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defcend to about half way down the iJy m a large (quzve pipe,
which then divides it felf into fix fmallcr ones, vrhich terminate


2^4- The ^J^mral H'tflory

each of them in a fmall trough^ no bigger than juft to admit the
nofeo^ 2. Hog, and come all of them with their e«c/yfonear the
bottom^ that there is never above a handful o^ beans or fo, in each
trough at a time, which taken away by the Hogs, there follow fo
many handfuUs again, but never more : lo that having alfo drawn
a fmall Rivulet of water through they?;;, the daily trouble o{ fer-
vants waiting on them is not only faved (for they need never come
near them till they know they zrefat^ but the Hogs themfelves are
alfo made hereby imcapable of fpoiling a bean, by trampling or
piffing amongft them as in moft other ^w, they never having a-
bove a handful at a time,and thofe in a trough too fmall to admit
any fuch means of waft.

123. He has thoughts alfo of applying the ^^mt contrivance
to the feeding of his Hounds ; and has made ftalls for Oxen^ by
^^ri of wood defcending perpendicularly from the utmoft rim
of the rack-, and nailing boards on them half way up before the
Oxen, that they cannot fpoil by trampling, or any other means,
the \t?Skftravp or grafs, all that go bcfide their mouths falling ftill
within the boards nailed upon the [pars, which when come to any
quantity, is returned into the rack, as fweet and good, as when
put there at firft. Which being matters of Archite^ure relating to
Beafts, bring me next to treat,

124. Of ^r/j that refpeft Af(3«;^/W, and firft of ^rcZ'i/^f^tfre,
wherein we have many remarkable Curiofities, as well in the Coun-
try zs Vniverfitji ; fome whereof are of an inferior, others of a
more Honorable rank and quality. Of the firft fort are feveral Mills
that I have met with in this County.Jczrce perhaps to be found elf-
where in England; fuch is that at the fame ingenious Mr. Fermors
at Tufmore., which with one horfe and jnan (who is carry ed round
as it were, in a Coach-box behind the horfe') performs at pleafure
thefe very many offices. Firft, it grinds apples the common way
for Cider. And fecondly Wheat, which it fijts at the fame time in-
to four different fineneffes. Thirdly Oats, which it cuts from the
husk, and winnovps from the cha(f, making very good Oat-meal.
Andlaftly makes Muftard, which indeed is a meer curiofity. And
all thefe it performs feverally,or together, according as defired.

125. At Hanvpell, in the Park, there is alfo a Mill ered.ed by the
ingenious Sir Anthony Cope, of wonderful contrivance, where-
with that great T/V/mo/o did not only grind the f or« fur his Houfe,


Of XFO %T)^SHI%E^ t6f

but with the fame motion turned a very large Engine for cutting
the hardeft ftone, after the manner of Lapidaries ; and another
for boaring of Guns : and thefe, as in the Mill 2.1 Tufmore, either
feverally or all together, at plcafure.

126. To thefe zddthe Mills for making French Early, erefted
fome years fince upon the river near Caver/ham^ by one Mr. Bur-
nahy^ but are novv^ carry ed on by one Mr. Nelthrop of London^
Merchant : They are four in number, and differ from other Corn
mills chiefly in the following particulars. i . In that they have
always double tackling. 2. Iht/iones not being the Cologne^ but
ordinary white Hones ; which thirdly, are both of them cut the
fending vcay : and fourthly, the uppery?o«g or runner^ hung about a

hands breadth diftant from the lower or hedjlone^ alfo called the
Legier. They put in the Corn^ about half a budiel at a time, not
at the eye^ but round the hoops at the fides of thtftones ; they flop
the/pout or tunnel, and let the Mill tun. juft an hour, for if the
Corn ftay longer the heat will turn \t yellow : then they let it out,
and fever t\ichran 2nd flower from the Corn, and put it up agairt
into another mill of the fame kind, and let it run in the fame man-
ner another hour, and the worhji^ finifbed.

