Robert Kerr.

A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels — Volume 02 Arranged in Systematic Order: Forming a Complete History of the Origin and Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce, by Sea a online

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Online LibraryRobert KerrA General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels — Volume 02 Arranged in Systematic Order: Forming a Complete History of the Origin and Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce, by Sea a → online text (page 9 of 52)
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more favourable for his return to New Spain, Saavedra resumed his voyage
thither, intending to have gone to Panama, to unload the cloves and other
merchandize he had brought from the Moluccas. His purpose was to have
carried this merchandize in carts from Panama, about four leagues, or
sixteen miles overland, to the river Chagre, which is said to be navigable,
and which discharges itself into the North Sea not far from Nombre de Dios,
where the goods could be reshipped for Spain; by which means all kind of
goods might be brought from India in a shorter time, and with less danger,
than by sailing round the Cape of Good Hope, as the voyage from the
Moluccas to Panama is almost a perfectly straight course between the line
and the tropics. But, in the present voyage, they were never able to
procure a favourable wind, and were therefore forced back to the Moluccas,
where they arrived in great affliction, as Saavedra died by the way[64].
Had Saavedra lived, he intended to have opened a navigable communication
from sea to sea, through the land of Castilia del Oro and New Spain, which
might have been done in one or other of the following places: - 1. From the
gulph of St Michael to Uraba, which is 25 leagues, or 100 miles. 2. From
Panama to Nombre de Dios, which is 17 leagues, or 68 miles, much the
greater part consisting of the river Chagre, navigable for small craft. 3.
Through the river Xaquator, now St Juan, in the province of Nicaragua,
which springs out of a lake that reaches to within three or four leagues
of the South Sea, and falls into the North Sea, being navigable by large
boats and lighters. 4. The other place is from Tecoantepec, through a
river, to Verdadera Cruz, in the bay of Honduras[65].

In the year 1529, Damiano de Goes, a Portuguese, travelled over all Spain,
and went from Flanders into England and Scotland, being at the courts of
the kings of these countries; after that he returned into Flanders, and
travelled through Zealand, Holland, Brabant, Luxemburgh, Switzerland, and
through the cities of Cologne, Spires, Strasburg, Basil, and other parts
of Germany, and so back to Flanders. He went thence into France, through
Piccardy, Normandy, Champagne, Burgundy, the dukedom of Bourbon, Gascony,
Languedoc, Dauphiny, and Savoy; passing into Italy by Milan, Ferrara, and
Lombardy, to Venice. Turning back, he passed through the territory of
Genoa, the dukedom of Florence, and all Tuscany, to Rome and Naples.
Thence back, through Italy, to Ulm, in Germany, and through Swabia,
Bavaria, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary, to the confines of Greece.
Thence through Poland, Prussia, and Livonia, to the great dukedom of
Moscovy; and thence back into Germany, and through the dominions of the
Landgrave, and the dukedom of Saxony, into Denmark, Gothland, and Norway,
penetrating to lat. 70°.N. In the course of these travels, which occupied
him during 22 years, he saw, spoke to, and was conversant with, all the
kings, princes, nobles, and chief cities of all Christendom; for which
reason, I thought the great extent of his travels was worthy of

In 1529 or 1530, Melchior de Sosa Tavarez went from Ormus to Bassora, and
the islands of Gissara, with some ships of war, and sailed up to where the
Euphrates and Tigris unite together, being the first of the Portuguese who
had sailed so far on the fresh water in these parts. Not long after this,
a Portuguese, named Ferdinando Coutinho, being at Ormus, determined to
return overland from thence to Portugal. For this purpose he went to
Arabia, and up the river Euphrates, for the space of a month, and saw many
countries and kingdoms that had not been before visited by the Portuguese.
He was made prisoner at Damascus; whence he crossed the province of Syria
to the city of Aleppo. He had been at the holy sepulchre in Jerusalem, in
the city of Cairo, and at Constantinople, where the Great Turk resides.
After seeing that Court, he passed over to Venice; and, from thence,
through Italy, France, and Spain, to Portugal, he came back to Lisbon.
This person, and Damiano de Goes, were the most adventurous of the
Portuguese, who, in our time, had seen and discovered the greatest extent
of foreign realms for their own satisfaction.

