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Monograph of the Coccidæ of the British Isles (Volume 1) online

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Colour olivaceous black, with the posterior extension
grey. Examples on the old wood of the plum (PL V,
fig. 7) elongate, thick, and of a rough texture owing
to the admixture of epidermal tissues of the bark.
Colour olivaceous black, except at the posterior ex-
tremity, where it is greyish. The most remarkable
departure from the type is the form shown at Plate V,
fig. 6, which is from a specimen taken by Mr. Green
on heather (Calluna, sp.). In this example alteration
of form is due to compression by contact with the
raised bark of the food-plant. The colour and texture
of the puparium is also due, in a great measure, to the
epidermal layer of the bark, beneath which the insect
insinuates itself and makes the secretionary covering.
The larval exuviae are covered with a smooth, white
secretion tinged with pale red, and without the central
boss seen in the type.

Long, about 1 mm.

Male pupa (PI. V, figs. 11 12) yellow, or pale
orange yellow ; antennas, legs, wing-cases, and stylus


paler. Eyes and ocelli black; the latter elongate
and placed close together.

Perfect male (PL V, fig. 8) varying from ochivous
to pale orange yellow. Apodema black, sliming. Legs
dusky with long sparse hairs. Eyes and ocelli black.
Abdomen gradually becoming paler towards the ex-
tremity. Antennas of the same colour as the legs,
having eight long clubbed hairs on the apical joint
(PL V, fig. 9).

Larva. Antennae funiculate, of six joints ; the first,
second, third, and fourth shortest ; fifth and sixth very
long, transversely striate or ringed, and form a little
more than two thirds of the entire length.

Habitat. Cheshire, very common ; Haslemere (Dr.
Sharpe), Surrey ; Lewisham (Douglas) ; Bearsted,
Kent (Green) ; and Portarlington, Ireland.

Apparently an extremely local species, but where it
occurs it is abundant and injurious.

The food-plants are : plum, apple, pear, cherry, and
currant. Mr. Green's examples were on heather (Cal-
luna, sp.), which at the present time is the only wild,
indigenous plant known to harbour this insect in Great
Britain. It would seem, therefore, to have a decided
preference for cultivated fruit trees in this country.

Distribution. Widely distributed, and common in
many parts of Europe, where it appears to be a very
general feeder. Until quite recently it was not known
to occur elsewhere ; but Mr. Cockerell informs me he
has received it from Alameda, California, on apple and
pear. I should imagine, however, that it has been
introduced into that country on cultivated plants; as
the species has not been recorded elsewhere in the
North American continent.

Habits. Both male and female pass the winter in
the second stage ; and no apparent change takes place,
in either sex, until the beginning of- April. The second-
stage males then pupate, and about three weeks after
the pupal skin is thrown off and ejected at the pos-
terior extremity of the scale, where it remains for a


short period. The appearance of the little shrivelled
skin is a sure sign the perfect male will appear in a day
or so. A fine sunny day brings them out almost directly
after the moult, but cold retards their emergence. In
1896 the males were most abundant during the third
week in April.

Shortly before the emergence of the males the females
effect their final moult, and, although small, possess all
the anatomical characters of the adults.

I have not observed the period of egg-laying or of
the hatching of the Iarva3. But this is very probably
completed before the end of June, as the new scales
are well formed by October, and the second stage of
both sexes is then completed. The species is cer-
tainly not double-brooded in the open air in this


PL V, fig. 1. Puparium of adult female from currant

(typical form). X 25.
Fig. 2. Puparium of immature female from currant

(typical form). X 25.
Fig. 3. Puparium of adult female from peach, partly

buried beneath the epidermal layer. X 25.
Fig. 4. Puparium of immature female from peach.

X 25.
Fig. 5. Parasitised female, showing hole through

which the parasite has escaped. X 35.
Fig. 6. Puparium of male on Calluna, sp. X 25.
Fig. 7. Puparium of male on peach. X 25.
Fig. 8. Male. X 50.