127. Hither alfo muft be referred the Mault Kills of Henly, To
thriftily contrived, that the /fi/Z/^/o/ej are placed in the backs of
their Kitchin C/nmneys, fo that drying their mault with wood, the
fameyfre ferves for that, and all the other ufes of their Kitchins be-
fide. To this place alfo belongs a fort of Oa^i made about thirty
years fince by one Philips a Baker of Magdalen Parifi Oxon, who
having a very great Oven, made it plain at the top and plaifter'd
it over, whereon laying mault, he dryed it with the f^xntfire that
heated his Oven for the bread, and thus made the beft mault that
Oxfor d ^.fioidtd, and of necefiity the cheapefl, for theyf/e coft
him nothing. I have heard alfo of the fame method ufed at Benly
on the Thames ; and thefe, as fome have ventured to affert, gave
the firfl: hints to the Invention of that fort of Kills whereby they
dry mault with coal ; but herein I dare not be too confident, not
knowing of what ftanding thofe Kills are, otherwife the thing
feems to be likely enough.

128. Thus having run through thofe of inferior rank, I come
next to the remarkable cwrio///ie'5- of Archite^ure mom mod featelj
buildings, and that have a more immediate relation to mankind

L 1 than

z66 The natural Hi [lory

than any before mentioned, whereof fome are private^ others
pubiick.', and may both be confidered either in the n'hole or parts,
0{ private buildings^ the moft eminent in this County, are the
Seats of the Right Honorable the Earl of Anglefey^ Lord Privy
Seal, 2.tBlechington^ iheEzrl of Clarendon uCornbury, the Earl
of Lichfield at Vitchlej^ the Earl of Rochefier at ^dderbury^ the
Countefs of Dorvn at Wroxton^ the Lord Vifcount Say and Seal at
Broughton^ the Lord Vifcount F^/^/^wt/ at Gre/2/ Ten?, the Lady
j^bergavenny at Sherbourn^ the Lord Norreys (His Majefties Lord
Lieutenant of Oxford-fiire^ at Ricot^ the Lord Carrington at /.ei -
tre/, and of the Honorable /^wzej Herbert Efq; at Tythrop in Oxford-
fiire, though of Kingsey Paridi in the County of Buckingham.

129. Whereunto might be added feveral flru^ures of the wi-
noT Nobility^ that fliew a great deal either of paft or prefent Ma-
gnificence, fuch as that of the Right Worfhipful Sir Anthony Cope
late of Hanwell, of Sirjohn Copezt Bruern Abbey, S'uTho. Spencer
at Tarnton^ Sir Tho. Chamberkyn at Northbrook-) Sir Francis Wen-
man at Thame-Park. and Cafrelj Sir T/^o. f o^/» at ^ddtrbury. Sir yf«-
/iio^y Craven at Caverfijam^ Sir William Glyn at -^merfden^ Sir i?o-
bertjenkjnfon at Walcot, Sir William Walter at Sarefden^ Sir Thomas
Penyfton at Cornrrel^ Sir Compton Read at Shipton under Whicb-
vrood^ Sir y^ohn D'Oyly at Chi/Iehampton^ Sir Edward Norreys zt
Wefton On the ^ree«. Sir George Croke at Waterfloh-^ Sir /'/;////> H<7r-
court 2X Stanton Harcourt, And of the worfhipful //jo. Stonor at
Watlington Park^nd Stonor^ Efq; i^oZ'^r/ Dormer at Roufiam^ Efq;
Richard Fermor at Tufmore and Sommerton^ Efq; /^'^^ i'/o«e at
Brightrrel, Efq; 7o/^;z C/er)^ at i4^o/z Rovcant, Efq; T/^o. Ho^r^ at
fofj/, Efq; Artburjones at Chafleton^ Efq; 5^/// Brook^t Nortb-Aflcn,
Efq; and theT^^/^ of the Families of KnollesztRotherfield Grays^
and Blount at Maple^Durham^ Efqs; To which add the Parfonage
Houfe of the Reftory of Chinncr^ little inferior to fome of the
aforementioned, either in ^r<?^/«^, commodioufnefs, or elegancy of

130. And yet amongft all thefe eminent private iVrw^/zr^i,
could I find nothing extraordinary in the w/'o/e ; But in the/>^r/i,
the Kitchin of the Right Worfliipful Sir TO/i!/ Harcourt Knight,
of Stanton Harcourt, is fo ftrangely unufual, that by way of Rid-
dle one may truly call it, either a Kitchin within a Chimney^ or a
Jntcbin without one ; for below it is nothing but a large fquare^



and octangular above afcending like a Toxver, the Jires being made
againll the TT^Z/i, and the //Tzodt^ climbing up them, without any
/«;7;2e/yor difturbance to the Coo4^ ; which being ftopped by a
large conical roof at the top, goes out at Icop-hcks on every fide
according as the w/Wfits ; the loop-holes at the fide next the vp'ind
being (liut with falling doors, and the adverfe fide opened.