About the year 1530, Francis Pizarro, who has been already mentioned as
having gone to Spain to obtain the government of Peru, returned to Panama,
having procured all things as he wished, carrying with him four brothers,
Ferdinand, John, Gonsalvo, and Francis Martines de Alcantara[66]. They
were not well received by Diego de Almagro and his friends, because
Pizarro had not sufficiently represented his merits in the discovery of
Peru to the emperor, in which he had lost an eye, but took the whole merit
to himself. In the end, however, they agreed; and Almagro supplied Pizarro
with seven hundred pezoes of gold, providing him likewise with provisions
and ammunition, and other necessaries towards his intended expedition
against Peru. Soon after this arrangement with Almagro, Pizarro, and his
four brothers before-mentioned, set out with such soldiers and horses as
they could procure on their expedition. Being unable, from contrary winds,
to reach Tumbez, where he proposed to have landed, he was under the
necessity of disembarking at the river of Peru; whence he marched along
the coast with great difficulty, on account of many rivers and marshes, in
which some of his men were drowned in crossing. Coming to the town of
Coache, they found much gold and emeralds in that place; some of which
they broke, to see if they were perfect. From thence Pizarro sent twenty
thousand pezoes of gold to Almagro at Panama, to enable him to send
supplies of men, horses, ammunition, and provisions, and went from Coache
to the haven named _Porte Viejo_, where he was joined by Sebastian
Benalcazar, with all the supplies he had sent for. In the year 1531, after
the arrival of these reinforcements, Pizarro passed over from Porto Viejo
to the rich island of Puna, in the bay of Guayaquil, where he was
outwardly well received by the governor, who yet conspired to kill him and
his men; but Pizarro prevented him, and took many of the Indians, whom he
bound with chains of gold and silver. Such was the jealousy of the
governor of Puna, that he caused those who had the charge of his wives to
have their noses and privities cut off. In this place, Pizarro found above
six hundred prisoners belonging to king Atabalipa, who was then at war
with his eldest brother Guascar. Pizarro set these prisoners at liberty,
on promise of procuring him a friendly reception in Peru; but they forgot
their engagements afterwards, and excited the people to war against the
Spaniards. From Puna, Pizarro sent three Spaniards to Tumbez, in Peru, to
treat of amity; but the Peruvians seized them, and put them to death. On
hearing of this cruel action, Pizarro crossed over to the main, and made a
sudden attack, during the night, on the city of Tumbez, killing great
numbers of the inhabitants. The remainder submitted and made peace,
presenting him large gifts of gold and silver, and other riches. Pizarro
then built a town on the river Cira, which he named St Michael of
Tangarara, which was the first habitation of the Christians in these parts;
and he appointed Sebastian de Benalcazar to the command. After this, he
made search for a secure haven on the coast, and found one every way to
his wish at Payta.

In the same year, 1531, Diego de Ordas went, with 600 soldiers and 35
horses, to settle the country on the Maranon, or river of the Amazons; but,
dying on the voyage, this expedition proved fruitless. Afterwards, in the
year 1534, Hierom Artal was sent thither with 130 soldiers, yet he came
not to the river, but formed settlements at _St Michael de Neveri_, and
other places in Paria. Aries d'Acugna, a Portuguese gentleman, went
likewise to the Maranon, with ten ships, 900 men, and 130 horses, where he
spent much, and did little to purpose; but the greatest loser in this
expedition was John de Barros. This great river Maranon is in lat. 3°
S.[67], its mouth being 15 leagues, or 60 miles across, with many inhabited
islands, on which there are many trees producing incense, much larger than
those of Arabia. It produces gold and precious stones, and an emerald was
found there as large as the palm of the hand. The people of that country
make a kind of drink of a species of oats that are as large as quinces.

Nunnez de Gusman was sent from Mexico, in 1531, with 500 soldiers, half of
whom were cavalry, and 6000 Indians to carry his baggage and provisions,
to discover and subdue the countries to the northwest of the kingdom of
Mexico. In this expedition he reduced the countries of Xalisco,
Ceintiliquipac, Ciametlan, Tovalla, Cnixo, Ciamolla, Culhuacan, and other
places. On this expedition he marched through Mechuacan, where he acquired
much gold, and 10,000 marks of silver. To the country of Xalisco he gave
the name of New Galicia, because it was rugged and mountainous, and the
people robust and hardy. He built many towns in the conquered countries;
particularly Compostella, Guadalajara, after the place of his own birth in
Spain, Santo Espirito de la Conception, and St Michael, which last is in
lat. 24° N. In 1532, Cortes sent Diego Hurtado de Mendoça in two ships
from Acapulco, which is 70 leagues from Mexico, on purpose to explore the
coast of the South Sea, as he had been ordered to do by the emperor.
Mendoça sailed from Acapulco to the harbour of Xalisco, or Xalis, on the
river Barania, in lat. 22° N. where he wished to take in wood and water.
But he was resisted there, by the orders of Nunnes de Gusman, and obliged
to proceed on his voyage. Some of his men mutinied, and he put them all on
board one of his ships, that they might return to New Spain. Being in want
of water, these people put in at the bay of Vanderas, not far south from
Xalis, where they were all slain by the Indians. In this voyage of
discovery, Hurtado sailed 200 leagues along the coast, but did nothing
worthy of being recorded.

