Robert Mudie.

Annual report of the University of Wyoming Agricultural ..., Volumes 11-20 online

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or composition will almost surely fail to produce the best re-
sults obtainable.

The error due to the use of average analyses in the
compounding of rations is overcome to some extent for some
Wyoming fodders in this bulletin. Analyses made at this
station of some of our forage plants show that they differ
markedly in composition from eastern forage plants. The
experiments reported in this bulletin give new analyses and
percentages of digestibility of Wyoming-grown alfalfa and
native hays. By using these new results in the compounding
of rations, the Wyoming ranchman will come much nearer to
supplying the needs of his live stock without waste of nutrients
than he could with average analyses heretofore published.

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Wyominx Experiment Station.

This will readily be seen from a comparison of the followingf
tables. The first table gives a ration for a fattening lamb of
lOO pounds compounded according to average analyses as
compiled in Henry's "Feeds and Feeding" :




Diirestlble nutrients.






.Mfalfn, 2»4 lbs






Corn, 1 lb





1:5. :i

Standard ration




The next table is made up with the figures for alfalfa
taken from analyses and digestion coefficients of first cutting
alfalfa he^y, crop of 1905, as reported in this bulletin :



(.Figures for corn taken from Henry's "Feeds and Feeding*'; flsrures for
alfalfa taken from this bulletin.)



Dlgrestible nutrle

1 Carbo-
Proteln | hydrates



Alfalfa. 2»4 lbs





Corn, 1 lb


.86 '




Standard ration






The two tables above show how much error is involved
in compounding by eastern feeding tables a ration containing
Wyoming-grown alfalfa. If an amount of alfalfa is fed that
would give a nutritive ratio of 5 .2 according to eastern tables,
a nutritive ratio of only 4.7 is secured.

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Sixteenth Annual Report.
A better balanced ration would be as follows:


(See prevfous table for source of fl^ires.)



Digestible nutrients







Alfalfa. 1% IbH




Corn, 1*2 Jbs






Stnudard ration





It will be seen that this ration much more nearly approx-
imates the standard than does the ration compounded from
average analyses.

It seems necessary, then, that new feeding tables be made
for the use of ranchmen in this state, and below will be found
such a table for alfalfa and native hays in so far as data has
been secured for them :




100 lbs.

Digestible nutrients in 100


Prottm 1 hydrates




\lfalfa, flrst ruttlnif






Alfalfa, second cutting

Mlx»*d lowland hav*

in. 90

42.46 1 .70
49.41 1 :«


Western Wheat Grass (ir-




•Water-loving species, called "native hay" elsewhere in this bulletin.

During the following year it is hoped to continue the
investigations along this line, wath a possibility of taking up
some small grains and straw. A summary as found in Bul-
letin Xo. 69 is given below :

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42 Wyoming Experiment Station.


In Experiment I (Alfalfa, Second Cutting) each day's
feces were analyzed separately, but no great variation in com-
position was noted.

In Expriment II (Alfalfa, Second Cutting) four different
composite samples of the hay were made up and analyzed with
the following results :


Ether Crude Crude free

Water Ash extriirt fiber protein extract

First 6.46 7.91 1.44 34.» 13.13 86.08

Second 6.60 7.88 1.5l :ffl.71 14.(J6 37.84

Third 6.46 8.50 1.66 31.13 15.13 37.22

Fourth 6.60 8.17 1.42 33.06 14.06 :.rt.89

Average 6.2'i 8.12 1.48 38.22 14.10 36.83

This shows the necessity of extreme care in sampling, if
results obtained are to be relied upon, as hay from the same
plot of ground varies in composition.

