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A,RY







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LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL ESSAYS



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

Modern Languages of the East Indies .... 1 878

Modern Languages of Africa 1883

Modern Languages of Oceania 1887

Modern Languages of the Caucasus-Region. . . .1887

Languages of the Turki Branch of the Ural- Altaic Family . 1889

Linguistic and Oriental Essays. Series I. ... 1880

„ ,, Series II. . . . 1887

Pictures of Indian Life 1881

The Shrines of Lourdes and Saragossa, Loretto, etc. . . 1885

Poems of many Tears and Places 1887

Sorrows of an Anglo-Indian Life 1889

Notes on Missionary Subjects 1889

Three Lists of Bible-Translations 1890

Bible-Languages 1890

Clouds on the Horizon 1 890



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LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL

ESSAYS.

WRITTEN FROM THE YEAR rStf TO 1890.
Ebltb Antes.



ROBERT NEEDHAM OUST, LL.D.,

BARRI8TER-AT-LAW,

HONORARY 8BORBTART OF THB ROYAL ASIATIC 80CIETY,

LATE MSJCBBR OF HER MAJESTY' 8 INDIAN CIVIL 8ERVICE.



o/iotos itrnv avQpdyiriy
oiKoSeaworny 00719 iicfidWei ex tov &/]<ravpov
avrov Kaiva ical waXaia.



VOCAT I/ABOE ULTIMTTS:



LONDON:
REGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LIMITED.

1891. t^
[AU rights reserved.'}



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<o







Ll



l&l-



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TO MY VERY DEAR SISTER AND FRIEND,

ELEANOR KATHERINE SETON-KARR,

THE FAITHFUL COUNSELLOR IN ALL MY DIFFICULTIES,

THE SYMPATHETIC CONSOLER IN
ALL MY AFFLICTIONS,

W&% Uofame fo,

WITH FEELINGS OF SINCERE LOVE AND GRATITUDE,
DEDICATED.



• «- •



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i



PREFACE.



The first words that flow from my pen are those of my dear

Horatras Flaccus :

" Quonum h®c tarn putida ? "
" What is the use of all this rubbish? "

It certainly is not from a desire to see my name in print, or the
weakness of a first effort, for I have got beyond that stage, and
I received a letter from an entire stranger yesterday, from which
I quote the following passage : " Many a happy hour have I spent
in company with your book."

But there is one motive certainly. Much of the contents of
this volume is the result of weeks of study, and years of practical
experience, and those, who are mounting the ladder, up which I
have taken fifty years to climb, may possibly profit by my accu-
mulated and digested knowledge, and start at once on an onward
course. I feel indebted to the books of many authors, which I
read in my youth or middle life, though I feel at the same time,
that I have now got far beyond them, and with the usual gratitude
of students kicked down the footstool, which helped my early
efforts, and have even forgotten their names.

The very variety, and quaintness, of some of the papers may
attract. I wrote some years ago under a different environment in
a far-off land, and I could not write them again, if I tried. I



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X PREFACE.

was only sure of the parentage of some by recognizing my hand-
writing, and the private mark, which I attached to all original
work since I left Eton in 1 840 : they had entirely passed from
my recollection : they were written

" Quand era in parte altr'uom di quel, che sono."
I was discouraged by a Review of my honoured friend Francis
Newman's Miscellanies : the reviewer said, that they had better
not have been reprinted, and that the book was a confused medley.
I do not think so : in his case at least a reprint of Essays is most
interesting and instructive : the entirely disconnected way, in
which one topic followed the other, has a charm all its own, when
each subject is thoroughly and fearlessly threshed out : the reader,
if he is convinced, can go on from this firm foundation : it is
hopeless to hunt through the periodicals of four decades f6r one
particular Essay, and yet that Essay perhaps clenches a subject,
exposes an error, or indicates a way : if the subject therefore is
of a permanent character, it is worth while to leave the labours of
a life in a collective form.

I had a friend at the Royal Asiatic Society, who through a
considerable period of years had published in different periodicals
Essays on Numismatics, and Palseographical subjects, of the highest
importance: all Scholars felt indebted to him, and his contempo-
raries knew where to find his Essays. I often suggested to him
to reprint them in a collective form, but he delayed and died : his
generation has passed away, and his labours have not received their
full appreciation, because they are not accessible.

