Robert Mudie.

Annual report of the University of Wyoming Agricultural ..., Volumes 11-20 online

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THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment. — Wool Investigations.

Project Number, — i

Object of Experiment, — To determine the causes of
changes in strength of wool fiber from the normal.

Location, — Wyoming Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo.

Staff Personnel, — Henry G. Knight, L. Chas. Raiford,
John A. Hill.

Organisation. — Chemists in co-operation with Wool
Expert.

Dizision of Work, — ^Wool Expert to make physical tests ;
Chemists, chemical work.

Method of Procedure, —

(a) Effects of various reagents upon strength of wool

fiber.

(b) Per cent, of wool fat and its relation to strength

of fiber.

(c) Per cent, of salts and soaps in wool and its rela-

tion to strength of fiber.

(d) Composition of wool fiber and its relation to

strength.

(e) Co-operation with wool work outlined by Mr. J.

A. Hill.
Date of Initiation of Experiment, — Spring, 1908
Estimated Date of Completion, — Three years from date.
Estimated Cost. — Not over $300 per year.
Publications Relative to the Experiment. —

(a) Issued, none.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none.



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26 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Results Other Than Publications, — It has been found that
certain sahs found upon the plains apparently weaken the
fiber.

This project sheet submitted by Henry G. Knight and
L. Chas. Raiford Sept. i8, 1909.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment, — Wool Investigations; Develop-
ment Project; The Effect of Feed on the Total Wool
Product.

Project Number. — i.

Object of Experiment. — To determine the influence of
wide and narrow rations on the amount, quality, and com-
position of raw and washed wools.

Location. — Wyoming Experiment Station Stock Farm,
situated near the city of Laramie.

Staff Personnel.— H. G. Knight, Station Chemist ; J. A.
Hill, Wool Specialist; A. D. Faville, Animal Husbandman;
James McLay, Foreman of Stock Farm.

Organisation. — Department of Animal Husbandry to
have charge of the feeding and care pf the animals and all
records connected therewith. The Departments of Wool In-
vestigations and Chemistry to make all physical and chemical
tests necessary in the working out of the problem.

Method of Procedure. — Thirty lambs to be taken at
weaning time in the fall and put on the same feed until
February or March. Shear at this time and divide into three
lots as evenly as possible. Carefully study all wool at this
time. Put sheep on feed with rations approximating i : 4,
1 : 8, and i : 12, and keep under known conditions continually.
At the end of a year shear and compare lots of wool with one
another and with previous clip. After this clipping, reverse
the lots and continue the experiment another year. Reverse



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Twentieth Annual Report. 27

again when each lot will have been under all conditions. A
normal check lot may be run through the entire period.

Date of Initiation of Experiment. — Fall of 1909.

Estimated Date of Completion, — Spring of 1912.

Estimated Cost. — $500 per year for feed.

Publications Relative to the Experiment. —

(a) Issued, none.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none.
Suggestions as to Future Work. — It would- probably lead

up to a more detailed study of the variations in wool compo-
sition as influenced by feed.

This project sheet submitted by A. D. Faville.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment. — Alkali Investigations.

Project Number. — 2.

Object of Experiment. — Study of vertical movement of
alkali salts in terms of ionic changes. (Laws which govern.)

Location. — Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo.

Staff Personnel. — Henry G. Knight, L. Chas. Raiford,
Chemists.

Organization. — Chemists independently.

Method of Procedure. — Study of the vertical movement
of alkali in terms of ionic changes. To study the ionic vari-
ations in an alkali spot at various depths :

1. Under conditions when there is an excess of evap-

oration over rainfall.

2. Under conditions where rainfall exceeds evaporation.

3. Solutions are concentrated.

4. Solutions are dilute.

Date of Initiation of Experiment. — Fall of 1909.
Estimated Date of Completion. — Five years from date.
Estimated Cost, — For year 1909-10 probably not more
than $400.



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28 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Publications Relative to the Experiment, —

(a) Issued, none.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none.

This project sheet submitted by Henry G. Knight and
L. Chas. Raiford Sept. i8, 1909.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.
experiment station projects.

Subject of Bxperiment, — The Effect of Alkali Upon
Seeds.

Project Number. — 2.

Object of Experiment. — Formulation of the laws of alkali
absorption by seeds.

Location. — Chemical laboratory, W^yoming Agricultural
Experiment Station.

Staff Personnel. — Henry G Knight, L. Charles Raiford.