Fig. 9. Apical joint of male antennae. X 600.
Fig. 10. Tarsus and claw of male. X 600.
Fig. 11. Male pupa, dorsal aspect. X 50.
Fig. 12. Male pupa, ventral aspect, x 50.
Fig. 13. Insects natural size in situ on branch of

Fig. 14. Insects natural size in situ on branch of


plum ; many have been removed, leaving circular

patches of white secretion.

PL VII, fig. 2. Pygidium of adult female. X 250.
PI. XII, fig. 1. Margin of pygidium of adult female.

X 600.

ASPIDIOTUS nous (Riley MS.).
(PI. I, figs. 714; PI. II, fig. 2 ; PL XI, fig. 2.)

Ghrysomphalus ficus (Riley MS.), Ashmead, Ameri-
can Ent., 1880, p. 267.

Aspidiotus ficus, Comstock, Canad. Ent., vol. xiii, p. 8.

Clirysomphalns ficus, Berlese, Le Cocciniglie Italiane.
Parteiii, 18956, p. 241.

Puparium of the female (PL I, figs. 7, 1 4) circular,
moderately convex. Dark madder brown, purplish
black, or reddish brown, paler towards the margin,
where it is sometimes greyish or white. Exuvise
central; that of the larva dark orange brown or bright
golden yellow, presenting a metallic appearance or
lustre; secretionary covering circular and nipple-
shaped; central portion white, but it is almost
invariably wanting in the old examples ; second exuvige
completely hidden beneath the secretionary covering,
which forms a more or less flat, dark, purplish-brown
zone, concentric with the first exuvia3. Ventral scale
obsolete in the old examples ; but in the young adults
there is an extremely thin secretion on the tissues of
the food-plant. Young scales are circular (PL I, fig. 8)
and reddish brown; they are frequently superposed
upon the scale of the female (fig. 7).

Diam. 1 2'25 mm.

Adult female (PL I, fig. 10) ovate, narrowed, and
produced behind. Yellow with the pygidium pale
orange towards the base. Body shrivelling at gesta-


tion (PL I, fig. 9) ; the thoracic segments converging
towards the apex of the pygidium. Rudimentary an-
tennae with a short spine; and there are two similar
spines on the margin in front. Rostrum extending a
little beyond the second pair of spiracles. Thorax with
a short spine (PL I, fig. 11), which does not appear
very highly chitinised, and often disappears in the
process of mounting. Free penultimate segment of
abdomen, with a group of 8 9 tubular spinnerets con-
nected on the dorsal surface with the same number
of elongated pores. Pygidium (PL II, fig. 2) very
large, with four groups of circumgenital glands ; upper
lateral groups of 4 8 ; lower laterals of 2 4. Dorsal
tubular spinnerets slender, very long, some of them
extending into the last free abdominal segment; the
connecting dorsal pores are arranged in two double,
subdorsal rows, and number about 15 18 in each
group. There are four basal scars, equidistant, and
transversely placed. Anus about twice its length
within the margin. Vaginal opening a little beyond
the centre. Margin (PL XI, fig. 2) with three pairs
of well-developed- subequal lobes, each emarginate or
notched on its outer lateral margin. There are two
plates between the first and second lobes; three be-
tween the second and third ; and three beyond. The
first six are similar, and have a deep sharp fringe ; the
seventh irregular, furcate, and broad at the base ; the
three last similar, each with a deep central cleft, the
inner portion either simple and spine-like, or with one
or more irregular serrations ; anterior half with a deep
blunt fringe. Beyond the latter the margin is very
finely serrate, and has a single projecting spine.

Immediately within the margin are ten club-shaped
glands, arranged in irregular pairs, each, with the ex-
ception of the fourth, connected with minute pores on
either side, at the base of each lobe. Each lobe is
followed by a short spine, and there is one arising from
the centre of the base of the second and third lobes.

