Robert Kerr.

A general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time online

. (page 51 of 53)
Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 51 of 53)
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ment was made from cocoas : their host was a cake made
with oil and salt : their priests were ordained at seventieen
years of age, and were permitted to. marry after ordination:
fathers, sons, and grandsons administered (he ^crament in
the same church : the Catatorias or Qcfffuneras^ so they called
the wives of priests, wore a distinguishing mark to he k^oiya
by : in matrimony, they used no other formalities except the
consent of parties and consummation : the wpmen observed
the time prescribed by the law of Moses in regard to chur4:b-
ing : no sacraments were administered gratuitously : holy
water was mixed with some powder of frankincense, and some.
of the soil on which St Thomas was supppsed to hi^ve trod-
den : they used sorcery and witchcraft : |p fine, that a]l w^
error, conftision, and neresy*

Don Alexius with much labour and toil convinced them pf
their errors and converted them to the true faith, so that
whole towns were baptised and reconciled to the Roman see.
He even held a provincial synod at Diamper^ aU the decrees
of which were confirmed by the Pope ; and Franpisco Rod-
riguez, a Jesuit who had assisted the archbishop on this
important visitation, was made bishop of that diocese. On
the breaking up of the synod, Don Alexius visited all the
churches in these parts. While in the country of the queen
of Ckangafiatey visiting the church of Talavecare^ one of the
most ancient in those parts, they shewed him three plates on
which were engraven certain privileges and revenues granted
by the king of Ceylon, at the time when the Babylonians
Zahro and Proo ^, were in that country. At (his place like-

4 This probably refers to feer supposed immaculate purity ^en after
the birth of^the Saviour. — £.

5 Only a few paces before these men are named Xarno and Pred; biif
we have no means of asjcertainiBg which are the right nsmet.— £•

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480 Portuguese DiBcaoefy and fart ii. book hi.

wise Don Alexius met Tqpamuia Pandara, king of Gundara^
in the neighbourhood of Changanate^ to whom he presented
a letter from king Philip giving him the title of brother^ for
having allowed liberty tor the exercise of the Christian reli-
gion in his dominions 7.

In the year 1596, a Moor, named Pate Marcar obtained
leave from the zamorin to build a fort in the peninsula of
Pudepatam^ 77 leagues from Goa and 35 from Cochin, where
was a most convenient station for piratical paraos, to annoy the
trade of the Malabar coast; and having built a square fort at this
place, he went thither with all his kinsmen and followers, and
did much injury to the Portuguese and their alliei?, even making
iocursions upon their maritime possessions, whence, on several
occasions, he carried off much spoil. Pate Marcar soon died,
and was succeeded in the sovereignty of the fort by his nephew
Mahomet Cuneale Marcar, who added greatly to the strength
of the fort; and foreseeing that the Portuguese might seek to
be revenged for the injuries they had sustained, he fortified the
town both by sea and land, which he named Cuneale after
himself. On the land side he made a deep ditch with a double
wall above seven feet thick, flanked at regular distances with
towers called zarameSf all of which were mounted with small
cannon. Between the two creeks forming the peninsula, he
built a strong wall with two towers to secure the town, and
lined the sea-shore with strong palisades, flanked by two bas-
tions, one of which, considerably larger than the other, was
mounted with heavy cannon to defend the entrance of the
harbour, which was farther secured by a boom of masts
strongly chained together. Having thus, as he thought, pro-
vided a secure retreat, he continued his uncle's enterprises
against the Portuguese with much success, assisting all their
enemies against them, even robbing the Malabar traders on


' 6 The^e petty kinzs of small districts in the South of India are notw
koovn by the titles ot Polygars ; and the hereditary female chiefs are stiled
^t^* It is pfTQstitttting the dignity of king to give that denomination to
the chiefs of sniall vilTagesahd trifling districts, often not so large as parish^
in Europe. They are mere temporary chiefs, occasionally herecfitary by suf-
ferance ; indeed such couid not possibly be otherwise, when all the larger
4oimmoni and eyen empires have been in perpetual fluctuation from revo-
lution and conquest for at least 3000 years.— -£. ^

k .The history of Uiis ancient Christian church of Malabar has been late-
ly illustrated by the Christian Researches o£ 1}t Buchannan, who seerx^ to
have opened a door for the propagation of the gospel in India iofinitely
promisiog, if judiciously taken .advantage of. — £.

