Robert Kerr.

A general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time online

. (page 47 of 53)
Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 47 of 53)
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been formerjy by King Emanuel, as will he n&esa afterwerda*
<^h^ appKMiiibed a ^lecond time (o the viceroyaity.

The first i^t^tion of the new viceroy ipas bestowed for the
relief pfChale* Ip which Piegode Mencsoes was gent with
iHOO nien ; b«|t be came too late, as the fort had been alt*ead]r
aurpfi»dered to the ;mmor|n upon condi tfona. This jsurreiH
d«r had beeii made by the ooihmmder Don George de Caa*
tmo, eontr«ry to the o{H^ion of the majority of his oSeer«#
pvendowne by the tean^ Aud entreaties of bis wife «nd other
iadia^i focgeiting that he who was now eighty years of nge ot^ht
(o have {m^red an bonouraUe death to a short and infi»?
won^ addition to bia hfe; Neither waa ibis his only £inltf for
tibe provtsiooa bad bf^ hmg&t if he had not committed
them to the oare of hia wife, who dissipated them among her
almrea* Owii^ to this unforeseen event, Diego de Meneaea
opiild only pondu^t the people who had surrendered at Chale
tfit Co(^i9. He then divided bi^ fleet with Matdiew de Air
bnquevquet «nd cleart^d the seaa of pirates^

When Norboiiba aece^yted the vieeroyalty of India, now so
iniifih kilned by the div«sHon iqlo throe governments, hi$ great
Aim waa to acquire ?Jehes, a^ be wa$ poor, and bad several
l&iJkhr^r With this view he endeavoored to prevail on An-
iQOio Moniz Barreto* the newly appointed governor of Ma^
iacfa, to be satmfiod -with a »RmUer foroe than bad been ordefw
ad for him on going to a^aume thai govemment^ ailegiog thai;
India was np^ themln a eondttios to give what was promi$«>
tAi hut Mmii refuyed io go unle is suppKed with the Ibroo
agreed on, as the posture of Malacca was then too dangenDini(
to admit4)f behig gov^fnr^ by a person who considered his
l>$pii(bMJeifi9 unless supported by a considerable fovce, Monii
Iherefore wrote home to PortidigaJi complaining against thai
fioeroy, and malicious whispers are for the most part grateful*
]y received by princes and ministers: and the Portuguese,
ministry) ok tba aofe inforaiftlloB of Maniz^ combiitted the


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44d Portugune THseaoery and yabt ii. book m.

weakest act that ever was heard of, as will appear in the ae*
^el: Unhappy is that kingdom whose sovereign ts a diild.

About this time Akbar Shah % emperor of the Megob
had acquired the sorereign^ of Cambaya or Guzerat iSui*
tan Mahmnd the heir of the late king had been left under the
tttiticHi of three great men, Ali Khan, Itimiti-Khan, and Ma-
drem*al-MaIk,each of whom envious of the otber^ endeavoured
to acquire the entire direction of the young king. He^ con*
siderio^ himself in danger, fled from Madrem«al-Malk to the
piioteedon of Itimiti Khan, the worst of ali his guardians^, who
immediately offered to deliver up the king a!nd kingdom to
the great Mogul, on condition of bdng appointed viceroy or
Soubah in reward of his treachery. Akbar accordingly
Biarched to Amedabad^ where the traitor delivered up to him
the young king, and the Mogul was seated on the musnnd or
throne of Guzerat without drawing a sword. Not satisfied
with this great acquisition, Alkbar resolved to recover the town
and districts of Basseen and Daman^ which had formerly be-
longed toCambaya, and were now possessed by die Portuguese ;
and as this intention became known to Luis de Almeyda who
commanded at Daman, he sent notice to the viceroy, who
immediately 'sent him succours and prepared to follow there in
person, going accordingly from Goa about the end of Decem-
ber 1571, with nine gallies, five gallions, eight gaUiots, and
ninety smaller vessels. On his arrival with diis large arma-
ment in the river of Daman, the Mogul, who was encamped
at the distance of two leagues from that place, was so much
dismayed by the power and military reputation of the Portu-
guese^ that he sent an ambassador to the viceroy to treat of
peace. The viceroy received the -Mogul ambassador in his
gallery with great state, and after listening to his proposals
-sent Antonio Cabral along witli him to j&bar, on which a
peace was concluded to the satisfiM^ion of both parties. The
viceroy then retra*ned to Goa, and the great Mogul settled
the 'government of his new kingdom of Guzerat, <mtting off
the head of the traitor Itiimti Khan, a just reward of. his

