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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA

AT

LOS ANGELES
LIBRARY



THE



LAW LIBRARY.



October, November, and December, 1855.



j



PHILADELPHIA:
T. & J. W. JOHNSON, LAW BOOKSELLERS,

NO. 197 CHESTNUT STREET.

1855.



KOBE, PILE * M'BLROT,

LATE KIT! ft WALTON.



THE LAW LI BE ART.



CONTENTS.

Commentaries upon International Law. By Kobert Phillimore, M. P.,
Advocate to Her Majesty in her Office of Admiralty, Author of
" The Law of Domicil." " Legum denique idcirco oumes servi
sumus, ut liberi esse possumus.". CICERO pro A. Cluent. 53.
" The various Transactions and Concordats between Sovereigns and
the See of Pome; a succinct and impartial history of them is
wanting : the papal arrangements with Bonaparte would not be the
least curious part of such a work." Horse Juridicse Subsecivas.
By Charles Butler (1804,) p. 118. Vol. II.



COMMENTARIES



UPON



INTERNATIONAL LAW,



BY

ROBERT PHILLIMORE, M.P.,

ADVOCATE TO HER MAJESTY IN HER OFFICE OF ADMIRALTY, AUTHOR OF " THE
LAW OF DOMICIL."



"Legum donique idcirco omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possumus."
CICERO pro A. Cluent. $ 53.

" The various Transactions and Concordats between Sovereigns and the See of Rome ; a
succinct and impartial history of them is wanting : the papal arrangements with Bona-
parte would not be the least curious part of such a work." Horce Juridical Subsecivce.
By CHARLES BUTLER (1804), p. 118.



VOL. II.



PHILADELPHIA:
T. & J. W. JOHNSON, LAW BOOKSELLERS,

NO. 197 CHESTNUT STREET.

1855.
i ^ f



115850



K1TK k WALTON.






13



CONTENTS.



The pages referred to are those between brackets [ ].



PART V.

CHAPTER I.
RIGHTS INCIDENT TO THE EQUALITY OF STATES. Pp. 1, 2.

CHAPTER II.

RIGHTS OP PROTECTING CITIZENS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. Pp. 3 7.

CHAPTER III.
SUBJECT CONTINUED. Pp. 8 14.

Debts of the State. Lord Palmerston's Letter in 1848. Debts guaranteed by
Treaty. Depreciation of Money by Debtor State. Property of the Subject
liable to the Debts of the State.

CHAPTER IV.
RECOGNITION. Pp. 15 32.

A kind of Moral Intervention. Different kinds of Recognition. Virtual and
formal Recognition. Historical Instances : United Netherlands ; Portugal :
Commonwealth of England ; Pretender ; North American United States ;
Governments in France since 1792. Decisions of Municipal Tribunals.
Recognition of Titles of Dignity.

CHAPTER V.
RIGHT TO EXTERNAL MARKS OP HONOUR AND RESPECT. Pp. 33 54.

Maritime Honours. Insignia of the State. Precedence at Congresses. Royal
Honours. Rank of States. Language of International Communication.



iv PHILLIMORE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.

CHAPTER VI.
TREATIES. Pp. 5569.

Their Place in the System of International Law. Different Modes of consi-
dering them. Who may contract. Reciprocal Consent. What may be the
Subject of. Modes of confirming.

CHAPTER VII.

TREATIES. Pp. 70 78.
Guarantees, different kinds of.

CHAPTER VIII.
TREATIES. Pp. 79110.

Interpretation of.

( A.) Literal Interpreta.ion.
(B.) Logical Interpretation.

!l.} Uncertainty.
2.) Impropriety of Language.
General Rules respecting. Uncertainty of Expression, arising from

fl.) Incompleteness.
2.) Ambiguity of Language.

(a.) Ambiguity of single Expressions,
(b.) Of General Construction.

Two general Rules relating to. Impropriety of Expression. Rectified by
(!.} Restrictive.
(2.) Extensive Interpretation.
Case of Russo-Dutch Loan. Eadem ratio idem jus. Things favourable ; odious .

CHAPTER IX.

COLLISION OF TREATIES. Pp. Ill 116.
Rules respecting. Decisions of British and American Courts.



PART VI.

CHAPTER I.

RIGHTS OP SOVEREIGNS. Pp. 117 133.
Historical Instances. Decisions of Dutch, French and English Tribunals.