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csiAP. IV. SECT.xf. Canguest of India. 481

the coast, and filled his residence with rich plunder* The
viceroy Albuquerque had endeavoured to destroy this nest of
pirates, so prejudicial to the Portuguese trade, and had even
prevailed on the zamoriu to concur in the destruction of Cu-
neale, so that a treaty had been entered into, by which the
zamorin engaged to besiege Cuneale by land, while the Por-
tuguese fleet attacked him by sea. Both parties provided
according to stipulation for this joint expedition ; but it was
postponed for some time, in consequence of the change in the
government by the arrival of the Count of Vidigueyra as vice-
roy, and even by the secret concurrence of the zamorin in
the piracies of Cuneale, who communicated to him a share of
the plunder.

At length, however, the zamorin became incensed against
Cuneale, who assumed the title of king of the Malabar Moors,
and lord of the Indian Sea; but chiefly because he had caused
the tail of one of his elephants to be cut ofl^, and had used
one of his Nayres in a cruel and scandalous manner. Laying
hold of this favourable opportunity, the viceroy, De Gama»
probably in 1 598, renewed the league with the zamorin against
Cuneale, and sent some light vessels under Ferdinand de No-
ronha to blockade the entrance into the port of Cuneale, till a
larger force could be provided to co-operate with the zamorin,
who was marching to besiege it by land with 20,000 m^i and
some cannon.

That part of the western coast of India, which is properly
called the coast of Malabar, extends irom Cananor to Cochin
for the space of 42 leagues. From Cananor it is two leagues
to the small island of Tremapatan^ within which is a good
river ; thence half a league to the river of Sal; thence one and
a half to the river Maim; one to the town of Comenay a small
distance beyond which are the towns oi Motangue^ Curiare^
and Baregare ; thence to the river Pudepatan ; two leagues
farther the town of Tircicole ; other two leagues the town of
Cotttlete; one league ftom this the river Capocate; one league
ferther Calicut ; two more to the river Chale ; two to the city
Pananor ; two thence to Tdnor ; two more to Faranora ; one
more to the famous river Paniane ; thence nine to Paliporto;
four to the river of Cranganor ; and five more to Cochin. At
^e mouth of the river Pudepatan the fort of Cuneale is seated
in a square peninsula formed by several creeks, and joined to
the land on the south side, the length of the four sides being
about a cannon shot each. Just within the bar the^e is suffir

voL. vi« H h cient

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408 Portugfiae Discavrntf and rAW pi« |¥>ok w*

cient water fiar ships of tome iRze, whick mty go obent half
way up the port ; beyond th«t it is only fit for almadiof or
boats. The riyer runs fir^ towards the norths-east, tbew
tuminff to the south forms the peniDaiiJa in which the fort i^
buiit, me isthmus being secured l^ a strong wall aboi)t a auisr
ket^diot in length, reaching between the creek and the riv#r»
at the mouth of which is the small island Pioale. The forf
was large, strongly built, well manned, and bad ab|ind«i9<:e of
eannoo, ammunition, and proriaions.

Ill dus emergency, Cuaeale was w^Hl provided for defence,
having a fiorce of 1500 choice Moors, well armed^ wham he
d&tmbited to the diffiorent posts. The small vessels M^der
Noronha cannonaded the fort, principally on purpose to draw
off the attention of the Moors, that they might not interrupt
the zamorin on the iand side^ who was estaniishing his camp
ibr the purpose of the siege. At the same time» Noronha
scoured the coast, taking some of the piratical veasels bdong-
mg to Cuneale, and pneventing the introductioi) of provisions
into the (art After aome time, Don Luis de Gama, brother
to dhe viceroy, arrived with fourg»llies and 35 ^nailer vessels^
ten more being brought by private gen<kmen at their owii
char j^, and three fidl of men aind amn^unition aeni: by th^
«ity of CodUn. Besides these, there were two large barks
mcmntcd with heavy cannon to batter the fint.