The king of Acheen was one of the Indian princes who had
entered into the grand confederacy agpdnst the Portuguese*
aud had agreed to lay siege to Malacca, but did not execute

.1 Named by De Faria, Gelalde Mamet Hecbar Taxa s prdMbiy a cofi-
i^jpn qf Gelal 'oddin Mahomet Akbar Sbah.-^E.

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CHAP* IV. SECT. vit. Conquest of India. 44S^

his part of the league till about the middle of October 1571^
when he appeared before Malacca with a fleet of near lOO
sail, in which he had 7000 soldiers with a lai^e train of artiU
lery and a vast quantity of ammunition. Landing on the
night of his arrival, he set fire to the town of ///^, which was
saved from total destruction by a sudden and violent shower
of rain. He next endeavoured to burn the Portuguese ships
io the harbour ; but failing in this and some minor enterprizes
he sat down before the city, intending to take it by a regular
«iege, having been disappointed in his expectations of carry-
ing it by a amp de main. At this time Malacca was in a mi-*
arable condition, excessively poor, having very few men and
these unhealthy and dispirited, having suffered much by ship*
wreck, sickness, and scarci^ of provisions, not without deserv-
ing these calamities; for Malacca was then the Portuguese
Nineveh in India^ I know not if it be so now. In this de^
pkMrable situation, incessantly battered by the enemy, cut off
from all supplies x)f provisions, Malacca had no adequate
means and hardly any hopes of defence. In this extremity
Tristan Vaz accid^itally entered die port with a single diip;
in which he had been to Sunda for a cargo of pepper. Bein^
earnestly intreated by the besieged to assist them, he agreed
to do every thing in his power, though it seemed a rash.atr
tempt to engage a fleet (h 100 sail with only ten vessels, nine
of which were almost rotten and destitute of rigging. Among
these he distributed 300 naked and hungry wretches ; and
though confident in his own valour, he trusted only in the
m^rcy of God, and caus^ all his men to prepare for tmttle by
confession, of which he set them the example.

He sailed from Malacca with this armament about the end
of November 1571, and soon discovered the formidable fleet
of the enemy in the river Fermdso. Giving the command ot
his own ship to Emanuel Ferreyra, Tristimi Vaz de Ve^
went sword in hand into a galliot, to encourage his men tor
behave valiantly by exposing himself to the brunt of battle
along with them. On the signal being given by a furious
discharge of cannon, Tristan instantly boarded the admiral
ship* of the enemy, making great havock in her crew of 200
men and even carried away her ensign. Ferdinand Perez
with only IS men in a small vessel took a galley of the enemy.
Ferdinand de Lemos ran down and sunk one of the enemies
ships. Francisco de Lima having taken another set bar on
fire^ that be might be at liberty to continue the fight Emanuel


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444 Pcrh/^nne Hiwcaoerjf md paht ii. 9001c iih

Ferreyra unk three vesieby iinrigged aevem) otbttrs^ andffew
grrat nambers of the enemy* In sbart9 ev^iy one foi^ht ad«
Blirablj, and the whole hostile fleet fled» excq)t four|;B]lie9
and aeren smaller vessels that were burnt or sunk. Sev^n
hnndred of the enemv were taken or $laini with the loss only
of five men on the side of the victors. The Portuguese $)upa
waited three days in the river to see if the enemy would returnt
and then carried the joyful news to Malaoca» where it gquU
hardly be believed '•

