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treaty. /To Jay belongs the chief credit for putting in
motion the train of events which ended in the attainment
of this object. He deserves to be called, as John Adams
called him, the hero of the negotiations. 11 ^ Of Spanish
designs on the Mississippi, Oswald, and, no doubt, Shel-
burne, believed that they had evidence, and the premier
probably felt that a separate treaty which would give up
the West to the United States was preferable to a general
treaty which would abandon it to Spain.
^There remains another consideration to explain the relin-
quishment of Illinois and the rest of the West by Great
Britain. To me it seems the decisive factor in the case.
The enjoyment and monopolization of the peltry trade was
the leading object which Great Britain sought through her
possession of that territory. In this purpose she had failed.
Her chief motive for holding the country no longer
existed. In a debate in the House of Lords in February,
1783, critics of the peace asserted that by the boundaries
conceded to the United States Great Britain had lost the
fur trade. 120 Shelburne, defending the treaty which his
ministry had made, pointed out that the fur trade was not
abandoned, but only divided. He placed the annual imports
from Canada to England at only 50,000, and declared that
the preservation of this import of 50,000 had cost England
800,000. 121 Secretary Townshend declared in the Com-
mons that the possession of the Northwest had not been
profitable. 122 "Suppose," said Shelburne, "the entire fur
trade sunk into the sea, where is the detriment to this



18 Sparks, op. cit., VI, 501.

20 Par. Hist, of Eng., XXIII, 377, 381.

n Jhid Ann



1 Ibid., 409.

* Ibid., 465.



140 TRANSITION IN ILLINOIS.

country? Is 50,000 a year imported in that article
any object for Great Britain to continue a war of which
the people of England by their representatives have declared
their abhorrence?" Great Britain abandoned only that
which it was unprofitable for her to retain^V



APPENDIX.



A LIST OF THE SOURCES AND SECONDARY WORKS
CITED.

NOTE: No attempt has been made to prepare an exhaustive bibliography.

ADAMS, H. B. Maryland's Influence in Founding a National Com-
monwealth. Maryland Historical Society, Fund Publications,
No. ii. Baltimore, 1877.

ALDEN, G. H. New Governments West of the Alleghanies before
1780. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin. Historical
Series, II, No. I. Madison, 1897.

ALVORD, C. W. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. Bulletin of the
Illinois State Historical Library, I, No. i. Springfield, 1905.

The Old Kaskaskia Records. An address read before the

Chicago Historical Society, 1906.

ALVORD, C. W. and CARTER, C. E. Invitation Serieuse aux Habitants
des Illinois. By un Habitant des Kaskaskias. Reprinted in
facsimile from the original edition published at Philadelphia
in 1772. Providence, 1908.

American Historical Re-view.

American State Papers, Documents Legislative and Executive of
the Congress of the United States. Public Lands. Wash-
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BANCROFT, GEORGE. History of the United States, 6 vols. Boston,
1878.

Bancroft Manuscripts. New York Public Library.

BEER, G. L. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. New York, 1907.

BENTON, E. J. The Wabash Trade Route in the Development of
the Old Northwest. Johns Hopkins University Studies in
Historical and Political Science, XXI. Baltimore, 1903.

BOYD, C. E. The County of Illinois. American Historical Review,
IV. '

BRODHEAD, J. R. Documents Relative to the Colonial History of
the State of New York. Edited by E. B. O'Callaghan, 15
vols. Albany, 1853-1887.

BROWN, H. The History of Illinois. New York, 1844.

BRYMNER, D. Report on Canadian Archives, 19 vols. Ottawa,
1882-1007.



142 APPENDIX.

BUTTERFIELD, C. W. History of George Rogers Clark's Conquest
of the Illinois and the Wabash Towns, 1778 and 1779.
Columbus, 1904.

The Washington-Irvine Correspondence. Madison, 1882.

Calendar of Virginia State Papers and other Manuscripts.
Arranged and edited by W. P. Palmer, II vols. Richmond,

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CARTER, C. E. British Administration of Illinois. MSS. Thesis.
Awarded the Justin Winsor Prize of the American Historical
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CHITTENDEN, H. M. The American Fur Trade of the Far West,
3 vols. New York, 1902.

CIRCOURT, LE COMTE AooLPHE DE. Histoire de faction commune
de la France et de I'Amerique pour I'independance des Etats-
Unis, par George Bancroft, accompagne de documents inedits,
3 vols. Paris, 1876.

CLARK, COL. GEORGE ROGERS. Sketch of his Campaign in the Illinois
in 1778-1779, with an Introduction by Hon. Henry Pirtle and
an Appendix. Cincinnati, 1869.

COFFIN, V. The Province of Quebec and the Early American
Revolution. Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin. Eco-
nomics, Political Science and History Series, vol. I. Madison.

Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library. Springfield.

Vol. II contains the recently discovered Cahokia Records.

Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Fourth Series.
Boston.

Collections of the New York Historical Society. New York.

Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison.

COLLINS, L. History of Kentucky. Edited by R. H. Collins, 2 vols.
Covington, 1882.

DINWIDDIN, ROBERT. Official Records, 2 vols. Collections of the
Virginia Historical Society. New Series, III and IV.

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DURAND, J. New Materials for the History of the American Revo-
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Emmet Manuscripts. New York Public Library.

ENGLISH, W. H. Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River
Ohio, 1778-1783, and Life of Gen. George Rogers Clark,
2 vols. Indianapolis and Kansas City, Mo., 1896.
Contains many important documents, including Clark's Memoir and Letter

to Mason.

FARRAND, M. The Indian Boundary Line. American Historical
Review, X.

FERNOW, B. The Ohio Valley in Colonial Days. Munsell's Histor-
ical Series, No. 17. Albany, 1890.



APPENDIX. 143

FISKE, J. The American Revolution, 2 vols. Boston and New

York, 1896.
The Critical Period of American History. Boston and New

York, 1888.
FITZMAURICE, LORD E. Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, 3 vols.

London, 1875-1876.

FORCE, P. American Archives. Fourth and Fifth Series. Wash-
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FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN. Complete Works. Compiled and edited by

John Bigelow, 10 vols. New York and London, 1887-1888.

Works. Edited by Jared Sparks, 10 vols. Boston, 1837-1844.

HALE, E. E. and E. E. JR. Franklin in France, 2 vols. Boston,

1887-1888.
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the Laws of Virginia from the first session of the Legislature

in the year 1619, 13 vols. 1823.
HENRY, W. W. Patrick Henry, Life, Correspondence and Speeches,

3 vols. New York, 1891.
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Files, etc., of the Part Sustained by Connecticut during the

War of the Revolution. Hartford, 1842.
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Highways of America, vol. VIII. Cleveland, 1904.
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Indiana Historical Society Publications. Indianapolis.
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Johnston, 4 vols. New York, 1890-1893.
JEFFERSON, THOMAS. Writings. Collected and edited by P. L.

Ford, 10 vols. New York, 1892-1899.
Journals of the Continental Congress. Edited by W. C. Ford, 12

vols. Washington, 1904-1008.
LECKY, W. E. H. History of England in the Eighteenth Century.

8 vols. London, 1878-1890.
MASON, E. G. Early Chicago and Illinois. Chicago Historical

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Col. John Todd's Record Book. Fergus Historical Series,

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American Nation, vol. X. New York and London, 1905.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society Collections. Lansing.
Missouri Historical Society Collections. St. Louis.



144 APPENDIX.

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Year 1803 (Hansard), 36 vols. London, 1806-1820.
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Essays in Western History. Chicago, 1904.



APPENDIX. 145

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The Westward Movement. Boston and New York, 1897.





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