131. Thefpacious St air- cafe 2.1 Blechington-hovL^tis-Aio re-
markablc,not only for that it ftandson an Area of 30 foot fquare,
but for its rarity too, it being not perhaps at all, at leaft not eafic
to be met with amongft the writers of ArchiteSiure : wherefore,
though I cannot approve of its contrivance in all particulars, yet
for the fake of Its magnificence-, and variety from moiV, if not all
others^ I cannot in juftice but afford it a Hiort defcription.

132. It being placed therefore backward, oppofite to the moft
honorable entrance of the Houfe, between two win^s that extend
themfelves beyond it, and the grofs of the Pile^ you enter upon
it having paft by the halh and other offices ufually placed by it, at
t\\t door -way k^ Tab. 13. Fig. 4. and land upon the half pace i,
which together with the re/i marked 234, isrc are 6 foot I fquare:
The figures in their natural order fhew how you afcend from one
half pace to znother^ by afcents of /fteps, each about 5 inches I
deep, and near 10 inches J broad : The half paces m2r]ied with
the hme figure lye on the hme level, and therefore as 4 is the
higheft half pace in this firft Scheme of it, fo it is the loweft in the
fecond,/"^^. 13. Fig. 5. '

■ 133. In which alfo the order of the figures (hews the manner
of afcent juft as in the former, only it muft be obferved, that as
the afcent to the half pace 4 in the firft Scheme, was fuppofe from
Eafi and weft., fo the afcent higher from it in the fecond, is to North
and South : Of which two Schemes placed alternatly over one an-
other, the whole ft air -cafe is framed from bottom to top, which
iseafily apprehended, if you but imagine the half pace 4 in the
fecond Scheme., to be placed over 4 in the firft, and fuch another
frame as is delineated in the firft Scheme to be placed on the fe-
cond : The Letters V V (hew the vacancies that open a ProffeH
from the top to the bottom of the whole ftair-cafe, and abed
(hew the places of the doors into the rooms at each corner of

LI 2 134. In

2(^8 The Natural Hijlory

134. In fhort, this fiair-cafe feems to be a compofition of 4
half-pace-open-newel'd ^air-cafes^ as may eafily be perceived by
the /%Mre5, 123, 123,123, 123, and 567, 567, 567, 567, only
communicating in the middle ; which indeed (liews very magni-
ficently, but has this inconvenience, that there is no paffagefrom
one room into another though on the fame floor^ without going up
and down many fteps ; as in Scheme the fecond, if from a to b,
andfoof x.\\t rooms of any of the other fides, you have no paf-
fage but from 6 to 7, and To down again to 6, i. e. 14. fteps. But

if you are to go from corner to corner, as fuppofe from a to c, or
htod, (y "vice verfaj whether you pafs round the fides, or over
the middle haifpace^ you cannot do it, without afccnding and
defcending in all twenty eight fteps.

135. Ofpublick Buildings, the moft eminent in the County
arc certainly thofe of the Colleges and Hal/s^ the Fublick. Schools^
Library and Theater in the Vniverfityo^ Oxford-, of which yet in
the whole I fhall give no account, their magnificence and outward
Archite^ure being already fufficiendy (hewn,by the exquifite hand
of Mr. David Loggan^ Chalcographer to the Vniverfity^ in his Cuts
of them all lately fet forth. It ftiall fuffice me therefore to give
a fuccinft account of fome particular parts of them, whether in
the Jlone or Timber-work, fcarce to be met with elfewhere, or
known to few.

136. Of the firft fort is tht flat floor ol ftont over the paflage
between the Right Reverend the FrovoUs Lodgings, and the Chap-
pel 2.1 Queens College^ born up only by the fide vpalls without any
pillar, though confifting of divers ftones not reaching the walls^
which yet indeed may very well be, finceas I am informed hy the
fame Right Reverend Provofl, and Bi/hop of Lincoln, who pulled
up the boards of the room above to view the curiofity ; the ftones
are all cuneoform, and laid like that they C2.\\ flraight Arch-work..