Sometime in the year 1573, four shqps arrived at Go^from
Portaml, under the command of FranciiKso de Sousa* who
immeaiately on landing went to tbe archbishop Don Gaspfur^
to whom he delivered a packet from the Un^. Tbe royal
eiders omtained in this packet were read by a cryer in tb«r
archiepiscopal church, and announced that X>Qn kxxWm d«
Noronha was deposed from the dignity pf vjoeroy* to whom
Antonio Moniz Barreto was immedii^ly to aucfjeed with Ife^
title of governor. By another order, Gonzala Pereyivt waA
Mipointra to the government of Malacca* in de&iilt of whpQ»
I>on Leonis Pereyra was substituted, aod aecprdingiy WO-
^eeded as the other was dead.

Advice was now brought to Goa th»t Malaccei W99 «gaia
in dancer^ as the king of Acheen was before it a seepod time*
assisted by the queen otjapukra. On tbia iotdUgen^:^ Mania
desired iJeonis Pereyra to set out for b»i gov^rna^wt, md
Leonis demanded of him to be supplied with the aaUM form
which Moniz had formerly required from Norpoha j yet Mo-
niz, without considering what be bad himself wrote on ti^
subject to the king, and that India wa9 now free from diM)g^»
refiibed his request, Leonis, to leave tbe new governor no
excuse for his coi)diict, would evra have been satisfied with a
anuoh smaller force than that formerly required by Monizt
Imt even that was reused bkn^ and be wept away to Por*^
tngal refusing to asmiine the government of Malacca. About
tbe end of this year 1^79, orders came from Pprtugal for the
^al and e:$ecution of I)on George de Cstftro fpr surfender-
jog Chale to the zamorin. He was aoeordingly beheaded
publicly : Yet in tbe year following a commission wad s^t out
IrcMn Portugal &r employing him in another command*

Scarcely had India begun to enjoy ^o^e Respite aftep the

■ ■• \m

S Though pot ipeiM:)oiie4 by D? Fari»,. tbe Vxvj^ oi Achtesa S|PPfmt9 tflr
^ve rais.ed the siege of Malacca aft^r this naval victory. — ^£,

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MKt. tt. s£ct. vti. Conquest ^Indiiu 445

Iftte troubled, when the queen of Japara sent her general
Quiaidaman to besiege Malacca with 15,000 chosen natives
of Java, in a fleet of 80 large galleons and above 220 smaller
vessels. Tristan Vaz de Vega happened to be then at Ma*
lacca, and was chosen by common consent to assume the
command, Francisco Enrique2 the former commandant being
dead. Tristan Vaz sent immediate notice to Goa of his
danger j on which Monie issued orders to all the neighbour-
ing places to send succours, and began to fit out a fleet for itH
relief. In the mean time die Javanese army landed and be*
sieged Malacca. Vai: sent Juan Pereyra and Martin Ferreyra
with 150 men to drive the enemy from a post. After killing
70 of the enemy, they levelled the work and brought off* seven

irieces of cannon. Pereyra afterwards burnt 80 of their gal-
cons, and destroyed some great engines which th^ had con-
structed for attacking a bastion. Two other omcers in a
sortie burnt the pallisades which the enemy had erected for
straitening the garrison and defending their own quartexis^
After this, Pereyra going out of the river with the Portuguese
vessels, besieged the besiegers, and at Jor took a large quan-
tity of provisions that were going to the Javanese army.
Upon these repeated misfortunes, the Javanese embarked in
great consternation, and withdrew under night; but were
pursued by Pereyra, who cut off* many of their vessels in the
rear. Almost half of this great army perished by the sword
or sickness in this siege, which lasted three mondis.