Organisation. — ^Experiment to be taken up independently
by the chemists, but has a bearing upon all the alkali work
done or in progress at the Wyoming Experiment Station.

Division of Work. —

A. Ionic considerations:

a. Effect of ions of high velocity on those of

relatively low velocity.

b. Effect of ions of low velocity on those of

relatively high velocity.

c. The effect of mixed salts.

B. Toxic effects.

a. Study of the action of soil extracts of differ-

ent concentrations.

b. Study of aqueous solutions containing the

same alkali salts, in corresponding concen-
trations made from pure chemicals.
Estimated Date of Completion. — Three years from date^
Estimated Cost. — Not over $300 per year.



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Twentieth Annual Report. 29

Publications Relative to the Experiment, —

(a) Issued: Alkali VI., i6th Annual Report of this
Station.
Results Other Than Publications. — None.
Suggestions as to Future Work. — Impossible to deter-
mine what might be the outgrowth of this investigation.

This project sheet submitted by Henry G. Knight and
L. Charles Raiford.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment. — Woody Aster.

Project Number. — 3.

Object of Experiment. — Study of Toxic Principle.

Location. — Wyoming Experiment Station.

Staff Personnel. — Henry G. Knight, L. Charles Raiford,
Chemists; Dr. O. L. Prien, Veterinarian.

Organisation. — Chemist in co-operation with the Veteri-
narian.

Division of Work. — Chemists to take up purely chemical
work upon the active principle. (See O. L. Prien's project
for this portion of the work.)

Method of Procedure. —

1. Separation and classification of toxic principle.

2. Conditions favoring increase.

3. Antidotes.

4. Effects according to method of administration. (Col-

laboration with Veterinarian.)

5. Effects according to preparation. (Collaboration

with Veterinarian.)

6. Tests with various reagents to determine character-

istic reactions.
Estimated Date of Completion. — See O. L. Prien's project.



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30 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Publications Relative to the Experiment. —

(a) Issued, none.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none.
Suggestions as to Future Work, — Work similar should

be carried on with other poisonous plants.

This project sheet submitted by Henry G. Knight and
L. Charles Raiford Sept. i8, 1909.

THiE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment, — Vegetable Poisons of the Range.
(Woody Aster, i. e, Xylorrhisa Parryi,

Project Number, — 3.

Object of Experiment, — Determination of the toxic
principle of the symptoms and pathological changes occa-
sioned, per cent of deaths; toxic doses and antidotes.

Location, — Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo., and
fields where losses are occurring.

Staff Personnel. — O. L. Prien, Veterinarian; H. G.
Knight and L. C. Raiford, Chemists.

Organization. — Co-operation with Chemist in the study of
toxic principle. (See (g) of Part II.)

Division of Work. — Field work and laboratory work by
the Veterinarian. Laboratory work on toxic principle and
antidote in collaboration with Chemist.

Method of Procedure. —
I. Field observations.

(a) Occurrence.

(b) Losses.

1. Time of year losses are greatest.

2. Factors apparently favoring losses.

3. Factors apparently favoring recovery.

4. Per cent, of deaths among affected.

(c) Symptomolog}\

(d) Duration of illness.



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Twentieth Annual Report. 31

(e) Pathological lesions.

(f ) Conditions favoring increase of toxic principle.
Note. — Dependent on toxic principle being an inorganic

compound.

II. Laboratory Experiments.

(a) Physiological action.

(b) Duration of illness.

(c) Rapidity cif elimination.

(d) Rapidity of recovery.

(e) Toxic doses.

■(f) Pathological lesions. Causes of death.

(g) Study of toxic principle. (See outline by
Chemists.)

Date of Initiation of Experiment. — April, 1909.
Estimated Datet of Completion. — Three or four years
from date.

Estimated Cost. — ^$800 to $1,000 each year.
Sources of Maintenance — Adams fund.
Publications Relative to the Experiment. —

(a) Issued, none.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none.
Results Other than Publications. — None.
Suggestions as to Future Work. — None as yet.

ADAMS FUND SALARIES AND CONTINGENT.