In 1533, Pizarro went from Tumbez to Caxamalca, where he took king
Atabalipa prisoner, who engaged to pay a vast sum in gold and silver for
his ransom. On purpose to procure this, Pedro de Varco and Ferdinando do
Sotto were sent to the city of Cusco, in lat. 17° S.[68], a journey of 200
leagues, all upon causeways of stone, with bridges wherever necessary, and
having lodging-places at proper distances for the conveniency of the
_Yngas_, by which name the kings of Peru are distinguished. The armies of
the Peruvians are very numerous, as they often bring more than 100,000 men
into the field; and they lodge on these causeways, as already mentioned,
where they always have abundance of provisions and other necessaries, as
is said to be the custom in China. Ferdinando Pizarro went with some
horsemen to Paciacama, 100 leagues from Caxamalca, to discover the country;
and, on his return, he learnt that Guascar, the brother of Atabalipa, had
been put to death by his command; and that Ruminaguy, the general of the
army of Atabalipa, had risen in arms, in the city of Quito, against the
Spaniards. After the reception of this intelligence, Atabalipa was
strangled by the orders of Pizarro[69]. After the death of the two kings
of the Peruvians, Pizarro continually extended his authority over the
dominions of Peru, and built many cities, towns, and forts, in convenient
situations, to hold the country under subjection. He detached Sebastian de
Benalcazar, whom he had before made governor of St Michael de Tangarara,
with 200 infantry and 80 horse, to Quito, against Ruminaguy. Benalcazar
proceeded successfully in reducing the country to subjection from one city
to another, eastwards, for 120 leagues, not far from the equinoctial line;
where Peter Alvarado found certain mountains so cold, and loaded with such
quantities of snow, that 70 of his men were frozen to death. Having
reduced the city of Quito, he established himself and his people in that
place, calling it the city of St Francis; and it seemed very strange to
the Spaniards to find, in that country, abundance of cattle, wheat, barley,
and other plants, similar to those of Spain. After sending Benalcazar to
reduce the city of Quito, Pizarro himself undertook to reduce the royal
residence of Cusco, in about 13° 20' S. in which expedition he was opposed
by Quisquiz, a Peruvian general, whom he easily defeated; and he soon
afterwards took possession of Cusco, the exceedingly rich and wealthy
capital of the Peruvian monarchy. About this time Mango, a brother of
Atabalipa, joined Pizarro, who made him Ynga, or king of the country, in
name only, while he assumed the whole authority and revenues of the
kingdom to himself[70].

In the same year, 1534; Jaques Cartier, a native of Britanny, went with
three ships to the land of Corterealis[71], and the gulf of St Lawrence,
otherwise called _Golfo Quadrato_, or the square gulf, which he fell in
with in lat. 48° 30' N. He proceeded northwards to the latitude of 51°, in
the hope of being able to penetrate in that direction to China, by a north-
west passage, to bring drugs and other merchandize from thence to France.
Next year Cartier made a second voyage to the same regions, and found the
country pervaded by many large rivers, and abounding in provisions. He
sailed 300 leagues up one of these rivers, in a south-west direction, and
named the country New France, now Canada; but finding the water to become
fresh, he was satisfied there could be no passage that way to the South
Sea; and having wintered in the country, he returned next year to France.

About the end of the year 1535, or beginning of 1536, Don Anthony de
Mendoça came from Spain to the city of Mexico, as Viceroy of New Spain,
being appointed to supersede Cortes, the discoverer and conqueror of that
rich and extensive territory. At this time Cortes was absent from the seat
of government, having gone to Tecoantepec, on purpose to fit out two ships
on a voyage of discovery. These he sent out under the command of Fernando
de Grijalva and Diego Bezerra de Mendoça, the former having a Portuguese
pilot, named Acosta, and the pilot to the latter being Fortunio Ximenez, a
Biscayan. On the first night after leaving Tecoantepec, the two ships
separated. Ximenez raised a mutiny against his captain, in which Bezerra
was slain, and many of the crew wounded. Some time afterwards, Ximenez
went on shore in the bay of Santa Cruz, for wood and water, where he, and
more than 20 of his people, were slain by the Indians. Two of the mariners,
who were in the boat, escaped to Xalisco, and told Nunnes de Gusman, who
commanded at that place, that they had seen indications of pearls during
the voyage. Gusman went accordingly with, a ship in search of pearls, and
explored above 150 leagues of the coast[72].