The rajah of Cochin, being apprehensive that the greft

E»wer winch was now employed against Cuxieal? might prove
s i^uin, by uniting the zemoris his ancient enemy with tb^
Portuguese, circdbtod a report thai the zamorin b^d entered
into a secret sigveement with Cuneale to cutojBTtlie nhole Pqr*
in g ueae when .engaged in ibe sissasilt on the fort The arch*-
Inshop of Goa, who was then at Cpdbin e^n his way to <th#
liiafabar monQtains to viait ihe ThomiH«bu)*cbes» wias at first
much alarmed by this seport, fiearing it «Qi^ be tr^^ but
on roatuve consideration was aatisfied that it w«5 only a ppU^
lacflil ooiitriviaace of the rajah, imA yMrudeotly advised |he rar
jidi to desist from the pnapagatififi 4»f eny «uch £ida? rfpfH^is^
lie then assured the prindi^ peiisons ^fCpebintlji^t their
ships might safely pnxoeod against Cuneale, jtet i!ecam«i«i^4
that they sbodid conduct then^ehes with nNacb eaulion. AV
ihe fleet being now «nitedl before die fort, k was t^iuad tha|;
Cuneale had drawn up a line of armed^galUiolis on 4h>a edg^ ^
ihe water under ilhe wall of his for^ in case 4»f bei^ f^tacka^
4hat way. Itorasceadived in a coundi oSmxr to &w^ W ^^r

1 Jpwce

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PHAf . |ir» Mor^ »• C^mquHtqf India. 48$

trunoe into ^e ri?^, aft^ if Mob to dravir up ih^ Farti|gaefi9

vessels in a lin^ with their bbwf^ to the shore, that they migbf
cov^r the debarkation of the troops for the purpo$»^ of assault*
ing tbp fort. This proposition was trapsmitted tP Qoa wd
ai^roved by the viceroy, yet Don Luis w^ persuaded by
some gentlemen who wished to disgrace him, to attack on the
side o( Ariokf under pretence that the passage pf the bar
might prove fatal. At this time the zamorii) was ba^ering
the walls pf the town or pefc^kf apd desired that sppi^ Pprtur
guese might be sent to bis assistaupe. Dor^ Lui^ being suspi*
cipus, demanded hostages for their safety^ and accprdh^gly six
principal nayres were sent, amoQg whom were the rajahs pf
Tanqrj Chale^ and Carnere^ and the chief judge pf Calieut^
Pon Luis then sent SOO Portuguese under the command of
Belchior Ferreyra.

By previous concert, a combined assault was tp be m»de im
the night of the Sd of May* the troops of the zamprin attackr
ing on the land side, and the Portuguese pq the sea front, at
the same timp, the signal for. both tocommi^upe at opce bejpg
by means of a flaming lancet Bui Belchior Calaca» whQ waf
appointed to give the signal, mistook tbp hour, and gavp it
too soon, so that every thing fell into con&sipn. Immediate-
ly on seeing the signal* Ferreyra* who comuianded the Pprtup
guese troops along with the zamorin, fell on with his nieii
and 50Q0 Nayres, but lost 28 of bis men at the first onset
Luis de Silva, who was appointed to lead the van of the Por**
tuguese sea attack with 600 men, though ready and observing
the <»ncerted signal, did not move till past nudnight, wbicb
was the appointed hour, by which the euf my were left free tp
resist the land attack with their forces undivided. At length
when it was towards morning, de Silva passed thp creek of
Balyzwpe with 500 men in 60 almadias or native bpats* But
immediately on landing de Silva was slain, and his ensign An-
tonio Diaz concealed his death by covering his body with the
colours, which he. stripped for that purpose from thp staff,
Thus landing without commander or colours thp Pprtuguesp
fell into contuHon, and the two ne^t in ppmmand were both
slain. Don Luis de Gama, leaving bis fleet under the uext
officer^ had landed with a reservt^ on the other side pf the ri-r
ver opposite the fort, but for want of boats was unable either
to cross to assume the command^ or to send assistance The
Portuguese troops wera farced to retreat disgraoefuUy with
tine loM of 800 m^, most of whom were drovnedi thoiigh