Director $ 400 Wool Investigations

Wool Specialist 1,500 Wool Investigations

Animal Husbandman 300 Wool Investigations

Chemist -. 300 Co-operating in all four

projects

Assistant Chemist 400 Co-operating in all four

proj ects

Assistant Chemist (Research) 1,400 Co-operating in all four

projects

Student Chemist 350 Co-operating in all four

projects

Veterinarian 800 Poisonous Plants

Irrigation Engineer 450 Soil Moisture Investiga-
tions
Farm Foreman 150 Soil Moisture Investiga-
tions



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32 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Herdsman 780 Wool Investigations

Stenographer 350 Wool, Poisonous Plants,

and Soil Moisture Inves-
tigations

Assistant in Wool 800 Wool Investigations

Animal Husbandry 1,860 Wool Investigations

Sheep and Wool Investigations 600 Wool Investigations

Chemistry 1,000 All four projects

Soil Moisture Investigations 225 Soil Moisture Investiga-
tions
Traveling, Permanent Improvements,

Library, Freight and Express 935 Distributed throughout the

four projects

Alkali Investigations 200 Alkali Investigations

Veterinary 200 Poisonous Plants

$13,000

Project No. 4 never definitely outlined. Carried on in
co-operation with Office of Experiment Stations. Completed
at the end of season of 1909.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

KXPERIMl^NT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment, — The Percolation of Water
Through Soils.

Project Number. — 5.

Object of Bxperiment. — To determine the rate of perco-
lation of irrigation waters through adjacent lands at lower
levels.

Location. — University farms, Laramie, Wyo.
Staff Personnel — Prof. J. C. Fitterer, Irrigation Engineer.
Organization. — To be carried on entirely by the Irrigation
Department of the Experiment Station.
Method of Procedure. —

A. Field Experiments. — To dig tile-lined wells in the
center of each acre plot on the Agronomy Farm,
and (a) thereafter to take measurements of the
water table in these wells, both during the irri-
gating season and during the balance of the year,
(b) To run levels over these wells and to plot



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Twentieth Annual Report. 33

profiles thereof, which, together with the topo-
graphic map of this farm already made, will com-
pletely summarize the relief features, (c) To
keep a record of the times and amounts of all
the irrigation water turned onto these plats, as
well as its first appearance and subsequent fluc-
tuation in the Pioneer Canal flowing just above
the tract in consideration, (d) To keep a record
of the precipitation, (e) To examine and record
the physical soil structure to the depth of the
bottom of the tile wells, (f ) To place some solu-
ble pigment in the line of wells nearest the
Pioneer Canal, and note the time of its subse-
quent appearance in the lower ones, (g) To note
any additional conditions and events which
might have a bearing upon the proposed problem.

H. Laboratory Experiments.

a. Vertical Percolation: To determine the rate

. of percolation through soil of
(i) Uniformly-sized particles and under
constant heads of water.

(2) Uniformly-sized particles and under

fluctuating heads.

(3) Mixed particles and under constant

heads.

(4) Mixed particles and under fluctuating

heads.

b. Horizontal Percolation, treated in a manner

similar to (a).

Date Authorized. — May i, 1910.

Date of Initiation of Experiment, — May i, 1910.

Estimated Date of Completion. — 2 or 3 years.

Estimated Cost. — $400 first year.

Sources of Maintenance. — Adams fund.



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34 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Publications Relative to the Experiment, —
(a) Issued, none.

Residts Other than Publications, — None.

Suggestions as to Future Work, — Seepage investigations,
alkali deposits, and canses of water-logging of lands. Study
of plants premonitory of alkali formation.

This project sheet submitted by J. C. Fitterer April 20,
1910.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.

EXPERIMENT STATION PROJECTS.

Subject of Experiment. — The Effect of Alkali upon Struc-
tural Materials.

Project Number. — 6.

Object of Experiment. — To determine the deteriorative
effects and related causes of alkali in aqueous solution upon
the various materials used about the farm.

Location. — Agronomy Farm, Laramie, Wyoming.
Staff Personnel. — Prof. J. C. Fitterer, Irrigation Engi-
neer, assisted by Research Chemist of the Chemical De-
partment.

Organization. — To be carried on conjointly between the
Irrigation and Chemical Departments.

Dizision of Work. — All work except the chemical analy-
ses to be carried on by the Irrigation Engineer.
Method of Procedure. —

A. Cement and Cement Mtjrtar. —

(a) To make numerous dupilcate sets each of cubes
and briquettes composed (i) of neat cement, (a)
of I to I, (3) I to 2, (4) I to 3 mortar. The ce-
ment to be subjected to physical laboratory analysis
in connection with this work, (b) One series of
duplicates to be immersed in alkali impregnated
water, say in the alkali pool on the Agronomy
Farm, and the same to be removed and tested at



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Twentieth Annual Report. 35

the expiration of i week, 4 months, 3 months, 6
months, and longer, if found necessary, (c) The
remaining series of duplicates to be left in the
laboratory and kept immersed in water free from
alkali and tested simultaneously with those un-
der (b).