A great many subjects pass under review in these Essays : the
intricacy of a language, the dogma of a Religious Belief, the
details of administration of an Indian Province, the high duty, and
the erroneous practice, of Christian Missionaries, in Europe, Asia,
Africa, America and Oceania. In the treatment of all subjects it
is hoped, that the same underlying characteristics will be found :
a desire to gather information, an orderly arrangement of it when



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PREFACE. X i

gathered, the use of it in a liberal and sympathetic spirit, a fear-
lessness of assertion free from all prejudice or predilection, a
profound and intelligent belief in the Divine Bevelation, and a
humble readiness for corrections of errors, the reception of new
ideas, and the elucidation of obscurities, or doubts. Life is but a
School of Instruction, and each one of us up to the last hour
should be a student with eyes and ears, and intellect, open to the
consideration of new phenomena.

Latin or Greek verses may seem out of place in the last decade
of the Nineteenth Century : for fifty years they have been my joy
and delight, and to a selection of a few lines written in 1838 I
add the Sapphics written while the pages of this book were passing
through the Press. I shall be glad to find, that they are criticized,
as a proof that they are understood.

K. N. Oust.
London, Christmas-Day, 1890.



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CONTENTS.



PART I.— LINGUISTIC.



I. — The Languages of the Bible «... ..... ~~ ..... 3

Chapter I. — The Language spoken by Our Lord and

His Apostles _ _ 3

„ II.— The Languages of the Old Testament ..... 18

„ III. — The Languages spoken and written by the
Evangelists, and the Writers of the Acts,

the Epistles, and the Bevelation _.. 26

II.— Translations of the Bible __««._ __. 45
Chapter I.— The Translation of the Bible in Ancient

and Modern Times ..... ^. ..... 45

,, II. — Latin Translations of the Bible _ «... 61

„ III. — French Translations of the Bible 79

III. — Work of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge _.. 90

IV. — Obituary Notices 0/ Scholars __....._ ..... 95

' * Sir T. E. Colebrooke, Bart. ..... ..... .... 95

The Bev. P. 0' Flaherty _ _ ..... _ 97

Bev. J. F. Schon, D.D. _ _ _ „... 99

Y. — Letters' on African Translations ._ 103

(1). To Bev. Dr. SchSn _ ..... „„. ._ 103

(2). To Venerable Archdeacon D. Crowther ._ ..... 105

VI. — Eastern Proverbs by Bev. J. Long ^. _ no

VII. — The Inscriptions of King Asoka in India (Italian) _ _ 115

VIII. — The Lord's Prayer in Two Hundred Languages 123

IX. — Notices of Languages in Asia, Africa, America, Oceania ..... 124

(1). Korku, India, Asia ..... ..... _ .... 124

(2). Singpho „ „ _ „„ _ 125

(31. Korea „ ..... „„ _ .... 125

(4). Kavirondo, Africa ..~ _ 129

(5). Fan „ _ _ ..... „„ ..... 129

(6). Kongo „ ..... ..... _ .... .... 130

7). Mbundu „ _ _ _ 131

8). Swahili „ _ _ ..... _ _ 133

4 9). Nyika „ .._ „ .... ..... 134

(10). Gaarani, America ^. _ ..... 135

(in. Blackfoot „ ..... ..... _ ... 137

fi2). Samoa, Oceania .. .. ..... .... .... 137

(13). Melanesia „ ... _ .... .... «... 140



(14). West Africa ..... „. . . 143

(15). East Equatorial Africa ..... _ .... 144

(16). North Africa _ 146



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XIV



CONTENTS.



X. — Communications to International Oriental Congresses



i). Non-Arian Languages of the East Indies (Italian)

2). Languages of Africa (German)

3). Languages of Oceania (German) . ~

4). Languages of Turki Branch of Ural-Altaic Family

(German) _ .. — —

Languages of Turki Branch of Ural-Altaic Family
(English) ______

Eighth International Congress, Stockholm, 1889 _
Speech at Opening of Leyden Congress, 1883
Speech at Closing Banquet of Leyden Congress, 1883
V at Opening of Vienna Congress, 1887



(5).

(8.

(10). Speech at Closing banquet of Vienna Congress, 1887

XI. — Presentation Inscriptions _ —

(1). Copy of Specimen of Bible-Translations

(2) . Copy of Hindu Veda to Eton College
XII. — Review of F. Midler's Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft
XIII. — Memorial to the University Commission of the Council of the

Royal Asiatic Society _ _ —

XIV.— Progress of African Philology _

XV. — Notice of Scholars, who have contributed to the Extension of
our Knowledge of the Languages of Africa

PART II.— INDIA.