CHAPTER II.

EMBASSY. Pp. 134 146.

General Arrangement of the Subject. Who may send Embassy.



CONTENTS. V

CHAPTER III.

EMBASSY, RIGHT TO RECEIVE. Pp. 14T 155.
Right to refuse. Resident Embassy.

CHAPTER IV.

EMBASSY. Pp. 156163.

General Rights of. Injuries to Feciales.

CHAPTER V.

EMBASSY, ROMAN LAW RESPECTING. Pp. 164 169.
Inviolability of. Christian Church. Middle Ages.

CHAPTER VI.
EMBASSY, EXTENT OF INVIOLABILITY. Pp. 170 172.

CHAPTER VII.

EMBASSY, INVIOLABILITY OF. CRIMINAL LAW. Pp. 173 189.
Whether, and how far, Ambassador amenable to. Cases respecting.

CHAPTER VIII.

EMBASSY. EXTERRITORIALITY. CIVIL JURISDICTION. Pp. 190 215.

How far Ambassador amenable to. Cases respecting. His Suite ; Taxes ;
Duties ; his Hotel ; Chapel.

CHAPTER IX.

EMBASSY. DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PUBLIC MINISTERS. Pp. 216 224.

CHAPTER X.

EMBASSY. INSTRUCTIONS OF AMBASSADORS. CREDENTIALS. Pp. 225 228.

CHAPTER XL

EMBASSY. ARRIVAL OF AMBASSADOR. Pp. 229 234.
Audience. Alteration and Close of Mission.



yi PHILLIMORE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.

PART VII.

CHAPTER I.
CONSULS. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. Pp. 235 239.

CHAPTER II.

CONSULATE IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES. Pp. 240 251.
Consuls-General. Vice-Consuls. Treaties respecting.

CHAPTER III.
CONSULS. DUTIES AND POWERS OF. Pp. 252 259.

CHAPTER IV.

CONSULS. DECISIONS OF MUNICIPAL TRIBUNALS RESPECTING. Pp. 260 270.

CHAPTER V.
CONSULS IN THE LEVANT IN CHINA. Pp. 271 275.



PART VIII.

INTERNATIONAL STATUS OP FOREIGN SPIRITUAL POWERS, ESPECIALLY

OF THE POPE.

CHAPTER I.

RELIGION AND THE STATE. Pp. 277 280.
Division of the Subject, and Order of Treatment in the following Chapters.

CHAPTER II.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AS TO THE RIGHT OF THE STATE TO SUPERINTEND,
WITHIN ITS TERRITORIAL LlMITS, ALL RELIGIOUS DOCTRINES TAUGHT, AND THE
TEACHERS OF THEM. THE EARLY CONNECTION OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
WITH THE STATE. Pp. 281 297.

Influence of Religion. Church. Collegium licitum. Church under Constan-
tine. Pepin le Bref. Identity of Church and State.

CHAPTER III.

THE GROWTH OF THE AUTHORITY AND PRETENSIONS OF THE POPE.
P. 298306.

Collision between Church and State after the time of Charlemagne. Jura
Majestatis circa sacra. Corpus Juris Canonici.



CONTENTS. v ii



CHAPTER IV.

THE CORPUS JURIS CANONICI, AND THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED THEREIN, AND IN
SUBSEQUENT BULLS, AT VARIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL LAW. Pp. 307 333.

Venerabilem. Solitce. Ad Apostolicce. Clericis Laicos. Quod Olim. Unam
Sanctam and Meruit. Romani Principes. Pastoralis. Si Fratrum. De
Consuetudine. The Bull, In Coena Domini.

CHAPTER V.

THE INTERNATIONAL STATUS OF THE PAPACY BETWEEN THE PERIOD OF THE PRO-
MULGATION OF THE CANON LAW AND THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. Pp. 334 347.

Height of Papal Power. Pragmatic Sanctions. Concordats French Church.
German Concordata.

CHAPTER VI.

THE PERIOD OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT, AND ITS EFFECT UPON INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS. Pp. 348 357.

Treaty of Westphalia.

CHAPTER VII.

THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE PAPACY WITH FOREIGN STATES IN
WHICH THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH is ESTABLISHED, DURING THE PERIOD

BETWEEN THE REFORMATION AND THE PRESENT TlME. THE HlSTORY OF CON-
CORDATA. Pp. 358396.