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484 Portuguese Diseaoery and pakt ii« book hi.

even in this confusion a part of them forced their way into the
fort and burnt the mosque and part of the town^ where they
slew 500 Moors and Malabars, above 20 of whom were meii
of note. After this discomfiture, Don Luis de Gama retired
to Cochin with the greater pari of the fleet, leaving Francisco
de Sousa to continue the blockade, who persuaded the za-
morin to assault the town, as he believed the defenders had
been so much weakened by the late slaughter that it might be
easily carried. But though the zamorin gave the assault with
2000 men, he was repulsed.

On the receipt of these bad tidings at €roa, Don Luis de
Gama was ordered back to Cuneale, to settle a treaty with the
zamorin, and to continue the siege during the winter, till the
Portuguese fleet could return at the commencement of the
next fine season. A treaty to this effect was accordingly con-
cluded, by one of the articles of which the zamorin consented
that the Christian religion might be preached in his dominions^
and churches erected. After this Don Luis returned to Goa^
whence he went to command at Ormuz, and Ferdinand de
Koronha remained before Cuneale with twelve ships to pre-
vent the introduction of provisions or other supplies.

Cuneale was so much elated by his success in repelling the
Portuguese, that, in addition to his former titles, he stiled him-»
self Defender of the Mahometan Faith and Conqueror of the
Portuguese ; but when the season returned for maritime ope-
rations on the coast, the viceroy sent Andrew Furtado against
him with three gallies, 54 other vessels, and a powerful mili-
tary force. In the mean time Antonio de Noronha continued
to blockade the port all winter, taking several vessels laden
with provisions, and on different occasions slew above 100
Moors who opposed him in taking fresh water for his ships.
While on his way from Goa, Furtado dissuaded the rajah of
Banguel and the queen or rana of Okda from sending aid to
Cuneale as they intended, and cut off five ships from Mecca
that were going with relief to the enemy. When Furtado
came to anchor in the port of Cuneale, he sent to treat with
the zamorin, who had continued the siege on the land side
all winter according to his engagement, and an interview took
place between them on the shore where the zamorin came to
meet him. The zamorin was naked from the waist upwards.
Round his middle a piece of doth of gold was wrapped, hang-
ing to his knees and. fastened by a girdle of inestimable value,
al^ut the breadth of a' hand* His arms were covered from
" 8 the

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f^UAP. IV4 6BCT. XI. Conquest qfhidia. 485

the elbows to the wrists with golden bracelets adorned with
rich jewels, and so heavily laden that two men supported his
arms. He wore an extraordinarily rich chain about his neck»
and so many diamonds and rubies hung from his ears that
they were stretched down almost to his shoulders by their
weight He seemed about 30 years of age, and had a majes-
tic presence. A little on one side stood the prince, carrying
a naked sword. Behind him were many of his nobles ; among
whom was father Francisco Rodriquez, the new bishop of the
Thomists in Malabar. The zamorin and Furtado embraced
in token of friendship, on which all the cannon in the fleet
fired a salvo. After this friendly meeting they retired into
the tent of the zamorin, where they had a long conference a-
bout their future operations ; and on taking leave, Furtado
put a rich collar about the neck of the zamorin, and they
parted in a most amicable manner.