I.— Indian "Wisdom (Monier- Williams), 1875

II.— The Adi Granth (Ernest Trumpp), 1877 ..

III. — Essays on Indian Subjects (Brian Hodgson), 1880 _

IV.— Religion of the Panri (Martin Hang), 1878 ..-, _

V.— History of Nepal (D. Wright), 1877 _

VI.— Buddha Gaya (Raiendralala Mitra), 1877
VII. — Would India gain oy the extinction of European Government P

1890 ...

VIII.— The Gaol, 1867 ~ _

IX.— Ad Montem, i860 ..... _

X.— The Idol and the Railway, i860 „

XI.— Hindu Worship, 1867 .„

XII.— The Cemetery, 1867 ..

XIII. — On the Subject of Punishing Women for certain Offences, i860

XIV. — Protest against Public Execution of Criminals, 1853

XV. — Sentence of Death on the Murderer of the first Victims of the

Mutiny of 1857, 1862 ~ _

XVI. — On the Subject of Violent Crime, and its Punishment, on the

Afghan Frontier beyond the Indus, 1862

XVII.— On undue deference to Hindu Idol -Worship, 1867

XVIII.— The Dirge of the East India Company, 1859

XIX.— A Treaty to subdivide British India, 1887

XX. — The Census of British India, 1880

XXI. — On the subject of the Emendation of Law, 1858 „„

XXII. — Warning during a Rebellion, 1848
XXIII. — Proposal to Draft a Code of Revenue Law for North-India, 1867
XXIV. — The Strangers' Home for Asiatics, Africans, and South Sea

Islanders, 1884

XXV. — On the Marriaee of Native Converts, Speech in the Legislative

Council of tne Government of India, 1869

XXVI. — On the Marriage of Native Converts, Speech at the Missionary
Conference in the Panjab, 1861 _



paob
150
150
154
170

184

190
195
223
224
224
225
226
226
226
227

229
231

238



257
262
265
268
272
274

279
295
299
302
304
307
310
314

316

317
321
322
326
327
331
333



337



341



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CONTENTS. XT



PAET III.— MISSIONARY.

PAOB

I. — Papers connected with the Missionary Congress in London,
1888. The Social and Political Condition of the World a

Hundred Tears Ago and Now ..... 345

II. — Civilization without the Gospel is Profitless 353

III. — Clouds on the Horizon, 1890 .... ~ 367

Chapter I.— Prefatory Remarks .. .... 367

„ II.— The old Systems Purified, Refined and
Adapted to the Environment of a Civi-
lized Society ..... ..... 373

„ III. — Modern Conceptions formed from the
Blending of old Systems with Christian
Doctrine, either Consciously or Un-

8ciously ... ..... ..... ... ..... 392

,, IV. — Departures from the Type of Christian

Faith accepted hy Protestant Churches 400

„ V.— Concluding Remarks ....* 411

Appendix : Schedule of References .. 436

IV.— On Positive Religion, 1857 ..... ... .... 440

V. — On the Anglican Bishopric in Jerusalem, 1886 .. „ 448

VI.— On Faith and Freedom in Russia, 1889 ..... _ ... 449

VII.— A Visit to Herrnhut and Kornthal, 1886 ..... 451

VIII.— Letter to a Friend starting round the World, 1886 ... .... 454

IX. — On the Duty of a Christian Missionary in the Hour of Personal

Peril, 1889 ..... ..... ..... ..... ~ 455

X.— Brotherhoods and Sisterhoods in the Mission-Fields, 1890 ..... 461

XI. — On the Missionary Position in Eastern Equatorial Africa, 1890 473
XII. — On the Subject of the Attendance of British Officials at the