Relations of Rome with France. Monitorio di Parma. Napoleon and Rome.
Subsequent Relations between France and Rome. Papal Relations with
Austria with Hungary with Spain with Portugal with The Two Sicilies
with Sardinia with Tuscany with Bavaria.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE PAPACY WITH FOREIGN STATES IN
WHICH A PROTESTANT CHURCH is ESTABLISHED. BULL^E CIRCUMSCRIPTIONUM.
Pp. 397409.

Papal Relations with Prussia with Hanover with smaller German Protestant
States with Saxony with Switzerland.

CHAPTER IX.

THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE PAPACY WITH STATES IN WHICH A
BRANCH OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, NOT IN COMMUNICATION WITH ROME, is

ESTABLISHED. Pp. 410 427.

Papal Relations with Russia with the Ottoman Porte with England.

CHAPTER X.

THE ELECTORS, MINISTERS, AND COURTS OF THE POPE CONSIDERED IN THEIR
RELATIONS TO FOREIGN STATES. Pp. 428 448.



yiii PHILLIMORE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.



CHAPTER XL

INTERNATIONAL STATUS OF THE PATRIARCHATE OP CONSTANTINOPLE.
Pp.449 454.

Relations of the Greek Church Tvith Russia. Concordat between Patriarch
and Kingdom of Greece. Aggression of Rome upon Greek Church. Protest
of Greek Church.



For Contents of Appendix, see Chapter of Contents preceding Appendix.



EXPLANATION OF REFERENCE TO THE CORPUS
JURIS CIVILIS.



THROUGHOUT this Work the Roman Law is cited according to what a priori
might seem the natural manner, namely, a reference is made to the Institutes,
Digest, the Code, or the Novells, by an abbreviation of the first syllable of each
of these members of the Corpus Juris Civilis, then to the number of the book,
then to the number of the title, then to the number of the law, and then to the
number of the section or paragraph, as Inst. 1. ii. t. i. s. 1, meaning book i.
title i., and sec. 1, of the Institutes of Justinian ; Dig. xxvii. 1, 13, 2, meaning
Digest, book xxvii. title i. law 13, see. 2 ; Cod. iii. 39, 5, meaning The Code,
book iii. title 39, law 5. The Novellce, or Novells, are cited according to the
number of the Novell, which is subdivided into capita, or sections, as Nov. xxi. 2,
meaning Novel xxi. cap. 2.

The Corpus Juris Civilis is usually cited by Continental writers as follows

The Institutes, by the letters Inst., Instit., or I. The number of the paragraph,
followed by the rubric or heading of the title, thus

| 3. Inst. De Nuptiis.

Sometimes the reference is made by the numbers of the paragraph, book,
or title, thus

| 3. Iwst. i. 10.

The letters princ., pr., or princip., indicate the commencing paragraph of a
title, as the numbering commences with the second.

The Digest, or Pandects, are usually indicated by the older Continental writers
by the letters^.

The letter L. means Law, and the mark means section of the law. The
words after the letters jf. give the rubric or heading of the title or chapter.
Thus, for instance, L. 49, 1, ff. De Act JEmpt., signifies Law 49, parag. 1, in
the Pandects, title De Actione Empti.

Sometimes the first words of the law are cited.

Sometimes the reference is in this manner, the letters Pand. (used instead
of ff.,} D., or Dig., all of which signify Justinian 1 s Pandects.

Sometimes the letter or letters indicating the Pandects are placed last thus
L. profectitia, $ si pater D. De Jure Dot.

Or, the numbers of the law and paragraph are given, instead of their initial
words, thus

L. 5, g 6., De Jure Dotium.

The law cited is sometimes indicated by the letters Fr., instead of L.

The Code.

The Code of Justinian is cited in the same way as the Pandects, and indi-
cated by the letters Cod. or C. ; and some writers use the letters Constit.
(Constitutio) instead of L.

The Novells, or later Constitutions in the Corpus Juris., are indicated by the
words Nov. or Novel.

OCTOBER, 1855. 2



AN EXPLANATION OF THE KEFERENCES TO THE
BOOKS OF THE CANON LAW.



X. i. 9. 6. 4. That is to say, book the first, title the ninth, chapter the sixth,
and paragraph the fourth of the Decretals of Pope Gregory the
Ninth. The letter X. denoting the Decretals of that Pope.