The average composition of the alfalfa used in the ex-
periments given in this bulletin are as follows :


Etber Crude Crude free

Water Ash extract fiber protein extract
Experiment I, second cnt-

tlnsr alfalfa. 1904 5.83 10.28 1.46 ' 29.3> 17.32 35.76

Experiment II, second cut-
ting alfalfa. 1904 6.25 8.12 1.48 38.22 14.10 36.83

Experiment III necond

cutting alfalfa, 1904.... 6.70 8.87 l.m 27.36 16.88 39.m

AV. CROP lfMI4, 4I.2<I ».CH> 1.54 2l>.fft8 Ts-TT ST^CIt;

Experiment IX s(>cond •

cutting alfalfa, 1905.... 6.74 9.04 1.87 20.17 16.43 37.75

Experiment X. 8e<*ond cut-
ting alfalfa. 1906 7.26 8.98 1.99 27.63 15.6") SS.M

AV. CROP IfMNS, 7 Am HMH l.fl.S 2H.40 1B.R4 3N.19

•AV. BOTH CROPS. U.44 N.70 1.(12 »O.HO 1S.OK 97.30

Experiment VII, first cut-
ting alfalfa, 1906 6.47 9.12 1.81 30.83 16.09 36.6S

Experiment VIII. first cut-
ting alfalfa, 1905 8.00 9.81 2.06 28.73 16.81 34.59

AVERAGE, 7.2:i 0.47 1.04 20.7M U1.4K TSTl.T

*Ayerage of eight analyses.

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Sixteenth Annual Report. 43

The average digestion coefficients as found for Wyoming
alfalfa hays are as follows:

Drj' Ether Cnide Crude free

matter AKh extract fiber protein extmct

Exp. I, second cutting

alfalfa, 1904 «J.56 66.4fl 36.06 46.81 80.92 Tl.ll

Exp. II, seconti cutting

alfalfa. 1904 50.08 M.78 46.87 40.77 77.52 72.29

Exp. Ill, second cutting

alfalfa. 10(M 06.61 57.25 41.64 46.92 80.56 77.82

Exp. IX, second cutting

alfalfa, 1906 66.01 68.74 43.86 50.58 78.79 76.71

Exp. X second cutting

alfalfa, 1905 66.80 54.51 40.13 46.12 80.35 78.69

Exp. VII, first cutting

alfalfa. 1906 ..56.46 45.70 32:71 40.57 74.83 71.07

Exp. VIII, first cutting

alfalfa, 1906 68.83 45.96 37.86 48.16 77.83 72.52

AVERAGE (second cut-
ting, 1904) <I8.»» R«.17 41.»0 44.«4 7».«7 74.0H

AVERAGE (second cut-
ting. 1905) <MI.1« R4.ia 4e.»« 4K3a 70.57 77. 70

AVER.^GE (second cut-
ting, all experiments) «4.5« 5».«5 4».82 4«.«« 70.«» 75..-Mi

AVERAGE (first cut-
ling. 1905) <MI.»I> 45.N5 »«.2» 44.87 7«.»3 71. HO

Wyoming alfalfa hay runs higher in crude fiber and crude
protein than the average. The digestion coefficients of the
crude protein is also high. The nutritive ratio of first cutting
alfalfa is i :3.i9; second cutting for both years, i :3.68. Sec-
ond cutting alfalfa is apparently a better feed.

The native hays gave the following composition :

Ether Crude ■ Crude free
Water Ash extract fiber protein extract
Exp. IV, Western Wheat

Grass 6.94 6.23 2.68 80.48 6.85 48.82

Exp. V, Western Wheat

GrsHS 5.51 6.27 2.52 20.78 6.68 40.29

Exp. VI. native hay (mixed

sedges, rushes, grasses)' 7.10 6.42 2.11 28.01 7.75 47.71

The digestion coefficients were found as follows :

Dry Ether Crude Crude free
matter Asli extract fiber protein extract
Exp. IV, native hay (one

shei'p) 63.50 31.35 40.70 67.26 58.77 67.20

Kxp. V. native hay 65.21 30.27 41.98 71.31 66.00 68.46

Average (three sheep).... 64.64 30.63 41.60 69.96 56.26 68.04
Exp. VI. native hay (sedg-
es, rushes, grasses)*.. 63.21 53.04 62.87 65.09 50.06 64.12

•See Bulletin 80. "Digestion Experiments with Wethers." This station.