Baptism of Native Converts to Christianity, 1859 .... 486

XIII.— The Native Christian Village in North India, 1866.... .... 488

XIV.— The Mission School in North India, 1866 _ . 491

XV.— On the Aboriginal Races of India, 1877 ... ... .... 493

XVI. — On the extent to which a Missionary has a Right to Protection

by the Civil Power, 1889 ..... . 497

XVII. — life of Charles Isenberg, Missionary in Africa and India, 1 885 499

XVIII. — Obituary Notices of Three Missionaries, 1 88 1 ..... ..... 501

XIX. — Letters to a deceased African Missionary, 1888 ... ... 505

XX.— The Gospel in Australia, 1890— ... ..... 508

XXI.— Women's Work and the Church of Rome, 1888 .... «... 512

XXII.— The Reredos in St. Paul's Cathedral, 1888 ... .... ... 513

XXIII.— The Gospel and the Sword, 1888 .... .... ... ..... 515

XXIV.— The Society for the Propagation of the Faith at Lyons, 1887 517

XXV.— The Pope on Missions, 1888 ... ... .... .... ... 518

XXVI. — Roman Catholic Missions in North Africa, 1880 .... ... 520

XXV II.— Count Enrico di Campello, 1881 ... .... _ ... 528

XXVIII. — A Report of the Kingdom of Kongo, and surrounding
Countries, drawn out of the Writings and Discourses of
the Portuguese Duarte Lopez, by Filippo Pigafetta, in

Rome, 1591, 1880 534

XXIX.— Curci's " La Nuova Italia, 1 ' 1881 .... 538

XXX.— A German Foreign Bible- Society, 1886 „ 545

XXXI. — What Women have received from the Bible, and what

Services they can render in return, 1890 ... 546

XXXII. — Presentation Inscriptions in Books, 1880 548

XXXIII.—" East Africa and its Big Game," 1890 549



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xvi CONTENTS.

PART IY.— MISCELLANEOUS.

PAGE

I.— Morocco, 1890 ..... „ .. — ..... ~~ .-. 655

II.— Leprosy and Lepers, 1890 • ~- _ .-. ..... 571

III.— Gordon Pasha Governor of the Sudan 1874-79, 1883 . ..... 580

IV.— Letter on Crime in West Africa, 1886 _......-..-. 586

V. — Resolutions and Maxims, for the Guidance of a Public Officer

in British India, 1856 „... „~. «... — — 687

VI.— Systematic Charity, 1866 ..... - «-. ..... 592

VII.— Sursum corda, 1866 ..... «... — ««. — — 693

VIII. — In te, Domino, speravi, 1867 «-. 695

IX.— Diem perdidi, 1867 ... „ ~~ ~. ~~ ..... 697



PART V.— PKTMTTia: ET REUQTJLE.

I. — " "A7« cr6wvofi€ pod, wcdnrax /icy ftrww," Translation from

Greek, 1839 «... — ~.._ ~~ ^ ..... — ~- 601
from*



II. — Translation from an old Monastic Hymn, 1840 .- 601

III.— On an old Oak Chimney-Piece, Latin, 1838 ~.~ ~~ — 602

IV. — Translation of a Persian Poem, Latin and Greek, 1837 _ 602

V.— " Weep not thy Daughter fading," Translation, Latin, 1868 603

VI.—" Earth walketh on Earth." Translation, Latin, 1848 ..... 603

VII.— Distich on a Painted Window, Latin, 1849 .. ~ -.. 603

VIII. — Lines to Accompany Medals, English and Latin, 1846 .— 604

IX. — Inscription on a Stick, Latin, 185 1 ..... ~~ — 604

X. — " live while you live," Translation, Latin, 1840 „.. ~- 604

XI. — lines on a Picture in a French Gallery, 1851 ..... ..... ..... 606

XII.—" Una Lanterna," Translation, Latin from Italian, 1887 — 605
XIII. — " L'onda dal mar' divisa," Translation, Latin from Italian,

1887 .. ..... _ ... ..... — 606

XIV.— Trench's " Day of Death," Translation, Latin, 1840 .._ 606

XV.—" Crossing the Bar," Translation, Latin, 1890 .~. ..... 608

Indbx ..... «... _. ..... » 609



On pages 46 and 80 the date " 150 b.o." for " 250 b.o." has unfortunately
crept in ; and on p. 78 the word covenant has been wrongly printed for conscience*.



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PAKT I.
LINGUISTIC.



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I.

THE LANGUAGES OF THE BIBLE.



Chapter 1. The Language Spoken by Our Lord and His
Apostles.

Chapter 2. The Languages of the Old Testament.

Chapter 3. The Languages Spoeen and "Wbitten by the
Evangelists, and the "Wbttebs op the Acts,
the Epistles, and the Revelation.



CHAPTER I.— THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY OUR LORD AND HIS

APOSTLES.