VI. 3. 4. 23. Book the third, title the fourth, and chapter the twenty-third, of
the sixth book of the Decretals by Pope Boniface the Eighth.

Clement. 2. 5. 2. Book the second, title the fifth, and chapter the second of the
Clementines.

Extra. 14. 3. That is to say, title the fourteenth, and chapter the third of the
Extravagants of Pope Joan the Twenty-second.

Comm. 3. 2. That is to say, book the third, and chapter the second of the Com-
munes.

Dist. 76. c. 2. Distinction the seventy-sixth and chapter the second of the first
part of the Decrees. And if a V. consonant, or this note be
added, viz. , it denotes the verse or paragraph of that chapter,
as Dist. 16, c. 2, v. 3, or 3.

16. Q. 7. 3. That is to say, cause the sixteenth, question the seventh, and chap-
ter the third, of the second part of the Decrees.

Con. 1. 2. Distinction the first and chapter the second of the third part of the
Decrees.

All these books of the Canon Law are likewise sometimes quoted by the initial
words of the law or chapter itself, and by the words of the title ; as thus, Ex
specialis, extra de Judceis, that is to say, cap. 17. tit. 6. of the fifth book of Gre-
gory's Decretals ; for the word Extra imports these Decretals, as well as the Ex-
travagants.



LIST OF AUTHORITIES

REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME,

k

BEING ADDITIONAL TO THOSE REFERRED TO IN THE FORMER VOLUME.



A.

Abbott, on Merchant Ships and Seamen.

Allgemeines Landrecht fur die Preussichen Staaten.

Ariosto.

Artaud, Histoire de Pie VII.

B.

Bacon (Lord,) Maxims of the Law, Regula, iii.

Bacon's (Matthew) Abridgment.

Baldwin's (American) Reports.

Barbosa, De Officio et Potestate Episcopi.
" De Jure Ecclesiastico.

Baronius (Card.,) Annales Ecclesiastici, cum Pagi Critica, necnon Raynaldi
Continuatio, Tornielli Annales Sacri, Apparatus et Index. Lucca9: 1738-56.

Bay's (American) Reports.

Bee's (American) Reports.

Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church.

Bosanquet and Puller's Reports.

Bossuet, Declaratio Cleri Gallicani.
" Sur 1'Unite de 1'Eglise.

Bougeant (Pere) L'Histoire du Traite de Westphalie.

Bramhall (Archbishop,) A Just Vindication of the Church of England.

Broom's Legal Maxims.

Bullarii Romani Continuatio, S. Pontificum dementis XIIL, Clementis XIV.,
Pii VI., &c., collegit And. Adv. Barberi, torn. 1-10, in 7 vols. folio. Rom. :
1835-45. Tom. 1, 2, 3. Clemens XIIL; torn. 4. Clemens XIV.: torn. 5-10.
Pius VI.

Bullarium Magnum Romanum, a B. Leone Magni, usque ad S. D. N. Benedic-
tum XIIL, cura et studio L. et A. M. Cherubim, editio novissima, juxta ex-
emplar Romce, 19 torn, in 16, folio. Luxemb. : 1727-58.

Burleigh's (Lord) State Papers, by Murden.

Butler's Historical Memoirs of the Roman Catholics.

Bynkershoek, Opusculum De Cultu Religionis Peregrin apud veteres Romanos.



x ii PHILLIMORE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.

c.

Caesar, de Bello Civili.
Campbell's Reports.
Cases in Equity under Lord Talbot.
Chalmers's Collection of Opinions.
Cicero, De Inventione Rhetorics.

" De Divinatione.

" Epistolse ad Familiares.

" Orationes Philippicse.
Clarke and Finnelly's Reports.
Clerge (M. du.)

Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli.
Collier's Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain.
Coppi, Annali d'ltalia.
Cotton's (Sir R.) Remains.
Cujacius, Jacobus.
Cziraky, Conspectus Juris Publici Regni Hungarian.

D.

De Pradt, Quatre Concordats.

" Suite des Quatre Concordats.