137. The Roof of Merton College Treafury is alfo an odd piece
of fione- work-, being all made of AflAtr^ yet flooping to an angle
(only more acute than ufual) like roofs made of Timber : It has,
'tis true within, three inequidiftant arched rihso^ftone thatfeem
to fupport the Fabrick^ which is about 20 foot long, hut the ftones
not reaching from rib to riby and feeming to be laid like common
pavement both within and w-ithout, make many to wonder that it
does not fill in : but the Hones being pretty thick, and cut as they


ofOXFO'^^SHtXE. 269

call it, with an arching joints muftneceflarily lye as firm (and for
the very fame reafon) as thofe at Queens College do, and fo moft
certainly they would, were the ^rc/6g5 quite removed. There is
alfo much fuch another roof over a little Oratory or Cbappel in the
Church of North Leigh in this County,

138. As for arched roofs o^ ftone^ thzt of the Divinity School
IS 2 fine -piece of ArchiteSiure ', and fo is that of the ftately (fair-
cafe leading into Chri§i-Church great hall. The Phyfickgarden gate
is a curious piece of ruftick^rockrvpork'-, and the Portch at St. Maries^
the Vniverfity Churchy is a well contrived thing. And were it not
improper amongft thefe to mcnt'iom /iru^ure of fo inferior a qua-
lity, as New College houfe of Eafement-, commonly called the long-^
houfe^ I could not but note it as a ftupendious piece of buildings \t
being fo large and deep, that it has never been emptyed fince the
foundation of the College^ which was above 300 years lince, nor
is it ever like to want it.

139. The Portico's on the Eafl and Weft fides of the Nevp Qua-
drangle at St. ^ohns College^ built by the moft Reverend Father in
God, William Laud Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury^ fupported with
pillars of Blecbington Marble, are well worthy notice ; and fo is
the Cloyfter at Magdalen College^ the ButterelTes without being
curioufly adorned with Hieroglyphical Imagery.

140. The ereft Southern declining Dial over ^11 Souls College
Chappel, is a neat piece of work, fo curioufly contrived by Sir
Chriftopher Wren, that though itftand high, yet by the help of two
half rays, and one vpbole one for every hour, one may fee to a w/-
nute whzt It is zclockjt the t/iinutes being depidied on the fides of
the rays, viz^ 1 5 on each fide, and divided into fives by a diffe-
rent cbaralHer from the relV.

141 . The Cylindrical Dyal in Corpus Chrifti College Quadrangle,
fet at right angles with the Horizon (the common fe^ ions whereof,
with the ^cMrdrf/€s- (except the Meridian circle which divides it
by the axis') as alfo the /Equino^ial, are all Ellipfes) is a fine old
piece of Gnomonicks ; of which no more, becaufe its Contriver
Mr. Robert ^eggs. Fellow of the College, has already written of it ''.
And the Dials mzde upon a pile of Booh on New College Mount,
with Tijne on the top, exa£i;ly pointing out from what Quarter
thewind blows, upon the 32 Pointsof theCo/72/>^yy, depifted on

1 TruH. de Horohgiis, Ub.j^.caf.j^, MS- in BMotf/.CCC-


270 The ^atural Hijlory

a Cylinder o^ Jfone, is an ingenious contrivance.

142. There are many lofty fpires about the Country as well as
City, built all of Free-^owe, and of exquifite v^orkmanftiip, fuch
as thofe of Bampton, Witney^ Burford, Bloxham, Spehbury^ Kidling-
ton, iyc. but that which excels all the reft is the fpire of St, Mary's
in Oxford^ the Vniverfity Church, the Battlements whereof were
repaired, and thus thick fet with Pinnacles as it now ftands, by
Dr. A'/^^Deanof ChrijiChurch^ then Vice-Chancellor of the Vni-
verfity, afterwards BiHiop of London.

143. For Towers, that of Merton College is a large well built
thing ; and fo is that of the Schools, but more remarkable, for
that it is adorned on the inner fide next the Quadrangle, with all
theWtrr^of Pillars. But for a neat plain piece of work, that
of Magdalen College excells all I have yet feen, adorned on the top
with well proportion'd Pinnacles, and within with a moft tunable
fweet ring of bells.

Miraris Turrim egregiam facro Mre fonantem.