Scale of the male (PL I, fig. 12) short, ovate; sides


parallel, ends widely and equally rounded. Colour as
in the female, with the posterior extension blue grey.
Ventral surface (fig. 13) grey at the margin, becoming
darker towards the centre, where it is usually pale
blue. Larval exuviae circular and pale orange yellow.

Long. *75 1 mm.

Pupa mottled and streaked with dull orange;
sheaths of the appendages colourless ; eyes black.

Perfect male not observed in this country. Corn-
stock describes its colour as orange yellow, with dark-
brown apodema, and purplish-black eyes.

Habitat. Royal Gardens, Kew ; on Garclnia cam-
bogia (Green) ; Lonchocarpus barteri, Benth. ; Eugenia
malaccensis ; and Phemieria incarnata.

Distribution. Abundant in the United States of
America and the West Indies. Mr. Green has met
with it in Ceylon. It is common in Australia, and I
have received it on Jambosa vulgaris from Egypt
(Prof. Sickenberger). In Europe Prof. Berlese has
taken it in Italy.

From what I could gather at Kew this species does
not increase very rapidly, but, judging from the various
stages of the insect, several broods are probably pro-
duced during the year. My specimens were taken in
July, and at that time the male scales were tenanted
with mature pupae. English examples are very dark,
and in this respect most like those from Egypt.


PL I, fig. 7. Puparium of adult female, dorsal view,
with a very young example superposed at side.

v 9^
X ^O.

Fig. 8. Puparium of immature female, x 25.
Fig. 9. Adult female at period of parturition, x

Fig. 10. Adult female after treatment with potash.

X 50.
Fig. 11. Thoracic spine of adult female. X 600.



Fig. 12. Puparium of male, dorsal view, x 25.
Fig. 13. Puparium of male, ventral view. ' x 25.
Fig. 14. Insects natural size in situ on leaf of food-

PL II, fig. 2. Pygidium of adult female, x 250.
PL XI, fig. 2. Margin of pygidium of adult female.
X 600.


(PL IX, figs. 711; PL II, fig. 3; PL XII, fig. 6.)

Aspidiotus diet ij os permi^ Morgan, var. Arecae, New-
stead, Ent. Mo. Mag., 1893 ; S.S., vol. iv, p. 185,
pi. iv, fig. 2.

Puparium of the female (PL IX, figs. 7 and 8) cir-
cular, or approximately so ; surface smooth or of the
same texture as the surface of the leaf owing to the
admixture of the epidermal tissues of the plant;
central area convex; margin broadly flat. Colour
usually rich orange brown, but sometimes ochreous
brown or dark castaneous. Exuviae central; those of
the larvas golden brown, having a somewhat shining,
metallic appearance ; those of the female much paler ;
first secretionary covering, with a central boss and
concentric ring; the second flat, or with an outer
raised, concentric ring. Under side of scale (PL IX,
fig. 9) greyish ; exuvia3 highly polished. Ventral scale
a thin secretion upon the plant.

Diam. 1 1*25 mm.

Adult female (PL IX, fig. 10) pyriform, pygidium
large, with the apex somewhat angular ; cephalic area
slightly constricted ; free abdominal segments distinct.
Colour pale yellow, sometimes with a faint reddish
tinge ; pygidium with six perpendicular brown lines,