" Concordat de 1'Amerique avec Rome.
De Torcy, Memoires.
Deutsch oder Russisch. (Pamphlet.)
Devereux's (American) Equity Reports.
Devoti, Institutionum Canonicarum Libri.
Dictionnaire de 1' Academic Franchise.
Dirksen, Manuale Lat. Fonlium Jur. Civ. Romanorum.
Dod's Roman Catholic History.
Donellus, de Jure Civili.
Douglas's Reports.
Dow and Clarke's Reports.
Dowling's Reports.
Ducange, Gloss.

Duck, de Usu et Auctoritate Juris Civilis.
Dupin, De Ant. Eccles. Disciplina Diss. Historiae.
Dupuis (Jacques,) Commentaries on Pithou.
Durande De Maillane, Diet, du Jur. Canonique.
Durnford and East's Reports.

E.

Ebenders, Was ist ein Bischof ?

Evans's Translation of Pothier on Obligations.

Eybel, Was ist der Papst?

F.

Farini, Lo Stato Romano.

Febronius (Justinus,) De Statu Ecclesise et legitima Potestate Romana.

Fleury, Hist. Ecclesiastique.

Freeman's Chancery (American) Reports.

Fynn's British Consul Abroad.



G.



Gaius, Tnstitutiones.
Gallison's (American) Reports.



LIST OP AUTHORITIES. xiii

Giannone, Istoria del Regno di Napoli.

Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Giesler Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte,

Gregorii Magni Opera.

Grotius, De Imperio summarum Potestatum circa sacra.

H.

Hegel, Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft.
Hilliger ad Donellum.
Hill's (American) Reports.
Hoffman, Lexicon Universale.
Hue, Voyage dans le Thibet.

J.

Junius, Letters of.

K.
Koch, Sanctio Pragmatica Germanorum Blustrata.

L.

Lamberty, Memoires.

Landon's Manual of Councils.

Laurent, Hist, du Droit des Gens.

Law Journal Reports.

Leber, Pieces relatives a 1'Histoire de France.

Lequeux, Manuale Compendium Juris Canonici.

Livius.

Lorieux, Traite de la Prerogative Royale.

M.

Maillane's (Durand de) Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique.

Maistre (Comte Joseph de,) Du Pape.

Marca (Petrus de,) De Concordantia Sacerdotii et Imperii sui de Libertatibus

Ecclesise Gallicanae.
Martin's (American) Reports.
Martin (H.,) Histoire de France.
Mason, Vindiciae Ecclesiae Anglicanse.
Massachusetts (American) Reports.
Maule and Selwyn's Reports.
Miles' (American) Reports.
Milman, History of Latin Christianity.
Modern Reports.

Moser, De Pactis et Privilegiis circa Religionem.
Miiller's Fiirstenbund.

" Reichstagstheatrum unter Friedrich III.
Muratori, Annali.

N.

Noodt (Ger.,) Dissertatio de Relig. ab Imperio, Jure Gentium.

P.

Pacca (Cardinale,) Memorie del.
Packman, Lehrbuch des Kirchenrechts.
Paine's (American) Reports.



xi v PHILLIMOEE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.

Pamiers (De) Trait6 de la Regale.

Peray (M. Michael de,) Observations sur le Concordat fait entre L4on X. et

Frangais Premier.

Phillimore's (Burn's) Ecclesiastical Law.
Phillips, Kirchenrecht.

Planck, Geschichte der Christlich-kirchlichen Gesellschaftsverfassung.
Portalis (J. E.,) Discours, Rapports, et Travaux inedits sur le Concordat de

1801, les Articles Organiques, &c. &c.
Prendergast, The Law relating to officers of the Navy.
Putter, Beitrage zur Volkerrechts Geschicht.

Q.

Quintilianus, de Institutione Oratoria.

4

R.

Ranke, Die Romischen Papste.

Real (De,) Science du Gouvernement.

Rechberger, Enchiridion Juris Ecclesiastic! Austriaci.

Riegger (Pauli Jos. de,) Institutiones Jurisprudentiae Ecclesiasticse.

Robertson's Ecclesiastical Reports.

Rousset, Supplement. See Dumont, in Vol. I.

Raynaldus. See Baronius.

S.

Sauter, Fundam. Jur. Eccl. Catholicae.

Savigny, Obligationenrecht.

Schoell, Archives Historiques et Politiques.

Schram, Institutiones Juris Ecclesiastici Publici et Privati.

Schrockh, Christliche Kirchengeschichte.

Simon's Reports.

Spittler, Geschichte des Papstthums.

