were
fifteen of the largest paraos belonging to Calicut at that tim«
in the port laden with spice, whicn took shelter in a creek,
and were followed by Saldanna with 800 m«i in the smaller
vessels. Finding it necessary to land, he was o^^osed by
300 horserand 800 foot that came to defend the Malabars.;
but after a sharp rencounter, in which 200 of the enemy were
skin, they were constrained to abandon the vessels, which were
all burnt ; after which Saldanna destroyed the town of Gogo
and ^ight ships that were i^^Sii port He afterwards de-
stroyed the towns of Belsa, Tarapor, Maii, Kelme, and Aga-
sim, and lastly Surat, which was beginning to revive from its
former destruction.^ Having thus ravaged the coast of Cam-

8 Oo a fonner occasioB, tlie iuiDa« of Rumi has been mentioned as uni-
versally giyen in India to the Turks as coming in place of the Romans.
\De Farla therefore was mistaken in deriving it from the province of Romania
or Thrace.— E. '

1 9 Perhaps that now called Jafirabad.-^E^

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£24 Porluguese Discaaery and pakt ii. 3D0k hi,

baya^ he returned to Qt>aL About this time a brcrthei" of the
king of Cambaya, who was rightful heir to that crowft, came,
into the hands of Nuno ; who expected through his mean« to
obtain what had been so long desired, the possession of Diu»
and the command of the trade of Cambaya,

About thk time the Portuguese cruisers had laketn twenty-
iseven ships belonging to the zamorin, all richly laden. Being
perplexed by the great losses he was continually sustaining
through the Portuguese superiority at sea, the sovereign of
Calicut made overtures towards an accommodation ; and ini
a tl^aty of peace gave permission to the governor*general to.
build a fort in thd island of Ckaley in a river that falls into the
aea about th^eib leagues fix»m Cialicut, which is navigable by
boats aB the way to the fi»ot of the Gaut mountains, tjrinama^
a heathen^ wba at this time l^jab of Chalcy and -both he and
tb^'Reighboaring rajah x>fTanore, who were subjects to the
2amorin» were anxious to throw off their subjection to that
prince, and to enter into alliance with the Portuguese, in
hoped of becoming ridi by participating in their ti'ade. Im^
mediately upon procuring the consent of the zamorm to con-»
struct the foit, Nui^ set out from Goa with 150 sail of vessels,
in which were SOOO Portuguese troops and 1000 native LaS'^
carines. So much diligence was used in carrying on the work,
even nthe'gendemenparticipattng in the labour, that in twenty*
six days it was in a defensible situation, being surrounded by
a rampart nine feet thick and of sufficient height, strengthened
by towers and bastions or bulwarks at proper places^ Within
the fort a church was built, together with a house for the com«^
mander, barracks for the soldiers, and store*houses for trader
Diego de Pereira, who had negotiated the treaty^ with the
zamorin,^ was left in command of dbis new fortress, with d
garrison of S5& men ; and Manud de Soosa had orders to
secure its safety by sea, with a squadron of twenty-^two vessels*
The zamorin soon repented of having aHowed this fort to be
built in his dominions, and used ineffectual endeavours to
induce the rajah of Chale, Caramanlii, and Tanore to bxeek
with the Portuguese, even going to war against them, but to
no purpose. y •

About the end of February 1532, Emanuel de Vasconcelles
was sent to the Red Sea with two galliots and several brigan-
lines to cruise against the Turks. Off Xael he captured
several Turkish vessels, among which was a large ship, named


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CRAP. I. SECT. VII- Conquai of India, €25

Cufturca^ wltich was sent to Muscat* Hie king of Xael, fear-
ful of danger, made his peace with Vasconcellcs. 8oon after-
wards Antonio de Saldanna arrived with ten ships to take the
command in the Red Sea, who was dissatisfied with the terms
entered into with the sheikh of Xael, on which that prince
sent all the vaiuables belonging to the town, together with the
women and children into the interior, that he might provide
for defence; but being obliged to quit the Red Sea on account
of the weadier, Saldanna sailed first to Muscat and thence to
Din, where he took several vessels belonging to the enemy^
among which was one in which he got above 60,<H)0 V^ietian
chequins. About the same time Diego de Sylveira plundered
and burnt Puttun, a city twelve leagues from Diu, and de^
stroyed four ships that were in the hari)our. He acted in a
similar manner at Pate and Mangalore and other places,
and returned to Goa with above 4000 slaves and an infinite

An this encouraged Nnno de Cuna to continue hostilities
against Diu and the king of Cambaya, in hopes of constraining
hun to allow of the construction of a fort in that city. Malek
Tocam^^j lord of Diu, was then fortifying the city of Basseen,
and as that place might prove injurious to the designs of Nuno
against Cambaya, he determined to destroy it. For this pur*
pose he fitted out a fleet of 150 vessels in which he embarked
with 3000 Portuguese sokliers and 200 native Canarins.
Tocam on hearing of this expedition, left a garrison of 12,000
men in .Basseen and retired to Diu. Despising the danger of
attacking such superior numbers, Nuno landed his troops and
took Basseen by assault, in which action 600 of the enemy
were slain, and only eight or nine on the side of the Por-
tuguese. Having ravaged the surrounding country and
razed the fortifications of Baleen, Emanuel de Albuquerque
was sent with twelve vessels and SOO men to destroy
the fort of Daman, which he was unable to accomplish^
He burnt however all the towns upon the coast fi*om Basseen
to Tarapor^ and reduced Tanua^ Bandora^ Math and Bombay
to become tributary. About this time orders were sent from
Portugal that all the commanders of forts in India should
make oath of obedience to the governor-general, whence it