extending from the base of each lobe. Rudimentary
antennae with a very long straight spine. Margin of
thoracic, and free abdominal segments with a few
spiny hairs. Rostral filaments, about three times the
length of the mentum. Pygidium (PL II, fig. 3) with
four widely separated groups of circumgenital glands ;
the anterior laterals of 3 4; the posterior laterals
2 3. Subdorsal groups of tubular spinnerets slender
(unless completely restored by boiling in potash they ap-
pear quite filiform), the longest reaching almost to the
articulation of the segment; connecting dorsal pores
in a short series of about four, and several smaller
ones scattered towards the margin ; there is also
a long, central, tubular spinneret connected with a
marginal pore between the median lobes. Vaginal
opening midway between the circumgenital glands.
Anal opening towards the margin. Margin of pygi-
dium (PI. XII, fig. 6) with three pairs of well-deve-
loped, subequal lobes ; each lobe with the inner lateral
margin entire, and curved outwards ; the outer lateral
margin with a deep notch, giving them a bilobed ap-
pearance. The median and second pairs of plates
short, and fringed ; the three between the second and
third lobes of the same structure and length ; there are
from three to five beyond the third lobe; the first,
when present, simple and pointed; the second and
third constricted in the centre, forming a long, spear-
shaped, pendulous, projection ; margin of basal portion
sharply serrate ; the fourth plate is either of a similar
structure to the latter, or is deeply divided and simple,
with the outer margin long, and finely serrate ; margin
beyond finely serrate and with several dentitions,
widely apart. Within the margin are five pairs of
large club-shaped glands ; each pair connected with
the margin between the lobes. The spines are minute
and placed a little in front of the lobes.

As the embryo larvae are well formed within the
body of the parent I presume the females are ovivi-


Scale of the male circular, with the exuviae central ;
secretional covering nipple-shaped. Colour as in the
female scale.

Diam. '80 mm.

Perfect male unknown.

Habitat (under glass.) In Cheshire, on Areca, sp.,
Gypripedium, spp., DendroMum, spp., and Anthurium,
sp. On Aroids, Bot. Gard., Dublin (Burbidge) ; on
Aloe zeyheri, from Durban; Bot. Gard., Cambridge
(Lynch) ; on Cwloyyne, ? London (Douglas) ; and
sparingly on Areca, sp., Royal Gard., Kew; quite
recently I have also received it on various palms from
Raby Castle, Darlington, Durham (Brock).

Distribution. Mr. Morgan's types were from Deme-
rara; it has also been recorded from Brazil and the
West Indies.

I have never met with typical examples of A. dictyo-
sperfti/i, the puparia of which Mr. Morgan describes as
" greyish- white, with exuvia3 in the centre, depressed,
of an elongate oval shape, about 1*2 mm. longest
diameter. The centre of the larval skin is of a dark
orange colour, whilst the exuviae are of a light yellow." *


PL IX, fig. 7. Puparium of adult female with large
concentric ring, indicating extent of second ex-
uviae ; and with a young puparium superimposed
at margin. X 25.

Fig. 8. Puparium of adult female without large con-
centric ring, showing structural character of surface
caused by epidermal layer of plant tissues. X 25.

Fig. 9. Puparium of young adult female, ventral
view, showing position of larval and second
exuviae, x 30.

Fig. 10. Adult female at period of gestation, x 40.

Fig. 11. Insects natural size in situ on portion of
leaf of Ccelogyne.

* ' Ent. Mo. Mag.,' 1889, xxvi, p. 352, pi. v, figs. 3 and 5.


PL II, fig. 3. Pygidium of adult female. X 250.
PL XII, fig. 6. Margin of pygidium of adult female.
X 600.

(Figs. 13, 14.)

Aspidiotus alienus, Newst., Ent. Mo. Mag., S.S., vol.
xii, p. 81, 1901.

Female puparium, subcircular, or irregular ovate 4 ,
flat, convex; colour pale purple brown, margins paler.
Larval exuviae shining black, secretionary covering
dull brown, forming a central point, and concentric
ring above the rest. Underside brighter purple brow 1 1 ,
gradually darkening towards apex, which is usually
mealy. Ventral scale rather stout, and generally
remains attached to the food-plant.