What was tbe language spoken by our Lord? It was supposed
that this question was settled, but in the pages of the Guardian,
February, 1 889, it has been re-opened. At the foot of the page l
I notice the leading special treatises on the subject, but proceed to
handle it independently. I regard the question as one of linguistic
science, evidence, and careful analogy, free from all bias of theology,
and excluding anything that is supernatural, or out of the ordinary
current of human affairs. I am a sincere believer in the inspira-
tion of the Holy Scriptures, but not in a narrow sense.

In the Gospel of Luke we are told that the superscription on
the Cross was in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew. In the
Gospel of John it is stated that it was written in Hebrew, Latin,
Greek. The expressions are :

ypap/iaatv *E\\rjviKoi9 koi *Ptop.atKoi9 ical *E/3paucoTs t
<y€<ypa[ifijivov 'Efipaurri, 'Ptv/iaurri, 'EWrjvitrri.

It is fair to state, that the Revised Version of the New Testa-
ment rejects the words of Luke altogether, so the fact rests on

1 1. "The Language employed by our Lord and His Disciples," by Dr.
Roberts. Second Edition, 1869.

2. Mgr. Clement David, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Damascus : " La
langue parlee par Jesus Christ." I ^5-

3. "Dialects of Palestine in the Time of Christ," by Ad. Nbubauer, of
the Bodleian, Oxford. " Studia Biblica," 1885.

4. Professor Chbynb. ' The Expositor,' 1809, pp. 238-40.



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4 LANGUAGES OF THE BIBLE.

the evidence of John alone ; but he was an eye-witness. It
would thus appear that the Hebrew style of writing came first,
then the Roman, and lastly the Greek. This implies a threefold
form of written characters, as well as of language. It may be
taken as a fact, admitted beyond doubt, that the Hebrew language
had long before been superseded in the mouths of men by the
Aramaic vernacular. The chief priests objected to the wording
of the superscription; it was Pilate's own order, to which he
adhered. The languages and characters were as follows:

Line i. Aramaic in the square Hebrew character lately intro-
duced (circd 100 B.C.).
„ 2. Latin in the Roman capital letters, so well known.
„ 3. Greek in the uncial characters represented in the
monumental inscriptions of the period, which are
abundant.

Now, in one of these languages our Lord must have spoken :
possibly, though not probably, in two, Aramaic and Greek ; and
words belonging to the third language, Latin, are reported as
having fallen from His mouth, e.g. "census," " tribute-money,' *
etc. ; but the real question is betwixt Aramaic, a Semitic language
of Asia, and Greek, an Arian language of European origin, but
spoken extensively by Hellenists in Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Now, a judgment can only be formed on a question of this kind,
the data of which go back to nearly two thousand years, and the
venue of which is in a distant land, by a careful consideration
of certain analogies, aided by a certain experience in linguistic
phenomena. In Great Britain practically there is one para-
mount language, spoken by our rulers, the leading educated
classes, and the common people. But there are few countries,
where it is so ; and as a fact, within the islands of Great Britain
there are four other vernaculars, Welsh, Gaelic, Erse, and French
(the latter in the Channel Islands).

In the Baltic provinces in Europe, Russian is the dominant
language of the rulers, German is the vernacular of the immigrant
landowners and merchants, but the agriculturists and the indigenous
inhabitants speak Liv of the Ugro- Altaic family. In Algeria in
Africa French is the dominant language of the rulers ; Arabic, a
Semitic language, is not only the language of the immigrant
superior classes, but the religious language ; but the indigenous
inhabitants speak exclusively Kabail or Tuwarik, Hamitic lan-
guages. In Asia, in the Central Provinces of British India,
English is the dominant language of the rulers ; the superior
immigrant classes speak Hindi, or Bangali, of the Arian family,
or Telugu, of the Dravidian family, while the indigenous inhabi-
tants speak, according to their particular tribes, Gond, or "Khond,
or Maler, of the Dravidian family, or Sontal and Kol, of the
Kolarian group.



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LANGUAGES OF THE BIBLE. 5

In the Panjab in Northern India, when we conquered it in
1846, I was one of the first British officers employed. An
amnesty was proclaimed for all political offences ; but, if I had
had occasion to try a native for murder or violent crime, and he
was sentenced to death by hanging, had it been necessary or
desirable to do so, I could have placed a superscription over the
gallows in three languages in three different written characters, as
follows :

Line 1. English in the Roman character of the day, the lan-
guage of the rulers.
„ 2. Persian in the running Arabic character, the language



Online LibraryRobert Needham CustLinguistic and Oriental essays: written from the year 1870 to 1901 → online text (page 1 of 70)