The native hays of Wyoming are better and more nutri-
tious than timothy grown in the eastern states.

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44 Wyoming Experiment Station.

The digestible nutrients in loo pounds of hay are given
below calculated from the experiments described in this bul-
letin :




Dry Ether Crude Crude fi*ee Nutritive

matter extract fiber protein extra<'t raiio

Alfalfa, first cutting. 1905 56.02 0.68 13.21 12.56 25.22 1:3.19

Alfalfa, second cutting. 1906.. 61. 58 0.90 13.72 12.37 29.04 1: :i.68

•' 1904-5. .60.35 0.70 14.24 12.01 28.22 1: 3.68

Western Wluiat Grass. 1904.. 60.89 1.09 20.69 3.81 33.32 1:14. S6

Xattve hay, 1904 58.78 1.33 . 18.82 4.58 30.59 1:11.48

The water soluble material was determined in the alfalfa
and native hays with the following results :

Total water ToTnl orgfinic

extract Ash matter

Alfalfa, average 27.43 5.93 21.50

Western W^heat Grass 22.23 2.58 19.65

Native hay 18.84 3.79 15.05

Alfalfa gives a larger water soluble extract than either
Western Wheat Grass or native hay. This may in part ac-
count for the fact that the alfalfa is more susceptible to fer-
mentation and decay upon dampening during the process of
curing than the other hays experimented with. As is well
known, it blackens oftentimes after a heavy dew.

III. Alkali Studies. This is a continuation of the investi-
gations carried on at this station for a number of years past,
a number of bulletins having already been published upon
varying phases of the subject.*

The alkali studies embodied in this reportt have l)een
carried on intermittently for the past three years. The work
was begun primarily to determine if mixtures of salts in solu-
tion had any effect upon water absorption by seeds other
that that which simple salt solutions produce. The results

•Bulletin 29, ''Alkali: Some Observations and Experiments," Bufl'um; Bul-
letin No. :J9. "Alkali Studies No. II," Slosson and Buffum; "Alkali Studies
III." Buffum: Ninth Annual Report of this Station: and "Alkali Studies V,"
Buflfum and Slosson; Tenth Annual Report of this Station.

fSoe "Alkali Studios VI" in another portion of this report.

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Sixteenth Annual Report. 45

were so varying that the problem was discontinued and
the effect upon salt absorption was tried. We were unfortunate
in not having a thermostat adequate for the purpose of keeping
constant temperatures, and that may account for some of the
variations in different series, but an attempt was made to run
all the experiments of each separate series under the same

I\'. Miscellaneous. L'nder this head are classed analyses
of samples sent in by interested parties, which occasionally
takes a large share of the time of the staff in this department.
It is the practice to make analyses and investigations, free of
charge, as time will permit, for interested parties, when it is
l)elieved that the interest is more than local, or if it is thought
that the data will be of value for guidance in future work.



The papers giving results of alkali investigations which
have been published heretofore by the station are "Alkali," Bul-
letin Xo. 29; **AlkaIi Studies II," Bulletin No. 39; "Alkali
Studies III"; "Alkali Studies I\'"; "Alkali Studies \'," and
"Alkali Lakes and Deposits," Bulletin Xo. 49. Alkali Studies
III and Alkali Studies IV are a part of the ninth annual report,
and Alkali Studies V is a part of the tenth annual report.

The investigations given in this paper were begun by Dr.
E. E. Slosson while he was Chemist of this station. The w^ork
has been continued along the same lines, and free use has been
made of his results and his notes.

These investigations were taken up to determine what
effect the presence of ions of different velocity had upon the
absorption of a given salt by seeds and incidentally to determine
if ionic velocities had any marked effect upon salt absorption.
It was hoped that this would throw some light upon the ap-
parent selective salt absorption which at one time was thought

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46 Wyoming Experiment Station.

to be purely a biological process. Recent investigations have,
however, tended to show that ionic mobility does have some
effect upon salt absorption, and that, roughly, at least, salts
are absorbed in a direct ratio of the velocity in which they
diffuse through water.*

' It has been noted that some salts are absorbed by seeds to
a much greater extent than others under originally the same
**head" of osmotic pressure.*

The number of molecules of different salts absorbed by
weight. Since ions diffuse more rapidly than molecules.j if
for the number of molecules forced through water in a given
length of time by osmotic pressure.