B. To treat in a similar manner (in pure and alkali wd-
ter) the following substances under the various forms
specified

1. Wood (test pieces fence posts) various woods.

2. Steel.

3. Iron.

4. Concrete (cement, sand, broken stone or gravel,
fence posts, tile, etc.).

5. Clay tile — glazed and unglazed.

6. Brick — various kinds and hardness of burning.
• The treated and untreated specimens to be sub-
sequently examined and tested.

C. To make chemical analyses of the materials and
immersion fluids, as found necessary.

D. To subject all of the above materials to various sa-
line solutions of definite composition.

E. To subject the same to alternate immersion and
evaporation in air.

Date Authorized. — May i, 1910.

Date of Initiation of Experiment. — May i, 1910.

Estimated Date of Completion. — 2 or 3 years.

Estimated Cost. — ^$300 first year.

Sources of Maintenance. — Adams fund.

Publications Relative to the Experiment. —

(a) Issued, none known.

(b) Projected or in preparation, none known.
Suggestions as to Future Work. — Depends largely upon

results.

This project sheet submitted by J. C. Fitterer, April
20, 1910.



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36 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Financial Statement' of the Treasurer



UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING.
Agricuwurai, Experiment Station

IN ACCOUNT WITH

The United States Appropriation, 1909-1910

DR.

To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States, as per
appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, under
Acts of Congress approved March 2, 1887, and March 16,
1906-

Hatch Fund $15,000.00

Adams Fund 13,000.00

CR.

Hatch Adams

Bv Salaries $8,070.00 $7,489.16

' Labor 1,672.54 268.76

Publications 376.52

Postage and stationery 268.21 63.55

Freight and express 316.74 324.02

Heat, light, water and power 592.52 152.56

Chemical supplies 285.36 887.35

Seeds, plants and sundry supplies. . 421.96 248.38

Feeding stuffs 1,499.11 2,024.71

Library 10.00 4.48

Tools, implements and machinery. . 313.81 29.38

Furniture and fixtures 23.50 103.94

Scientific apparatus 94.65 1,034.01

Live stock 384.90 296.00

Traveling expenses 303.33 61.95

Contingent expenses 15.00

Buildings and land 351.85 11.75



Total $15,000.00 $13,000.00 $28,000.00

We, the undersigned, do hereby certify that we have
examined the books and accounts of the University of Wyo-
ming Agricultural Experiment Station for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1910; that we have found the same well kept
and classified as above, and that the receipts for the year
from the Treasurer of the United States are shown to have



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Twentieth Annual Report. 37

been $28|CXX>.oo and the corresponding disbursements $28,-
000.00, for all of which proper vouchers are on file and have
been by us examined and found correct, thus leaving no bal-
ance on hand.

And we further certify that the expenditures have been
solely for the purposes set forth in the act of Congress ap-
proved March 2, 1887, and the act of Congress approved March
16, 1906.

(Signed) Otto Gramm,



V. J. TiDBALL,

A. C. Jones.



Attest :

Frank Sumner Burrage,
(Seal) Custodian of Seal.



SUPPLEMENTARY STATEMENT.

DR.

farm
Products Total

To balance on hand $1,077.46

Receipts from other sources than the United States

for the year ended June 30, 1910 5,541.79 $6,619.25

CR.

By Salaries $ 50.00

Labor 446.35

Publications , -. 19.59

Postage and stationery 12.70

Freight and express 359.77

Heat, light and water 14.00

Seeds, plants and sundry supplies 249.12

Fertilizers 8.15

Feedinjr stuffs 2,184.24

Tools, implements and machinery 31.45

Furniture and fixtures 18.98

Live stock 424.82

Traveling expenses 888.05

Contingent expenses 1,419.58

Building and repairs 156.34

Balance 336.11

$6,619.25 $6,619.25



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38 Wyoming Experiment Station.