Strype's Annals of the Church.

St. Simon, Memoires de.

T.

Taparelli, Saggio Teoretico di Dritto Naturale, &c.

Taunton's Reports.

Taylor's (American) Reports.

Taylor's Law of Evidence.

Theodosius, Codex.

Thomassinus, Vetus et Nova Ecclesise Disciplina.

Thuanus, Historia sui Temporis.

Thurloe's State Papers.

Tindal (Continuation of Rapin.)

Twiss, Letters Apostolic.

V.

Van Espen, Tractatus de Promulgatione legum Ecclesiasticorum ac speciatim
Bullarum et Rescriptorum Curiae Romanse.

Jus Ecclesiasticum universum hodiernas discipline.
Vernon's Cases.
Vesey's Reports.
Virgilius.
Voltaire, Essai sur les Mreura et 1'Esprit des Nations.



LIST OF AUTHORITIES. X V



W.



Walker's (American) Chancery Reports.
Walters' Kirchenrecht.
Washington's C. C. (American) Reports.
Wildman's International Law.
Wilson's Reports.

Y.

Yerger's (American) Reports.



Zouch, Solutio Qusestionis Veteris et Novae, sive de Legati Delinquentis Judice
Competente Dissertatio.



LIST OF REPORTS.



ENGLISH.



B.

Barnwell and Cresswell's.

Bingham's.

Bosanquet and Puller's.

Burrows'.

C.

Campbell's.

Clarke and Finnelly's.

Consistory (Haggard's.)

D.

Dodson's (Admiralty.)

Douglas'.

Dow and Clarke's.

Dowling's.

Durnford and East's.

E.
Edwards' (Admiralty.)

H.

Haggard's (Admiralty.)
" (Consistory.)

K.
Knapp's Privy Council.

L.
Law Journal.



M.

Maule and Selwyn's.
Modern.

R.

Robinson's (Christopher) Admiralty.
Robertson's Ecclesiastical.



Simons's.
Strange's.



T.



Taunton's Reports.

V.

Vernon's Cases.

Vesey's.

Vesey and Beame's (Chancery.)



Wilson's.



W.



Y.



Young and Collier's.



LIST OP REPORTS.



AMERICAN.



XVH



B.


J.


Baldwin's.
Bay's.


Johnson's.


Bee's.


M.


C.

Cranclrs.


Martin's.
Massachusetts.
Miles'.


D.

Dallas'.
Devereux's Equity.


P.

Peters'.
Paine's.




T.


i i
Freeman's Chancery.


Taylor's.
W.


G.

Gallison's.


Walker's Chancery.
Washington's C. C.
Wheaton's.


H

Hill's.


Y.

Yerger's.



FRENCH.

Gazette des Tribunaux.



LIST OF CASES



CITED IN THIS VOLUME.



The pages referred to are those between brackets [ ].



A.

Albrecht v. Sussman, 270.

B.

Barbuit's Case in Chancery, 263.
Bass (M. de) French Minister, Case
of, 180.

C.

Charlotte, The, 115.

Christiansberg, The, 100.

City of Berne in Switzerland, The,
v. The Bank of England, 25.

Clarke v. Crecow, 267.

Colebrook v. Jones, 269.

Columbian Government v. Roths-
child, 132.

Cross v. Talbot, 199.

D.

Dalrymple v. Dalrymple, 348.

Darling v. Atkins, 200.

De Haber v. Queen of Portugal,

125.

Diana, The, 115.

Dolder v. The Bank of England, 25.
Duke of Brunswick v. King of

Hanover, 125.



Duke de Montellano v. Christin,
133.

E.

Eliza Ann, The, 115.

Elphinstone v. Bedrecchund, 115.

Emperor of Brazil v. Robinson and
others, 133.

England (Ambassador of, at Con-
stantinople,) Case of, 180.

Evans v. Higgs, 199.

F.

Falcon, The, 270.
Fama, The, 115.

a.

Grratidudine, The, 100.
G-yllenburg (Swedish Ambassador,)
Case of, 181.

H.

Heathfield v. Chilton, 198, 266.
Hoey (M. Van,) Case of, 182.
Holdernesse (English Ambassador

at Venice,) Case of, 181.
Hope and others, The, 270.
Hopkins v. De Kobeck, 200.



CASES CITED.



XIX



Hotham v. East India Company,
115.

I.