144. Among^ curiofities m Timber -vrork.^ we may reckon fe-
vtx'Afcreens in College Chappels ; fuch as that of Magdalen College^
that of Cedar 2.1 Lincoln College, and another at Corpus ChriJIi now
erefting. There is zn-^ltar rail :Lt ^11 Souls College of curious
workmandiip, and to this place belongs the Tomb of St. Fridef-
wide, ftill remaining at Chrifl Church, the top whereof is wood,
and a fine old piece of work : But not comparable to the Tomb
of fair Rofamund zt GodJIow, in the Chapter-houfe of the Nuns'
there, which according to the defcription of Ranulph Higden
feems to have been alfo of vpood^ and of wonderfcl contrivance,
cifaejufdempuelldi (fays he, having fpoken before of her death and
Efitaph,^nd of the ^777o;/r'i between ^f rand K. Henry zhe fecond)
Tjix bipedalij menfurdi,fedmirahilis architeCiurdi ibidnn cernitur, isrc\
i. e. That her cheft coffin or tojnb was there to be icc^n, not above
two foot long, or perhaps rather y^'^'^'"'^? but a fcupendous piece
of woikmanlliip, in qua (fays the fame Author at the fame place}
confii^u/s Pugilum, gefins animalium, uolatm avium, fdtws pifcium
abfquehominls impulfu confficiuntur , i. e. where in might be feen
the confii& of champions, the geftures of animals, the flights of birds,
withyf/^fi- leaping, and all done without the afliftance of man,

' Rmulghi Hidden polycknn. Lib, -j-in Hen. i,MS.fol. In Bib. Bod-

145- By

Of OXFO%T)^SHI%E, lyi

1 45 . By what means this was effefted, we are not infortticd by
the afore-cited Author, but the Learned Thoma-sJlknyi. A. of
Glocefter-hall^ thought it might be done by a fort of Looking-ghfs^
whofe ftrufture he found mentioned in an ancient MS, l>e Arcanvs
iy Secretin, with this Title, Speculum in quo uno vifu apparehunt
mult(£ imagines moventes fe. To be made thus, accipepixiJembene
projundam^ iy pone in fun Jo eju6 (peculmn commune^fc. convexum, po-
flea, isfc. Take, fays the Author, a deep 3ox, and place in the bot-
tom of it a common convex glajl^ then take 6 or j other convex
glaffesof the fame bignefs, and fcrape off the lead [^plumbum is
the word] in the concave part with a knife ; where by the way the
Author advifes, that finceit is very hard to get the lead clean off
without breaking the^/^y}, that^/ic^-y//z/er bemade ufeof, to a-
noint the lead to get it off.

146. Thei'e glaffes when made clean^ he orders to be put into
the boxj fo as they may Hand obliquely in divers pofitions, in this
manner : When the firft glafs is put in the bottom, the fecond
muft be fo put, that one fide of it muft touch the firft glafs, and
the oppofite fide be diftant from it an inch, isr fic (fays he) oblique
pones inpixide. In the top there muft be put one cleanfed glafs as
the firft, plain and not obliquely, fo that nothing muft be feen but
the uppermoft^^/f, into which if you look, you fhall fee as many
Images zs glaffes 'y and if turned round, how One Image zlwzys
ftandsftiilin the middle, and the reft run round it, as if they
went about to dance. Of which contrivance, though I underftand
not fome particulars, yet I thought fit to mention them, becaufe
they may poffibly meet with a Reader that may, and tranllate them
too as well as I could, for the benefit of them all. As for thofe
that have opportunity, and are defirous of feeing the Latin Copy,
they may find it in a Mifcellaneou^ MS. in Mr. Seldens Library % For
my part, all that I can add concerning it, is, that I have feen a
fort of Cabinets of this nature, that by the help of glaffes placed
obliquely have ftiewn fuch prezy profpe&s.