The rajah of Tanor and other great men were sent by the
zamoriii on board the admiral ship, having full powers from
their sovereign to treat and conclude on all things concerning
the joint interests of both parties, and every thing was settled
to mutual satisfaction. There now arrived from Goa and
other places, a galley and galleon, witli 11 ships and 21 smal-
ler vessels, bringing ammunition and 790 soldiers, upon which
Furtado commenced the active operations of the siege, rais-
ing entre.nchments and batteries, and taking ab^folute posses-
sion of every avenue leading to the fort and peninsula by wa-
ter. He likewise caused some advanced works belonging to
the enemy to be assaulted, on which Cuneale came in person
to assist in their defence, and for a time repulsed the assail-
ants, till Furtado landed with a reinforcement, on which the
Portuguese remained victorious, slayii)g 600 of the Moors^
with the loss of two o£Bcers and nine privates on their side.
Fort Blanco or the white tower was next assaulted, but with
more bravery than success. Yet Cuneale seeing that he could
not much longer bold out, offered rich presents to the zama-
rin to admit him to surrender upon security of his own life
and the safety of his garrison. But on this secret negocia-
tion coming to the knowledge of Furtado, he made a furious
assault on the works, which were at the same time assailed on
the land side by 6000 Nayres, by which joint attack the lower
town or petah was taken, plundered, and burnt. Batteries
were immediately erected against the upper town and fort,
and as their fire soon ruined the defences, Cuneale was con-

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i86 Fcniugime btstffoery and PARt li. B60fi: 111.

strdfied to surrender at discretibri, merely bargaining that bis
life should be saved. He accordingly marched out having a
bkck veil on his head, and carrying his sword with the point
dowuwards, which he surrendered to the zamoriti, who imme-
diately delivered it to Furtado. According to one of the articles
of agreement the spoil was to have been equally divided ; but
Furtado dealt generously by the zamorin, alleging that this
^a9 to be understood only in respect to the artiUerV, and ap-
peased his own soldiers who expected that reward of their la-
bour. The fort and all other works were levelled with the
Sound) and Furtado returned with the fleet and army to

Cuneale was about 50 years of age, of a low stature, but
8tron|^ and Well made. He and his nephew Ciniilej with other
forty Moors of note, were sent as prisoners on board the fleet,
where they well treated 5 but as soon as sotne of them were
^^ oil shore at Goa, they were torn in pieces^ by the rabble j
and Cuneale and his nephew were both publicly beheaded by
Ot^r of the viceroy^ so that the government and the mob went
hand and hand to commit murder and a flagraht breach of
ftith. How can those who are guilty of such enormities give
tiie name of barbarians to the much more honourable Ih-
£aiis !

In the year 1600, Ayres de Saldanna arrived' at Goa as
viceroy to supersede the Count de Vidugueira, who Was uni-
versally disliked by the Portuguese inhabitants. The marble
statue of the great Vasco de Gama, his grandfather, stood
orer the principal gate of the city, fastened to the Wall by a
strong bar of iron. At the instigation of some enemies to the
count, a French engineer named Sebastian Tibao applied to
the iron bar during the ni^t a certain herb that has the
quality of eating iron, so that the statue fell down next nighty
and its quarters were hung up in different parts of the city.
On die day when the count was to embark for his return to
Portugal, a party of armed meti went . on board before him,
and hui^ up his effigy at the yard arm, made exactly like him
both in fece and habit. Just as he was going on board they
returned $ and on seeing tlie effigy he asked what it Was, when
some one answered, ** it is your lordship, whoni these men
have hung up." He made no reply, but ordered the figure
to be thrown into the sea and immediately set sail ; but two
days afterwards had' to returti to port for a new stock ot
fowls, as all Uiese he took with him w^e poisoned. He was


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«I1AF. ry. stcr. xu Conquest of India. 447

better beloved by the elements than by tbofie whota he had
governed ; for he went all the way from India to Lkbon with-
out once needing to furl a sail. By the constant chafing of
the ydrds on the masts, it was foand impossible to lower the
yards in the usual way when the ship arrived at Lisbon, imo^
much that they had to be cut down. Sailing from Ooa oil
the 25th December 1600, he arrived at Lisbon on the ^ik
May 1601, having spent only five months on the voyag^^