Other experiments have l)een carried out in this lal)oratory
with solutions of different salts of osmotic pressure of ten and
twenty atmospheres. Dividing the amount of salt absorbed
per hundred weight of dry seed by the equivalent weights gives
the relative number of molecules forced into the seeds in a
given length of time, and may be compared with the number
of molecules forced through water in a given time by osmotic
pressure, as discovered by Long.

No. iuol(H'uh»K No. iiioItHMiles No. inolwnh^s

diffused abtforbed iihsorbed

throiijrh by oorn, by whoat.

water lOatnioHpheresf 2(7>iTmosi>liere:«!

Sodium sulplmte 678 «) 12J

Sodium chloride flOO eo o»>

PotRHslum Hulphati> — 148 im

PotaHsium chloride 808 109 12S

tSoaked 116 hours.
;Soake<l 72 hours.

It appears that salts under the same osmotic pressure are
absorbed by seeds in the order of their diffusibility. The ratio
is not the same, but that could not be expected under the crude
conditions of the experiments in which the motive force was
constantly changing. These figures compare favorably with
those found by Slosson.§

•*Alkrtll studies IV," Ninth Annual Report of WyomliiK Kxperiment

••Ostwald: Lehrbuch der Alluemelnen Chemle. I, 691.
I" Alkali Studios IV^" Ninth Annual Report of this Station.

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Sixteenth Annual Report. 47

method of conducting experiments.

The osmotic pressures were calculated from the fonnula*
o8i9T/ c(n - i) x
V V i-C / .

in which P is the osmotic pressure in atmosphere, T is the
absolute temperature, V is the volume in liters which contain
one gram* molecule of the salt, c is the electrical conductivity
of the solution, C is the electrical conductivity at infinite dilu-
ticnf and n is the number of ions into which the molecule

To get the osmotic pressure as nearly exact as possible,
osmotic pressure curves were plotted for each salt. After
solutions were made up they were standardized carefully.
About ten grams of selected seeds were placed in salt-mouth
bottles along with 200 cubic centimeters of standard salt solu-
tions and the bottles tightly stoppered with glass stoppers. The
solutions were changed every twenty-four hours. In experi-
ments where it was wished to determine the effect of rapid or
slow moving ions upon salt absorption, solutions were made
up of the required ion-giving substances of osmotic pressure
corresponding to the osmotic pressure of the solution with
which it was to be used. One cubic centimeter of the ion-giv-
ing substance was added to every 200 cubic centimeters of the
stock solution. The amount of added substance was made as
small as possible, so that the change in ionization would be

The calculations are made upon a basis of ten grams of
seeds. The number of molecules upon a basis of one hundred
seeds are in the same direction as the results obtained by Long**
anything will effect the difTusibility of the ions, the results
should be easily shown by experiment with the absorption of

•Xernst: Theoretical Chemistry, p. 137.

fThe conductivities were taken from Smithsonian Physical Tables, pp.
200-261, and Ostwald: Lelirbuch der Allgemelney Chemie, II, 1, p. 723.
t Xernst, 326.

Digitized by


48 Wyoming Experiment Station.

salts by seeds. Ions which move rapidly are accelerated in
the presence of ions which move slowly. The reverse is also
true. Ions which move slowly are retarded in the presence of
ions which move rapidly, both relatively and absolutely.!