Hardly was the army of the queen of Japara gone from
Malacca when the king of Acheen arrived before it with 4-0
gallies, and several ships and smaller vessels, to the number
of 100 in all, with a great train of artillery. Tristan Vax
cave orders to Juan Pereyra in a galley, Bernardin de Silva
in a caravel, and Ferdinand de Paiares in a ship, having each
40 men, to go out of the harbour on pmpose to protect a
convoy of provisions then in its way to Malacca, of which the
city was in great want. The fleet of the enemy immediately
attacked them, and soon battered all three ships to pieces.
Seventy^-five of the Portuguese were slain or drowned on this
occasion, forty were made prisoners, and only five saved
themselves by swimming. Only 150 men now remained in
Malacca, of whom 100 were sick or aged. Being in want
both of men and ammunition Tristan \^z was under the ne-
cessity of remaining very quiet ; but the enemy fearing he was
preparing some stratagem against them, raised the siege in a


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446 Poffuguese Diuaverj and part ii. book hi.

panic of terror whea they might easily have carried the dty^
after remaining before it from the beginning to the end of
January 1575. The priests, women and diudren of the dis-
tressed city had implored the mercy of God with sighs and
tears ; and next to God, the dty owed its safety to the oour*
age of Tristan Vaz, and to his generosity likewise^ as he spent
above 20,000 ducats in its defence. '

At this period Juan de Costa cruised t^n the Mdabar
coast with two gallies and twenty->four other vessels. The
town of Gaipar near Bracalore bong in rebellion, he landed
there and set the town on fire after killing 1500 of the inha-
bitants. He likewise cut down the woods ^ in revenge for
the rebellion of the natives. After this he destroyed an Island
belonging to the zamorin in the river of Chale, and rained
the cl^ of Parapangulem belonging to the same sovereim,
where the heir of the kingdom was slain with 200 of his fid-
lowers. At Capocate 800 of the natives were slain with the
loss of two only of the Portuguese. The town of Nilacharim
near mount Dely was destroyed by fire. In the intervals
between these exploits on the land, several vessels belonging
to the enemy were taken, by which the fleet was supplied with
slaves and provisions.

. At this period, after long petty wars occasioned by the in-
justice and tyranny of the Portuguese, they were expelled
from the Molucca islands, and their fort m the island of
Ternate was forced to surrender to the king, who protested
in presence of the Portuguese that he took possession of it in
trust for the king of Portugal, and would deliver it up to any
one having authority for that purpose as soon as the murder
of his father was punished ^*

. In the year 1576, Antonio Moniz Barreto was succeeded
in the government of India by Don Diego de Menezes; but
it may be proper to suspend for a time our account of the
affairs of India, to give some account of the transactions in
Munomotapa under the government of Francisco Barreto
and his successor Vasco Fernandez Homem.


3 Probably the groves of cocoa-nut trees are here alluded to.— E.
, 4 A ereat number of trifling incidents in the misgovemment and Xy^
ranny of the Portuguese in the Moluccas, have been omitted at this and
•ther parts the history of Portuguese Asia in our version.*— £•


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CHAB. IV. 8SCT. VIII. Conquest of India. 44??

Section VIII.

Transactions ofthePorittguese in Monomotapa^ Jrom 1569 t0
the end of that separate government '•

On the return of Francisco Barreto from the government
of India in 1558, as formerly mentioned, he was appomied
admiral of the gallies, in which employment he gained great
honour in the memorable action of Pennon s and on his re*
turn to Lisbon, king Sebastian, who had determined upon
making the division of the Portuguese governments in the
east already mentioned, appointed Barreto to that of Mono*
inotapa% with the additional title of Conqueror of the Mines.
The great inducement for this enterprise was from the large
quantities of gokl said to be found in that country, and par-
ticularly at Manica in the kingdom of Mocaranga. Francisco
Barreto sailed from Lisbon in April 1569, with three shipcs
and 1000 soldiers. He might easily have had more men if
the vessels could have contained them, as the reports of gold
banished all idea of danger, and volunteers eagerly pressed
forwards for the expedition, among whom wiere many gentle-
men and veterans who had served in Africa.