It is said that Grijalva sailed 300 leagues from Tecoantepec, without
seeing any land, except one small island in 20° N. to which he gave the
name St Thomas, as having been discovered on the day of that saint[73].

In the year 1535, Pizarro built the city which he named _Ciudad de los
Reys_, or of the kings, on the river of Lima, in lat. 20° S; to which he
removed the inhabitants of Xauxa, as a more convenient situation for the
residence; of the government, and in a better country[74]. He built also
the city of St Jago in Porto Viejo, and many other towns, both along the
coast and in the inland country; and he procured from Spain horses, asses,
mules, cattle, hogs, goats, and sheep, to stock his territories, and many
kinds of trees and plants, such as rosemary, oranges, lemons, citrons,
vines, and other fruits, wheat, barley, and other grains, with radishes,
and many other kinds of vegetables, which were disseminated all over the
country[75]. in the same year, Diego de Almagro went from the city of
Cusco to the provinces of Arequipa and Chili, in lat. 30° S. The march was
of great length, and he discovered a great extent of country; but he
suffered great extremities of cold, hunger, and fatigue, in consequence of
the ruggedness of the mountains, and the ice and snow, insomuch that many
of his men and horses were frozen to death. About this time Ferdinando
Pizarro came from Spain to the city of Lima, bringing with him the patent
of Marquis of Atanillos, for his brother, Francis Pizarro, and a
commission for Diego de Almagro, by which he was appointed governor of all
the land he had hitherto discovered, and 100 leagues beyond, under the
name of the _New kingdom of Toledo_. Ferdinando Pizarro went to the city
of Cusco, of which he was made governor, and John de Rada went into Chili
to Almagro, carrying with him the orders of the emperor. On receiving the
letters patent of the emperor, Almagro marched directly for Cusco, which
he considered to be included in his government, by which a civil war was
kindled between him and Pizarro. On this march he and his people were
severely oppressed by famine, and were even forced to feed upon their
horses which had died four months and a half before, when on their march
southwards into Chili[76].

In this same year, 1535, Nunnez d'Acunha, who was governor of India for
the crown of Portugal, while building a fortress, in the city of Diu, sent
a fleet, under the command of Vasquez Perez del San Paio, to the river
Indus, which is under the tropic of Cancer, 90 or 100 leagues to the north-
west from Diu. He also sent an army against Badu, the king of Cambaia, or
Guzerat, of which a renegado named Cosesofar was captain[77]. The fleet
came to the bar of the great river Indus in December, where the same
phenomena were observed as were formerly experienced by Alexander,
according to the relation of Quintus Curtius[78].

In the same year, Simon de Alcazava sailed from Seville, with two ships
and 240 men. Some say he was destined for New Spain, others for the
Moluccas, and others again that he meant to have proceeded for China,
where he had formerly been, along with Ferdinando Perez de Andrada.
However this may have been, he went first to the Canaries, and from thence
to the straits of Magellan, without touching at Brazil, or any other part
of the coast of South America, and entered into these straits in the month
of December, having contrary winds, and very cold weather. Under these
difficulties, the soldiers entreated him to turn back, which he refused,
and went into a haven on the south side of the straits, in lat. 53° S.
where he ordered Roderigo de Isla to land, with 60 of the people, to
explore the country; but the people mutinied against Alcazava, and slew
him; and, having appointed such captains and officers as they thought
proper, they returned back. In their voyage homewards, one of the ships
was lost on the coast of Brazil, and such of the Spaniards as escaped
drowning, were killed and eaten by the savages. The other ship went to St
Jago, in the island of Hispaniola, and thence returned to Seville, in
Spain[79]. In the same year, Don Pedro de Mendoça went from Cadiz for the
river Plata, with twelve ships and 2000 men, being the largest armament,
both of ships and men, that had ever been sent from Spain to the new world.
Mendoça died on his return to Spain, but most part of his men remained in
the country on the Rio Plata, where they built a large city, containing
now 2000 houses, in which great numbers of Indians dwell along with the
Spaniards. From this place they discovered and conquered the country to a
great extent, even to the mines of Potosi and the town of La Plata[80],
which is at the distance of 500 miles from Buenos Ayres.