Greatest diameter 2 2*25 mm.
? adult pyriform. Rudimentary antennas tubcr-
culate, with a basal, curved, spiny hair. Parastigmatic
glands absent. Pygidium (figs. 13, 14) rather pointed ;
lobes in three pairs, of which the median pair are
sometimes slightly the longest, the third, broadest,
have the margins sloping upwards. Beyond the last
lobe the margin is produced into three to four (usually
three) equidistant, angular processes, with the margin
between them finely crenulated. The plates between
the lobes broadly bifurcate ; there is also a large T
divided plate at the base of the first angular process,
and a single short spine-like one at the base of each of
the other angular processes. There are two exceed-
ingly fine spines between the third lobe and the plate
succeeding it, and a much larger one in the centre of
the margin. Circumgenital glands in four groups.
Anterior laterals from eight to nine, posterior laterals
seven to nine. Club-shaped thickenings of the body-



wall in six pairs, the central, third, and fourth pairs
being less than half the length of the others. Margin
between the last club-shaped thickening and the long
marginal hair beyond it highly and broadly chitinised,

FIG. 13.

FIG. 13. Aspidiotus alienus, pygidinm of adult, ?. X 250.
FIG. 14. Margin of pygidium. X GOO.

the inner margin being denned by a series of gland-
like markings. Dorsal tubular spinnerets in a single
series, about seven in number, arising between the
fourth and fifth club-shaped thickenings ; and there is


a series of ten to twelve smaller pores within tlie
margin beyond the central spine. Vaginal opening
central. Dermis with many long spiny hairs on the
cephalic area.

Larva. Antennas funiculate, of six joints, the
funicle forming one half of the entire length.

Habitat. On Catilei/a /S'/Vy/ /////, under glass,
London. Collected by Mr. E. E. Green, to whom I
am indebted for the specimens.

Distribution. Probably a subtropical species.

The form of the puparia, and also the deeply
serrated margin of the pygidinm, somewhat resembles
Aspidiotus biformis, Ckll., bnt it is much more
closely related to A. scutiformis, Ckll., and A. Ito/rcii,
Ckll. It differs from either of these latter, however,
by the unusually broadly divergent bifurcate plates,
and the regular and deeply serrated margin, which
latter character resembles the serrations in . I . fHi
Hemp el.

(PI. XI, fig. 7, after Comstock.)

Aspidiotus persese, Comstock; Report, 1880, p. 305,

pi. xii, fig. 3 ; pi. xiii, fig. 3.
Ckri/somphulus perseae, Leonardi; Monogr. delgenere

Aspidiotus. Nota preventiva, Estr. Biv. Patol.

Veg., Anno V, 1896 7, p. 286.

Puparium of the female flat, convex ; colour dark
reddish brown, or purplish brown. Exuviae approxi-
mately central ; intense black ; first secretional covering
nipple-shaped, the second slightly convex, or taking
the same contour as the scale; colour of both dull
ochreous grey.

Diam. 1*50 2 mm.

Having only seen the puparia of this insect from the
collection of Mr. Douglas, I have no alternative but


to quote Prof. Comstock's original diagnosis of the

He says : " The colour of the female is orange. The
body is nearly as wide as long. The last segment pre-
sents the following characters : there are four groups of
^spinnerets; the anterior laterals consist of from ten
to twelve, and the posterior laterals of about eight.

" There are three pairs of well-developed lobes
present ; each lobe is wider than long ; the first lobe of
each side is the smallest, the third the largest; the
second is usually notched ; the third is serrate.

" The posterior half of the lateral margin of tlie
segment appears to be of the same structure as the
lobes ; it is serrate, and usually more or less deeply
notched four or five times.