The following calculations have been made for the relative
velocity of various ions J at a dilution of i,ooo liters from their
conductivities :

Natrion ^^^41.1 ' Hydroxidion=i54.3

Kalion =S9'7 Hydrion =285.5

Chloridion=59.7 >^ Sulphanion = 61.0

Calcion =39-3§

The above figures also correspond to the rapidity with
which the various ions will be forced through water by osmotic
pressure, as determined by Long,**

For example, kalion should diffuse more rapidly in the
presence of natrion and the natrion should be retarded. Ap-
plying this to absorption of salts by seeds in the presence of
sodium salts, potassium salts should be absorbed in the greater
abundance, i. c, absorption of salts takes place along the lines
of least resistance.

To test the theories as given above, experiments were tried

with various salt solutions upon corn and wheat. It was found

that where pure water was used there was a* leaching out of

the salt, as would be expected. This varied with the seeds

used, with the time of soaking and temperature. Below is the

tabulation of results:

Corn Corn Wheat Wheat Wheat

Per cent of ash in original seed 1.59 1.77 1.72 1.72 1.72

Per cent lost soaked in pure water 40 .23 .11 .28 .15

Time of soaking in hours 144 116 72 96 72

The ash was determined upon one sample of wheat, and
that taken as the average amount of ash present in the wheat

tOstwald, 695.

JOstwald: Oiitllnos of General Chemiatry. 281-284.
lOstwald, II. 1. 757.
••Ostwald: Lehrbiich der Allgemelnen Chemie, I. fiOl.

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Sixteenth Annual Report. 49

used. It was all selected wheat from the same lot. The corn

was taken from two different lots.

The table below gives the gain in ash after soaking wheat

and com in various simple salt solutions of osmotic pressure

of ten and twenty atmospheres :

Relative Relative

Corn,* No. of Wheat,t No. of

10 at. molecules 20 at. molecules

KCI 81% 109 .94% 126

5^ K2SO4 1.24 142 1.81 208

NaCl 35 60 .59 loi

J/^ NaiSO* 66 94 .80 112

It will be noted that the salts are absorbed in the order
of their diffusibility, although the ratio is not the same. This
would not be expected under the crude conditions of the ex-

* Soaked n6 hours.
tSoaked 96 hours.

The table below gives relative figures for the effect pro-
duced by the addition of hydroxidion to solutions of various
salts :


Relative Relative

Corn,* No. of Wheat,t No. of

10 at. molecules 20 at. molecules

KCI 81% 109 .94% 126

KCI-hKOH 58 78 .91 122

J^ IGSO4 1.24 142 1.81 208

V2 K,S04+K0H 58 66 1.41 162

NaCl 35 60 .59 loi

NaCl-hNaOH 29 50 .56 96

V^ Na^SO* 66 94 .80 112

V2 Na,SO*-hNaOH 36 50 .82 1 16

•Soaked 116 hours.
fSoaked 06 hours.

It will be noted that in every case, with the exception of
sodium sulphate with sodium hydroxide at twenty atmos-
pheres, the addition of the extreme rapid moving hydroxidio 1
to the slow moving negative ions retards absorption of salts.
Absorption of sodium sulphate in the presence, of sodium hy-

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Wyoming Experiment Station.

droxide seemed to work backwards to what would be expected.
This was noted and several experiments were tried to determine
if this was accidental or not. The table below gives the results :

gain, in ash.

Bel. Rel. Bel. Bel.

Corn,' No. Com.t No. Wheat,: No. Wheat,! No.

20 at. mol. 10 at. mol. 10 at. mol. 80 at. mol.

Vi Na,SO« 1.09% 144 -66% 94 .05% 8 .34% 42

1/^ Na,S04+NaOH...2.04 286 .36 50 .27t 38 .38 54

V2 NaaSOi .80** 112 .76tt 106

^ Na,S04+NaOH... .82 116 .84 118

V2 Na.SO* .86« 122

'/^ Na,SO*+NaOH... , .90 126

*Boaked 144 hours. **Soaked 96 hours.

tSoaked 116 hours. ttSoaked 96 hours.

jSoaked 72 hours. * t:Soaked 72 hours.
iSoaked 144 hours.