Agronomy

L. B. m'wETHY, J. D. TOWAR.

The agricultural experiments for the year 1909 gave the
most satisfactory results obtained during the past three years.
An early spring was followed by a warm, growing summer,
and the autumn was especially favorable for harvesting, thresh-
ing and caring for the season's crops. Owing to the serious
weather conditions of 1908 we were able to mature seeds
of but few crops. So completely did the early frost of that
year destroy the germinating power of the cereal grains that
all beginnings in plant breeding were completely destroyed,
and this work had to be started anew in 1909. The previous
experiments had developed a few interesting varieties which
might have served a useful purpose in carrying on this work,
but it was impossible to germinate seeds from the 1908 crop,
so that all the past work in this line was completely de-
stroyed and a new start made in 1909.

Plant Breeding. — To start in with the developing of plants
adapted to the high altitude conditions of the Laramie valley,
we were guided somewhat by the experience of former years
in the selecting of varieties for beginning this work. In ad-
dition, however, to the selecting of a few known varieties,
a large number of new sorts were introduced, and the plant
breeding work practically started out afresh with most of the
seeds' untried and partially unknown as to their adaptability
to local conditions. With this condition, the principal work
undertaken during the year consisted in making improvements
through selection only. In the absence of the necessary know-
Icgde of characteristics and adaptability of varieties, no at-
tempts at crossbreeding or hybridizing were undertaken. The
field notes, however, were carefully recorded and the final
results will serve as a guide for future work in plant breeding
with these new plants.

Alfalfa. — Seeds from various parts of the world, secured
largely through the Bureau of Plant Industry, were planted



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Twentieth Annual Report. 39

in hills and rows to give each plant liberal space in which
to grow and develop seeds. Many of these imported seeds
have failed entirely either to germinate or to withstand the
winter, while in these breeding plots are many stronger plants*
giving promise of success and decided improvement on our
common alfalfas. The plants that have wintered success-
fully will be carefully watched the coming season, and their
seecls selected for future planting. It is yet too early to offer
even a suggestion as to which of these alfalfas is even the
most promising, although it is hoped that in- the large list
of varieties some improved individual plants will be found
which may be especially adapted to local conditions.

Cereals. — Barley, oats, and wheat were grown from new
and imported seeds, selections in some cases being made
from individual planft. The quantity of seed in many of the
varieties was so small that the first season's crop was all
saved with the view of securing more plants from which
to make in the future the systematic selections. The test
took on more the form of a variety test than a plant breeding
project. Several of the imported varieties of barley looked
very promising, and two or three varieties of wheat from
Australia seemed to fit closely the conditions prevailing in
the Laramie valley. While the experiment was largely a
variety test, the area devoted to these several varieties was
so small that a calculation of acre averages would be ex-
tremely misleading. However, the growth of many of these
crops planted in small row^s was so far ahead of the more
common varieties that the prospects are most encouraging.
Further comment is made upon these cereals a little further
along in this report.

Oats. — Oats are destined to be one of the main crops as
a source of grain for Wyoming. The severe weather con-
ditions of 1908 made it impossible to mature any seed on
the Station Farm. Hence, in the study of this crop it was
necessary in the spring of 1909 to secure new seed from out-



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40 Wyoming Experiment Station.

side sources. Varieties of oats were bought from Bar-
teldes Seed Co., Denver ; Northrup, King & Co., Minneapolis^
Minn,; and one or two varieties from Canada, and one or two
sorts that were of local origin. Such a diversified source of
seed made any comparative test impractical during the first
season.

The varieties of oats were sown on plot 28, which liad
been devoted to potatoes the previous year, and was only
thoroughly harrowed in preparation for the oats. The ex-
perience of the season suggests a few items that may be of
interest. The use of black oats did not seem feasible, be-
cause of their somewhat late maturing nature. Furthermore,
they are not popular from a market standpoint. It is the
plan to discard all oats of this type. Some of the heavier
yielding sorts are of the open panicled and white grain type —
Swedish Select, Lincoln, American Banner, and others. Va-
rieties of this class gave the best yields during the past season.
However, the high altitude conditions demand an early ma-
turing sort. The Kherson and 60- Day oats are especially suited
to meet this need, and it is our conviction that the attention
should be more largely given to these early maturing sorts,
as far as high altitude conditions are concerned. The Kherson
variety has exhibited a little preference in yielding power
as compared with the 60- Day variety. It is again very difficult
to develop under high altitude conditions a type of oats
suitable to regions with longer seasons of growth.



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Twentieth Annual Report.



.41



VAMETT TEST OP OATS. 1909.



NAME



Area in



Online LibraryRobert MudieAnnual report of the University of Wyoming Agricultural ..., Volumes 11-20 → online text (page 49 of 52)