" The body- wall is furnished with seven thickenings
on each side of the meson. These thickenings are long,
somewhat club-shaped, the anterior part being enlarged
and rounded. There is one terminating at the base of
each margin of each lobe. Those ending at the base of
the lateral margins of the lobes are much longer than
the others. The seventh thickening terminates be-
tween the second and third lobes, and is narrow and

" The plates are small, inconspicuous, and irregularly
toothed. There are two between each pair of lobes, and
between the third lobe of each side and the posterior
lobe of the thickened lateral margin. *******

" On the ventral side there are four pairs of spines,
there being a spine at the base of the lateral margin of
each lobe, and one at the anterior end of the thickened
part of the lateral margin of the segment. On the
dorsal side there are only three pairs of spines, there
being none on the first lobes. Those of the second
and third lobes are situated near the middle of the
bases of the lobes ; the third spine is nearly opposite
the fourth spine of the ventral surface."

Habitat. On Anthurium harrisii, at the Royal

* Ci re um genital glands.



Gardens, Kew. Was first recorded in 1889. Subse-
quently it has not been met with either at Kew or
elsewhere in the British Isles.

It is a North American species, and was first
described by Prof. Comstock from specimens on Red
Bay (Persea carolinemis), collected in the United

My description of the scale of the female is from
British specimens from the collection of Mr. J. \V.
Douglas. All my attempts to obtain British examples
of the female have, so far, failed.

Puparium of the male elongate ; colour like that of
the female; exuvia3 black and placed towards tlir
anterior margin. Secretional covering as in the female.

Long, about 1 mm.


PL XI, fig. 7. Margin of pygidium of adult female
after Comstock.

(PI. X, fig. 3; PI. XI, fig. 4.)

Aspidiotus spinosus, Comstock; Report, 1883, p. 70,

fig. 7.
Aspidiotus cydomze (Comstock), Newstead; Ent. Mo.

Mag., 1897, p. 74.
Ennspidiotn.s spinosus (Comstock), Leonardi ; Gren. e

sp. di Diaspiti. Est. dal. Rivista di Patologia

Vegetale, 1897 [VI], 1900 [VIII], p. 83, fig.


Puparium of the female high, convex, approximately
circular ; completely covered with the epidermal layer
of woolly fibres of the food-plant. Exuviae central, or


a little towards the anterior margin ; those of the
Iarva3 pale yellow and frequently exposed ; secretionary
covering so completely hidden by the woolly fibres as
to obscure both form and colour. Ventral surface of
scale pale ochreous or greyish ochreous. Ventral
scale adhering to plant is moderately thick, and dusky
white. Prof. Comstock (7. c.) describes the colour of
the scale as " very light brown or dirty white."

Diam. 1 1*75 mm.

Adult female pyriform. Pygidium (PL X, fig. 3)
rather short. Circumgenital glands in four groups ;
the anterior laterals from three to six, the posterior
laterals from three to six; they are more or less
continuous, and arranged in a single series. Vaginal
opening opposite the centre of the grouped glands.
Anal opening very small, and placed quite near to the
margin. Subdorsal groups of tubular spinnerets,
moderately long, are connected with a few compara-
tively small dorsal pores. Margin of pygidium (PL
XI, fig. 4) with the median lobes well developed, and
slightly convergent ; margins straight, with slight notch
at the distal extremity. Second and third pairs of
lobes small, sometimes quite rudimentary. The median
plates are simple and spine-like ; the pair between the
median and second lobes deeply and strongly fringed ;
there are usually two between the second and third
lobes, deeply and irregularly fringed, and either more
or less palmate, or shaped somewhat in the form of
a table fork; there are from five to seven beyond
the third lobe, each deeply divided in one or two
places, Avith the outer lateral margins strongly but
irregularly serrate.

The spines are remarkable for their great size.
The first is shortest, and placed over the anterior
lateral portion of the median lobes, and, in my examples,
never extend beyond the latter; the second and third
dorsal spines are placed immediately opposite, and
extend beyond the second and third lobes respectively ;
that over the second lobe is much the largest, and is


very broad and flat; the fourth spine follows closely
the last marginal plate; the fifth spine is isolated mid
some considerable distance beyond the fourth. Those
spines on the ventral surface are shorter nnd much

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