1 47. The great bivalve wooden windorrs in the upper Gallery of
theTbeater, are fo ingenioufly contrived, that notwithftanding
their great vpeight, yet can never fink fo as to be brought out of
fquare, as 'tis ufual in fuch windows, for the Iron bars croffmg them
from fide to fide, not being fet at right angles, but diagonally like

• ^ojtiS.y^. inBihlioth.Selden,


Jiruts or braces^ as in Tab. 13. Fig. 6. muft necelTarily bend or
break before the window can fink. Nor are the round mndows be-
low unworthy confideration, being contrived to admit air in foul
weather, yet not one drop of rain ; for being opened and fet 0^-
liquely,zs in Tab. r 8. Fig. 7. it receives the rain within at a^ and
cafts it out again at b ; much lefs will it admit rain any ways when
fiutj itclofing within k^ frame 2tthe top, and without it at the

148. It was an excellent <^ez//Ve, who ever firft contrived it, of
mdk'mg fiat j^oors ox roofs of lliort pieces of Timber^ continued to
a great bredth without either Archwork^or Pillar tofupportthem,
being fuftained only by the fide walls and their own texture ; for
by this means many times the defeft of long timber^ or miftakes of
Work-men^ are fupplyed and reftified without any prejudice to the
Building' Of this fort of work we have an example in the Schools^
in the floor of the upper moft room of the Tower ^ but to be feen
only in the room underneath where the Records of the Vniverjitj
lye. There is alfo a diagram of fuch work in the ArchiteSiure fet
forth by Sebaftlan Serly \ for which reafon I think I fhould fcarce
have mentioned it, but that the Reverend and Learned Dr.^ohn
Walli6^ Savilian Profeflor of Geometry here, was the firft that de-
monftrated the reafon of this worh^^ and has given divers forms
of it befide the fore-mentioned, in his Book 'De Motu^ whence I
have taken the diagrams^ Tab. 13. Fig. 8,9,1 o, 11,12". to make
them more publick ; upon the two firft whereof depend the three
laji^ and all others of the kind what ever, whether made up of
quadrats or ohlongparallelograms, of which there are fome other
forms in the fore-cited Book De Motu^ befide that engraven Fig.

10. confifting of great and fmall Quadrats \ or Triangles -Aone^
as Fig, 1 1, or mixt with Hexagons^ as Fig. 12. to which Book
I recommend the Reader for further fatisfaftion concerning them.

149. But of gllthe fiat fioors having no Pillars to fupport it,
and whofe/TZj/Vz beams are made of divers pieces of Timber., the
moft admirable is that of the Theater in Oxford^ from fide wall to
fide wall 80 foot over oneway, and 70 the othex^who^t Lockages
being fo quite different from ^/zj/ before mentioned, and in many
other particulars perhaps not to be parallel'd in the Worlds I have
taken care to reprefent an exaO: draught of it. Tab. 14. Fig. i .

t Seb.Sfr/ii ArchiteH Ul>. i. dtOeom. cap. \. " Wallifii Mecbaruta five de Motu, Parte 3. devtile
c^p. 6. prop. 10.

150. Where-

, TAB. 15

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Of OXFO%T)^SHniE. 273

150. wherein^ a a and bbb fhew x\\t walls of the Theater xh^iX.
fupport this/r«/77eof timber^ and the places of the f>ila/lers of the
r^i/and ballijler round it ; ccc and <^^^ the leads 2nd pipes let
down into the wall for conveyance of rrater ; eee and /// the
wall plate or lintel, and places of its joints ; ggg the girders of
the femi circle^ each fupported by a King piece ox Crownppfi cut oft
zthb/j, and Icrewed into the binding beam i'i i ; which is fom-
what different from the reft of the binding beams k.k.K llh^nm w,
nnn^ having feveral/ric4-/'o/?j' let into it at 0000^ befide the
King-pojis that fupport this and the reft at pppppt isrc. The Let-
ters qqq (hew the^«r/i«e5 between the binding beams ^ not fet right
againft one another becaufe of room to turn the fcrevps whereby
they are faftened, and rrrr two dragon (perhaps rather Trigon')
beams or braces lying under the joijls ss ss ss^ isrc. the true lengths
and diftances whereof, and of all other pieces of timber and places
whatever, are all ftiewn by the fcale Fig. 2.
• 151. And fo are the lengths and dijiances of the feveral pieces
of timber fet over t)\\s flat floor ^ fuch as the principal rafters tttt^
the Crown polls or King pieces uuuu, the prick pofis www^ braces
or punchons x x x, by all which together the binding beams^ girders^
joijis, isrc. are all held up as it were by an Arch above, as in Tab,'

Online LibraryRobert PlotThe natural history of Oxford-shire : being an essay toward the natural history of England → online text (page 27 of 37)