VOL. VI. p appears

10 The lord of Diu only a little before was named Malek Saca; but D^
Faria gives no intimation of any revolution, except by change of name,
yet froi» th^ se^tt^l i^ n (vid^at this person W48 tb« spn of Mai^ Az^f*-E»

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2^ fartugticie Disdovef^ and rjmx ih book: m«

Af^ears that tiB then they welre in a ^reat liieasiire itide*

Abdut this time Malek Tocam^ lord of Diu, desired Nuno to
«ei3d a proper person to him with whom he might treat of an
important ai&ir^ be being at that time apprehensive that the
kisgofCambaya meant todeprive himof hisgovernment. Vasco
de Cnna wad accordingly sent on this embassy, with instnic^
tions tQ procure the surrender of Diu, > but was unsuccessful.
At the same time Tristan de.Ga pressed the. king of Cam*»
bayi^ to aUqw of building a fort at Diu, and Badur expressed
a desire of conferring wiUi the governot«-general on the subject^
though bis real design was to kill him radier than grant per^
mission to build a fort* Nunb went accordingly to Diu with
^ i^eetof }00 $ail mid 2000 Portuguese troops ; but the king
whp was then atDiu delayed the interview on various pr^ences^
and dcisired Nuno *to send some of Ms principal captains to
wait upon him. They went accordingly richly dressed and
y^^te splendidly received. While in discourse with the king^
Emanuel de Macedo took the liberty, yet in a respectful man^
ner, to say " 'XTiat he wondered much his majesty should de^
jwivc Malek Tocam of the govetnment of the city, who had
not only served bim faitbfu%, but was the son of one who
liad performed many signal services and had long enjoyed his
favour, and that he should bestow the command on Mu^apka
Mumi Khauy whose principal merit was dislovalty to the Grand
CTurkf his natural prince. He added, that if Mustapha denied
this, he challenged him to c6mbat, either hand to hand, or
in any other manner he might think fit« Bumi Khan yrsiB
present, but made no : answer, till the king looking angrily
at him, he said his silence proceeded from contempt. Macedo
ircpeated the challenge, and the Turk, no longer able to shun
it with a good grace, agreed to fight him at sea. But this chal«-
jenge took no effect, as the parties could not agree upon the
therms of combat. Being unable to come to any agreement
with the king of Cambaya, Nuno de Cuna entered into a league
jvith Humayun^^ padishah, or emperor of the Moguls, and
^returned to Goa, dispatching several of his certains with squa-
drons • to , differi^nt places*

At this time, Cunale Marcar^ a bold pirate, scoured the seas
about Calicut with eight vessels well equipped and full of men.
One night off Cape Comorin he surpriscil a Portuguese bri-


11 la Dc Faria crilcd Omtnm Patxath^ king of the M6gule,*^E.

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CHAP. I. SECT. vir. Conquest of India. 227

gantine at anchor, in which were twenty-one Por^ugues^ all
so fast asleep that they were bound before they waked. He
caused their heads to be bruised to pieces, to punish them for
daring to sleep while he was at sea, a merry cruelty. From
thence Cunale went to Negapatnam on the coast of Coroman-
del, where there were forty Portuguese, who defended them-
selves to no purpose, as the degar or governor of that place
agreed with Cunale to rob them. Khojah Marcar, though
a relation of Cunale, used his endeavours to deliver the Por-
tuguese from this danger, by instilling mutual jealousy into
the Degar and Cunale, who however took some Portuguese
vessels then in the river at Neg^ipatnam, and shot eight of their
men. Antonio de Silva was sent against him from Cochin
with 200 musqueteers in fifteen small vessels, on which Cunale
took refuge in a bay on the coast called Canamera^ where he
fortified himself. But Antonio forced him to make his escape
in the habit of a beggar to Calicut, leaving his vessels and
cannon, with which Antonio returned to Cocnin.

In 1534- Martin Alfonso de Sousa, Portuguese admiral in
India, took the fort of Daman j and Badur king of Cambaya,
fearing still greater losses, and finding his trade completely
interrupted, made peace with Nuno, on the followinjg condi-
tions. The fort of Basseen with all its dependencies was
ceded to the crown of Portugal : All ships bound firom the
kingdom of Cambaya for the Ked Sea, were to come in the
first place to Balseen, and to touch there on their return,
paying certain duties to the crown of Portugal: No. ships
belonging to Cambaya were to trade to any other parts with-
out licence from the Portuguese government: No ships of
war were to be built in any of the ports belonging to Cam-
baya : The king of Cambaya was on no account to give any
assistance to the Rumes or Turks. There were other articles
in favour of the king of Cambaya, to render the harshness of
these more palatable ; and even these were afterwards niodc-
iTal^d when he gave permission for building a fort at Diu.

The kingdom of Guzerat, commonly called Cambaya from
the name of its metropolis, extends from Cape Jaquet or Jigat
in the west,^ to the river Nagotana near Chauly within which
.limits there is a large and deep bay or gulf having the samn
name with the capital, in which bay the sea ebbs and flows with
wonderful rapidity, insomuch that any ship that is caught in
this, tremendous hore certainly perishes. To avoid this danger,


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228 Portuguese 2}^scavery and part ii. «,uc-c \n .

there is i^ways a man stationed on an eminence, ivho gives
notice with a horn when he sees the approach of this torrent.
TOie distance between Cape Jigat and the river of Nagotana

Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 24 of 53)