On his arrival at Mozambique, Barreto went to subdue the
king of Patey who had revolted against the Portuguese au-
thority. In his instructions, Barreto was ordered to under*
take nothing of importance without the advice and concur-
rence of Francisco de Monclaros, a Jesuit, which was the
cause of the failure of this enterprise. It was a great error to
subject a soldier to the authority of a priest, and a most pre*
sumptuous folly in the priest to undertake a commission so
foreign to hi« profession. There were two roads to the mines^
one of which was through the dominions of Monomotapa,
and the other by way of Sofala. Barreto was disposed to
have taken the latter, but Monclaros insisted upon the former,
and carried his point against the unanimous votes of the


1 In Dt Faria no dates are given of these transactions, except that Barreto
sailed from Lisbon in April 1 569. — £.

2 In modem geography the country called Monomotapa in tho text is
known by the name of Mocaranga^ while Monomotapa is understood to be
the tiile of the sovereign. It is sometimes called Senna by the Portuguese^
from the name of a fort possessed by them in the interior.— £.

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448 Portuguese Discovet^ and itart k book iiK

council of war ; so that the first step in this expedition led ta
its ruin. But before entering upon the narrative of events,
it may be proper to givd some occiMtit of the climate^ quality,
and extent of the country.

From Cape Delgado in lat 10® lO' S. to Mozambiqtia in
14^ 50\ the coast is sotnewbat bent in the. fonn of a bow, in
¥^hich space are the islands of Pajaros, Amice, Mocoloe,
Matembo, Querimba, Cabras^ and othets, with tbe m^rs
l^audagi, Menluane^ Mucutii, Mucttiiilo, Situ, Habe, Xanga^
fiamoco, Veloso, Rnda, Quisimaiuco and Qointagone, with
the bays of Xanga and Fnego, and the sands of Finda. From
Mozambique in uit 14° 5(K & to the port or bay of Asdca id
21^ AC/, the coast falls off to the westwards, opposite to th«
Pracel de Sqfala ot great bonk of Praceij on the coast of
Madagascar, the dangerous &^/ii and Ckatibdis of thoat
seas. On this coast are the rivers Mocambo, An^goxa, or
Bayones, Mossige, MojiineoaM?, Sangage, and others, with
many islands, and the ports of Quilhnane and Luaboi tb0
mers Tendanculo, Qulloe, Sabam, Bagoe, Miaue, and Soi»
&Ia, with the opposite islands of Inbausato^ Qaikone, Maia*
bone, Moliraon, and Quilamancohi# Betw^n Cape BosiqM
or St Sebastian in lat. 2l''W 8. dnd Cape Corimtes in 24'' &
is the great bay of Sauca, into which falls the river Inhambatie,
where there is a great trade for ivory. From the frequent
recurrence of the soft letters L and M in these names, it may
be inferred that the language c^that country is by no means

From the mouth of the Cuama or Zambeze in the east, the
empire of Monomotapa extends ^50 leagues into the interior
of Africa, being divided by the great river Zambeze, into^ which
fiills the Chiri or ChireirAy running through the country erf Bo*
roro ^ in which country are many other large rivers, on the
banks of which dwell many kings, some of whom lU'e inde*
pendent, and others are subject to Monomotapa* The most
powerful of the independent kings is he of Mongaa, bordering
on the Cuama or Zambeze, which falls into the sea by four
mouths between Mozambique and Sofala. The first or most
northerly of these mouths is that of Quilimanej ninety leagues
from Mozambique; the second or Ctiama is five leagues farther

south 3

z According to modem maps, tlie Zambeze divides the empire of Moca^
ranga, the sovereign of which is called Monomotapa^ from the empire ot
the Bororos ; and the river Chireira or Manzara on the south of the Zamer
beze^ which ic joins, is entirely confined to the country of Mocarahga.— £«

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CHAP. IV* SECT. vixi. Conquest of India. 4id