Cortes having learnt, in the year 1536, that his ship, of which Fortunio
Ximenez was pilot, had been seized by Nunnez de Guzman, sent three ships
to Xalisco, while he marched thither by land with a respectable force; and,
on his arrival there, he found his ship all spoiled and rifled. When his
small squadron was come round to Xalisco, he went himself on board, and
left Andrew de Tapia to command his land force. Setting sail from thence,
he came, on the first of May, to a point of land, which he named Cape St
Philip, and, to an island close by this cape, he gave the name of St Jago.
Three days afterwards, he came to the bay where the pilot Ximenez was
killed, which he named Bahia de Santa Cruz, where he went on land, and
sent out Andrew de Tapia to explore the country. Cortes again set sail,
and came to the river now called _Rio de San Pedro y San Paulo_, where the
ships were separated by a tempest. One was driven to the bay of Santa Cruz,
another to the river of Guajaval, and the third was stranded on the coast
near Xalisco, whence the crew went overland to Mexico. After waiting a
long while for his other two ships, Cortes made sail, and entered into the
gulf of California, otherwise called _Mar Vermejo_, or the Vermilion Sea,
and by some, the sea of Cortes. Having penetrated 50 leagues within that
gulf, he espied a ship riding at an anchor, and, on his approach towards
her, had nearly been lost, if he had not received assistance from that
other ship. Having repaired his own ship, he departed from thence with
both ships; and, having procured provisions at a very dear rate, at St
Michael de Culiacan, he went to the harbour of Santa Cruz, where he
received information that Don Antonio de Mendoça had arrived from Spain as
Viceroy of Mexico. He therefore left Francis de Ulloa with the command of
his ships, ordering him to proceed on discoveries; and going to Acapulco,
he received a messenger from Don Antonio de Mendoça, the new viceroy,
certifying his arrival, and the assumption of his authority. Mendoça
likewise sent him the copy of a letter from Francis Pizarro, stating that
Mango, the Inca of Peru, had risen in arms, and assailed the city of Cusco
with 100,000 fighting men, having slain his brother, John Pizarro, and
above 400 Spaniards, with 200 horses; and that he himself, and the Spanish
dominions in Peru, were in imminent danger, unless speedily and
effectually assisted.

Cortes, not yet resolved on submitting to the authority of Mendoça, fitted
out two ships, under the command of Ferdinando de Grijalva and one
Alvarado, on purpose to discover the route to the Moluccas by the way of
the equinoctial line, because the islands of Cloves are under that
parallel. They went first to St Michael de Tangarara, in Peru, where they
landed succours for Pizarro, and thence, all along the line, to the
Moluccas, as they were ordered; and they are said to have sailed above
1000 leagues without sight of land on either side the whole way. At length,
in lat. 2° N. they discovered an island named _Asea_, which was believed
to be one of the islands of Cloves. Five hundred leagues farther, more or
less, they came to another, which they named _Isla de los Pescadores_, or
island of Fishers. Going still in the same course, they saw another island,
called _Hayme_, on the south side of the line, and another named _Apia_,
after which they came in sight of _Seri_. Turning one degree to the north,
they came to anchor at an island named _Coroa_, whence they came to
another under the line named _Memousum_, and thence to _Busu_, still
holding on the same course[81].

The people of all these islands are black, with frizzled hair, whom the
people of the Moluccas call Papuas. Most of them are witches, and eat
human flesh; and are so much given to wickedness, that the devils walk
among them as companions. Yet when these wicked spirits find any of the
Papuas alone, they kill him with cruel blows, or smother him; for which
reason they always go out in companies of two or three together. There is
in this country a bird as large as a crane, which has no wings wherewith
to fly, but runs on the ground with the swiftness of a deer, and, of the
small feathers of this bird, the natives make hair for their idols. They
have likewise a particular herb, the leaf of which, after being washed in
warm water, if laid on any member, and licked with the tongue, will even
draw out the whole blood of a mans body; and, by means of this leaf, the
natives let blood of themselves, when afflicted by sickness.

From these islands they came to others named the _Guellas_, in lat. 1° N.
_east and west_[82], from the island of Ternate, in which the Portuguese
have a fortress. These islands are 124 leagues from the island of _Moro_,
and between forty and fifty leagues from Ternate. From thence they went to
the island of _Moro_[83], and the islands of Cloves, going about from one
island to another; but the natives would not permit them to land, desiring

Online LibraryRobert KerrA General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels — Volume 02 Arranged in Systematic Order: Forming a Complete History of the Origin and Progress of Navigation, Discovery, and Commerce, by Sea a → online text (page 9 of 52)