These results make it appear as though sodium sulphate

was accelerated in the presence of sodium hydroxide. No

reason can be given for this, as it is directly opposite to what

would be expected. The following table gives the effect of

the addition of the extremely rapid hydrion to solutions of

salts :

gain in ash.

Relative Relative

Corn,* No. of Wheat,t No. of

10 at. molecules 20 at. molecules

KCl 81% 109 .94% 126

KCl-hHCl 50 67 .54 73

5/^ KaSO* 1.24 142 1.81 208

V2 KaS04+H,S04 83 96 1.66 190

NaCl 35 60 .59 101

NaCl-fHCl 22 38 .55 94

^ NasSO* 66 94 .80 112

i^ Na3S04+H,S04 28 40 .78 no

*Soaked 116 hours,
t Soaked 96 hours.

In every case the addition of the rapid hydrion to salts
has decreased the absorption of that salt by the seed, which is
in direct accord with the theory.

To determine the effect of slow moving ions upon the
absorption of rapid moving ions, calcion was chosen as the slow
moving ion. The results were not entirely satisfactory, and

Digitized by


Sixteenth Annual Risport. 51

the velocity of the calcion being too near that of the other
ions is given as a probable cause.


Corn,* osmotic Relative

pressure No. of

20 at. molecules

NaCl 95% 162

NaCl+CaCl. 98 167

KCl 2.10 282

KCl-fCaCl, 2.17 291

NasSO* 1.09 n

Na.S04+CaS0. 1.55 109

KuSO* 2.70 ( ?) 155

K,SO*+CaSO« 2.20 (?) 127

'Soaked 144 hours.

The slower calcium ion increases the absorption in most
cases, although the difference is not great. Calcium sulphate
is but slightly soluble and it was impossible to get the required
amount in solution. Several experiments were conducted with
potassium sulphate containing calcion, but the results were far
from satisfactory and so are not given here.


( 1 ) In pure water seeds lose a portion of the original salt.

(2) Absorption of salts by seeds from solutions of same
osmotic pressure corresponds favorably with the numbers ob-
tained by Long, for the number of molecules forced through
water in a given length of time.

(3) The absorption of salts by seeds is in a direct ratio
with the relative mobility of the ions. This is not exactly so,
nor would it be expected to be under the crude conditions of
the experiments.

(4) The addition of a more rapid ion, whether positive
or negative, in small quantities to solutions of slower ions re-
tard absorption of the slower ion.

(5) The experiments in which slow positive calcion was
added to rapidly moving ions was not very satisfactory, but
results indicate that slow moving calcium tends to increase ab-
sorption slightly.

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52 WYOMfS'G Experiment Station.

Report of the Botanist

The Botanist can scarcely be said to have been on duty I
during the year 1905-06. Though in continuous supervision
of the work of his department in the University and College,
yet he was excused during that time from most of the work
of the class-room. Similarly in the station the work was
largely suspended during his (nominal) leave of absence.
However> this statement applies only to the research work.
All of the routine work had as careful attention as ever in
the past.

When a station department has been established for a
series of years, certain mutually helpful relationships grow
up between it and similar departments elsewhere. The main-
tenance of such relationship necessitates a certain amount of
correspondence. The longer a department is in operation, the
larger is the number of citizens that come to look to it for
information along certain lines. It has happened, therefore,
that no inconsiderable amount of time has been consumed in
routine work that could not well be put aside — work that, from
the standpoint of the inquirer, is just as vital as the solution of
heretofore unanswered problems.

Other work, however, was not wholly eliminated, this de-
partment co-operating with that of Chemistry in the prepara-
tion of Bulletin No. 70, "Wyoming Forage Plants, and Their
Chemical Composition — Studies No. 2,'' technical and popular
descriptions of the plants considered in it being prepared by
the Botanist.

A few short articles and items were contributed to various
publications, and one or two technical papers on the flora of
the State have also appeared.

The following outline of work planned for the year

Online LibraryRobert MudieAnnual report of the University of Wyoming Agricultural ..., Volumes 11-20 → online text (page 24 of 52)