During the administration of Ayres de Saldana, Xilimiaa
king of Aracan, who had possessed himself of the kingdom of
Pegu, gave the port of Siriam to the Portuguese in gratefol
acknowledgment of their services. That town and port is at
the mouth of the river Siriam which flows within a league of
the city of Bagou, the capital of Pegu. This grant was ob-
tain^ by Philip Brito de Nieote, who proved false and un*
f^ratt'ful to the king of AraCan, who had raised him from the
owe^t rank to his favour and esteem. By his persuasion, Xi-
limixa erected a custom-hou^ at the entry to the river Siri-
am to itierease his revenues ; which Btito meant afterwards
to seize, and to build a ibrt there, on purpose to give a footi&g
for the Portuguese to conquer the kingdom. XiHmixa ao
trordingly built the custom-house, which he gave in charge to
one Bannadala who fortified himself and suffered no Portvi-
guse to enter there, except a Dominican named Bek^lor de
Luz. Nieote, seeing bis purposes likely to be defeated by
IBantladala, determined to gain possession by force befetethe
Works were completed. He had ak>ng with him at this ttm^
three Portuguese officers and ^fty men, whom he ordered t#
surpri^ the fort and turi^ out Bannadala, trusting to Ilia
great tredit with XiHmtxa to bear him oat in this pvocedur*.
The Portuguese officers accordingly executed their <orders M
efifectually, that they used to be called the Founders ^f the
Portuguese dominion in Pegu, and Salvador ftibeyro their
t;Ommander was like to have got the whole c^^t of the' exf^
pk)it, as some even affirmed that he was its author, though in
Ideality all was due to Nieote. Batmadala being expeitt d from }nb
ibrt, £>nified himself with 1000 men in a neighbodriiigifiittiid
^the river Siriam, und^sei^ed the treasures of the pagodu of Di<^
gan to maintain his troops. Xillmi^a wns muc4l olfeiKled by the
conduct of thePbrtugtiese in this tiffiiir, and resolved to 6tt{W-
f>ort Bannadafai, but was disuad^ by the •contrivadces ^f NU
cote, who represented liiat he was about to favocff a saeriie-
l^s robber, and tsSxirtd to arrange matberB wkh the Fortii^


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488 Portuguese Discovery and part ii« book iiu

guese to his entire satisfaction. He accordingly went to Si-
riam, where he ordered every thing to his own mind ; and
when the fort was nearly finished^ he went to Goa, where he
offered to deliver up the fort to the viceroy, whence the Por*
tuguese might easily conquer the kingdom of his master, to
whom he represented his voyage to Goa as intended to pro-
cure an auxiliary force which would enable him to make a
conouest of Bengal. At the same time Nicote negoci^ted with
all tne princes • in the provinces adjoining the dominions of
Xilimixa, persuading them to confederate with the Portu^*

Eiese viceroy, by which means they might easily conquer the
Qgdom of Pegu; and several of them sent ambassadors a-
loi^ with him to Goa for this purpose.

Hardly had Nicote set sail for Goa, when Xilimixa became
sensible of his error iu; confiding in him, and sent a fleet of
war boats down the river JSiriam with 6000 men under Ban-
nadala to expell the Portuguese from their fort. Salvador
Ribeyra met this great armament with only three small ves-
sels and thirty men, and, without the loss of one man, took
forty vessels of the enemy and put the rest to flight. Then
calling, in the aid of the king of Pram, Xilimixa beset the fort
with 1200 vessels by water, while 40,000 men surrounded it
by land ; but as Ribeyra learnt that the enemy observed no

Online LibraryRobert KerrA general history and collection of voyages and travels, arranged in systematic order: forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, from the earliest ages to the present time → online text (page 51 of 53)