south ; the third Ltiabo five leagues lower; and the fourth nam^d
Luabol five leagues more to the south. Betveeen these mouths
are three large and fertile islands ; the middle one» named
Chingomay is sixty leagues in circumference. This great river
is navigable for sixty Jeagues upwards to the town of Sena^
inhabited by the Portuguese, and as much farther to Tete^
another Portuguese colony ^. The richest mines are those
of Massapa, called An/ur *, the Ophir whence the queen of
Sheba had the riches she carried to Jerusalem. In these mines
it is said, that one lump of gold has been found worth 12,000
ducats, and another worth 40,000. The gold is not only found
amohg the earth and stones, but even grows up within the
bark of several trees as high as where the branches spread out
to form the tops. The mines of Manchica and Butica are not
much inferior to those of Massapa and Fura, and there are
many others not so considerable. There are three fairs or
markets which the Portuguese frequent for this trade of gold
from the castle of Tete on £e river Zambeze. The first of these
is iManze^ four days' journey inland from that place ^. The
second is Bactdo ^ rarther off; and the third Massapa still far-
ther ^. At these fairs the gold is procured in exchange for
coarse cloth, glass beads, and other articles of small value
among us. A Portuguese ofiicer, appointed by the comman-
der of Mozambique, resides at Massapa with the permission
of the emperor of Monomotapa, but under the express con-
dition of not going into the country, under pain of death.
He acts as judge of the differences diat arise there. There
are churches belonging to the Dominicans at Massapa, Bacuto^
and Luanze*

The origin, number, and chronology of the kings of Mono-
motapa are not known, though it is believed there were kings

VOL. VI. Ff here

4 Sena is 220 English miles from the sea; Tete is S60 miles higher up:
so that this great river Is navig&ble for 480 miles, probably for smul vessels
only. — E.

5 Massapa is the name of a Portuguese fort or settlement on the river
Moearasi a branch of the Chireiraf in die interior of Mocaranga. Anfur or
Fura is a mfwmtain about loO miles /rom Massapa, saud to contun rich gold
mines, — E.. "

* 6 Luanze is about 100 miles south from Tete, on one of the branches of
the Chireira^— *^.

7 Bacuto is 40 miles south of Li^anze.— £•

8 Massapa is about 45 miles S.$. W. tiqga Buenio or BacutOi or 170 milts
'in that direction from Tete,— £•

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4^.0 Portuffien Dimmiy and fart lu book iiu

here in the time of the que^ of Sbeba^mnd that thqr were sub-
ject to her, as she got herfiold ftom thence. In the mountain
of Anfur or Fura^ near Wfes«apa, there are tlie ruins of stately
buildings, supposed to be those of palaces and castles* In
process of time thJ^ great empire was divided into three king-
Aom&f called Q^iteve^ Sabanda, &^d Chimnga^^ which last is
Ae most powerful, as possessing the mines of Manica, Butua,
«nd others. It is believed that the negroes of Butua, in the
kingdom of Chicanga, are those who bring gold to Angola,
Its these two countries are supposed to be only one hundred
leagues distance from each otner '°. The country of Mo-
nomotapa produces rice and maize, and has plenty of cattle
«nd poultry, the inhabitants addicting themselves to pasturage
$nd tillage, and even cultivating garuens* It is divided into
25 kingdoms, or provinces, named Mongaa, Baroe, Manica,.
0oese, Macingo, Remo, Chique, Chiria, Chidima, Boquizo,
Inhanzo, Cbiruvia, Condesaca, Daburia, Macurumbe, Mun-
gussi, Antiovajia, Chovet Chungue, Dvia, Romba, Hassini,
Qiirao, Mocaranga, and Remo*de-Beza.

The emperor " has a large wooden palace, the three chief
apartmeQt3 of which are, one for himseli*, another for his wife,
and the third for his menial servants. It has three doors
opening Into a large court, one appropriated for the queen
find her attendants, one for the king and the servants attached
to his persons and the third for the two head cooks, who are
great men and relations of the king» and for the under-cooks
who are ^U men of quality below twenty years of a^, as none
so young are supposed to have any commerce with women^
or otherwise they are severely punished. After serving in the
p^96e, these young men are preferred to high employments.


d Quiteve Is that kingdom or province of Mocaranga, now named Sofala
from the river of that pam^ ]>y which it is pervaded, Sabanda is probably
^ kinj^^m or province of Sabia, on tkf river of that name, the southern
province of Mocaranga. Chieanga is what is now caOed Maaiea, the soqthh
west province of Mocaran^a> the king or chief of which pro^mce b pamed
Chieanga. — JL.

Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 47 of 53)