Indian Chief, The, 269.
Inoyosa and Colonna (Spanish Am-
bassadors,) Case of, 179.

J.

Josephine, The, 270.

K.

King, The, in his Office of Admi-
ralty, v. Miller, 43.

King, The, v. Benson, 43, 44.

King of Spain v. Hullett and Wid-
der, 132.

L.

Le Louis, The, 61.
Lindo v. Rodney, 115.
Lockwood v. Coysgarne, 199.

M.

Maltass v. Maltass, 79, 115.
Manilla, The, 26.
Marryat v. Wilson, 115.
Masters v. Manby, 199.
Minerva, The, 43.
Molly, The, 115.

N.
Novello v. Toogood, 198.

0.

Oldknow v. Wainwright, 308.

P.

Pilkington v. Commissioners, &c.,
14.



Pilkington v. Stanhope, 201.
President, The, 270.

Q.

Queen, The, in her Office of Admi-
ralty, v. James N. Forbes, 43.

R.

Richardson v. Anderson, 114,

115.

Ringende Jacob, The, 112, 115.
Rothschild v. Queen of Portugal,

132.

S.

Sa (Don Pantaleon,) Case of, 182.
Swift v. Kelly, 348.

T.

Taylor v. Barclay, 26.

v. Best and others, 193,



200, 202.
Thompson v. Powles, 26.
Triquet and others v. Bath, 199,

266.

V.

Viveash v. Becker, 199, 260,
268.

W.

"Wadsworth v. Queen of Spain,

125.
"Widinore v. Alvarez, 199.

Y.

Yrisarri v. Clement, 26.

Z.

Zacheman, The, 115.



PHILLIMORE ON INTERNATIONAL LAW.



AMERICAN.



A.



Amiable Isabella, The, 116.
Anderson v. Lewis, 116.
Arnold v. United Insurance Com-
pany, 270.

B.

Blight v. Rochester, 115.
Bolchos v. The Three Negro Slaves,

116.
British Consul v. Ship Mermaid,

116.

C.

Cabrera, Ex parte, 186, 197.

D.

Dupont v. Pichon, 206.

F.

Foster v. Neilson, 115.

G.

Garcia v. Lee, 116.

Gelston v. Hoyt, 27.

Gordon v. Kerr, 115.

Graham v. Pennsylvania Insurance

Company, 116.
Griswold v. Washington, 270.

H.

Hamiltons v. Eaton, 79, 116.
Henderson v. Poindexter, 116.
Hutchinson v. Brock, 115.
Hylton v. Brown, 116.

J.

Jackson v. Porter, 116.

M.

Miller v. Gordon, 116.



Miller v. The Resolution, 116.
M'Nair v. Ragland, 116.

0.
Orser v. Hoag, 116.

P.

Pizarro, The, 115.

R.

Respublica v. De Longchamps,

186, 197.
Rose v. Himeley, 27.

S.

Santissima Trinidad, The, 116.
Society v. New Haven, 115.
Society (the) for the Propagation

of the Gospel, &c. v. Wheeler,

104.

St. I. Indiano, The, 115.
Stockton v. Williams, 116.

T.
Torlade v. Barazzo, 185.

U.

United States, The, v. Palmer, 27.

v. Percheman, 115.

v. Benner, 158, 185.

v. Little, 185.

v. Ortega, 185.

v. Hand, 206.



W.

Ware v. Hylton, 109.
v. Highton, 116.



Whitaker v. English, 115.
Wilson v. Smith, 116.



CASES CITED.



XXI



FRENCH.



A.



Affaire de la Maison Balguerie, de
Bordeaux, centre le Gouverne-
ment Espagnol, 126.

Affaire de MM. Ternaux, G-an-
dolphe, et Compagnie, contre la
Republique d'Haiti, 126.

C.
Cellamare, Case of, 184.



H.



Hermann, Belong, Case of, 262.

S.

Seller, M., Case of, 262.

Solon, M., against Mehemet Ali,

127.
Sully (Due de,) Case of one of the

Retinue of, 178.



COMMENTARIES



INTERNATIONAL LA.



PART THE FIFTH.



CHAPTER I.

EIGHTS INCIDENT TO THE EQUALITY OP STATES.

I. IT has been said(a) that the Rights incident to EQUALITY seem to
flow, more especially, from the second of the two propositions, upon



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