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by an armed force, pur trade stopped, and all communication with
Whampoa, Macao, and the fleet outside, denied to us, it becomes
necessary that the functions of this committee should cease until the
restoration of our trade, the liberty of egress from Canton, and of
communication with the outer waters, enables the Chamber to serve
the community in a legitimate maimer.'*

It was then moved by Mr. Bell, seconded by Mr. Braine, and carri-
ed unanimously: — '^That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be com-
municated to the hong merchants by the chairman.'*

Thanks were voted to the chairman by acclamation, and the tneet-
ifig was dissolved.



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4$

Late on Tuesday night, ibe 9lih, a meeting was held at the con*
soo-house; the prefect of Canton, and the chief magistrates of Nanhae
and Pwanjo, with bong merchants^ linguists, and a deputed officer
from the commissioiier, were present, on the part of the Chinese ; of
foreigners there were present, the Duteh and American consuls, and
three or four other gentlemen. The meeting broke up at midnight,
after a long and tedioos discussion about the bond, and < nothing bdt
the bond.'

On Wednesday, the 10th, their excellencies, the commissioner
and governor, left the provincial city for the Bogue, in order to wit-
ness in person the delivery of the opium. The hoppo preceded them,
having left the city in the morning* On their way down the river,
they passed through the fleet of foreign vessels, at this time twenty-
four in number. This was a bold move for the commissioner.
Highly irritated, as many of the commanders were, they might easily
have captured his excellency, with all his retinue. The strongest
injunctions, we believe, had been given by the British superinten-
dent to the fleet within and without the Bogue, to keep the peace.
It may be remarked here, that during the whole period of detention,
everything remained quiet at Whampoa, and fresh provisions were
daily furnished to the ships by their compradors. An English lady,
wife of one of the commanders, remained on board ship through the
whole period of detention.

On Thursday, the llth, three or four of the highest provincial
officers came into the square before the factories, on a tour of in-
spection. This visit was repeated on several successive occasions,
and usually made at night.

On the morning of ^he 12th, news arrived from Macao of Mr.
Johnston's safe arrival there on the evening of the 7th, intending
immediately to proceed in the superintendent's cutter, Louisa, to the
station near the Bogue, where the deliveries were to be made. Ru-
mors also came from outside, of new transactions in the illicit traffic!
The following notice was circulated in the evening.
> No. 22.

. . PubHc notiee to her Britannic m(^e^y*s$iAfeets} ' '

The undersigned is sensible that her majesty's subjects, being owi^
.^rs of^ or havii% the control over Mj^ 6r vessels in the opitfiA trade
on the coasts of China, who ' recently traiMmitted a sofemn pledge to
the high commissioner not to attempt to introduce opinm ihto Ibis
empire, must be most anxious to fulfill their obligations with airspeed
and fidelity ; and therefore he need do no mere than request them to



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8Qi«e ibe earliest safe opporUmiiy Sir ihe. tCMult of ibos6 vcsseb ih>in
their a^t«al pursuits. SM it i$}^ djttky.^femmd otbera her mt^as^
ty's subjects, B9t beuQ4 hy Mioh artgf^jwneoir, ilnid/ ererj^ man of
commoD hamaiiHjy be be of yfh%i nation bet msf, that ike liberties
and possibly the lives of Uie whdfe fore.^ eonmnnitj., now sirat op
at Canton, hang upon theif present forbsaranoe. A seizure of opiaof
would ijnaiediaielj afford a pretext ior their oootinoed imprisontnent^
and, it may well be, far worse treatment, and would be used with no
inoonsiderabie efiect ia jtlstifioalijon of the past and actual violenees
of this government

(Signed) Chablbb Elliot,

Chief superintendent of the trade of British aahjeeia m China.

On Saturday, the t3th, it was rumored tliat a communication was
received from the commtsstoner at the Bogue, desiring (or Command-
ing) captain Elliot to order the store-ships toChn^npee. The station
fixed on was off the Chcrenpee fort, at the sodtbern extremity of
Anson's bay.

This morning, the l^h, coolies made their appearance in several
of the factories, with some of the servants and compradors. A few
had entered, an hour or two at a time, on preceding days. Rumors
were affoat to-day again respecting sales of opium on the coast, t6
the amount of 100 chests, but doubts were cast upon their authenti-
city. That some opium was sold outside after the commencement
of the imprisoarmeTtt, however, is true, but by what parties, or to
what ejrtentf, Wt cannot tell.

The first attthentic informatten, respecting the delivery of opium,
was given by circular, from the office of the British chief superinten-
dent ekyntairiin^ tile fdHowing rnteHligence.

No.'23. '•.*'. _,
CaqtOR, 14tb Afnil,, l&09t Captain Elliot has received letters
fiCm >lff. ;(0hnstcwi, 4ated at CJiuenp^e o« the 13di at 8 p. nrv Up to
that time, owing 4e a want of Chideaeboat^ tfaie ships itere, iUe
Hercules and Austen, had only d^vered 650 chests; but it was
expected that th?^ .would deUv^ x0e^ thm douUe thai aiAount in the
«oi«rse <^ yastiNdayr a9d ii«i3tjru0liot)& had been acirt at noon of the
Ifitb iU));itbe fWloiwitig iwsels^ lihe fmey MMrmsy. Aritl^ Memaid^
,£ii|f«m4i^,iAndI Lddif ChtanAi to pfooeed forth;»ith! toi j<Hn Dhe other
ships fttiCyh«ei^e^ft^ieotnQie]»(feiibHvering.! Captain BUiotihaii alee
yeaqoil tO'b^eviey fr«Hll.^eMmlllibAlioB, fwnii the^oBHnisiiener and
the §tiyemM, tthal^ ^n inforeei^eA hitmbei o^ hoatia iyiU be piwitY«d



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tflUBodlkNttlf , to that tbe deiiveriM may W ezpeeted to procted rapid-
ly. Tbc maadarintf da not seem to inpodd^the optNtkm by trafu^l<»-
some imrestigatibn.

The high commissioner has desked that the servants should be
restored at once. -

(Signed) B»waiu> ELM^tfi;

Secretary and ueiaiurer tx> the superintendents.

We pass by the thonsand hnnors aikt repiomis every day set on ibot^
with the numerous expedients devised; b^ one and othefr; to 'kill
time.* On the I5th, about noon, was issued the following notice.

No. 24.

Sealed tenders will be. received at ^is office until noon of the IStfa
instant, and then to be opened ; setting forth the terms on which a
first class British clipper vessel, (the chief superintendent reserving
to himsdf the right of determining the vessel falling within such
classificatioii,) being perfoclly seaworthy, folly manned, ahned, and
in all respects ready for sea, after one week's notice shall have been
given, will be offered for charter on her majesty's service for a certain
period of seven months; and for a further indicated rate for every
month or part of a month that such vessel shall be employed in the be-
fore-mentioned service, beyond the said period of seven months. The
projected service hot to involve a passage round the cape of Good
Hope. Tbe particulars of ^a worthiness, equipment, dtc, &c.,
subject to prdof by survey to be held by the dlreciHm of the chief
superintendent.

(Signed) Edward ETlmslie,

Secretary and treasurer to the superintendents.

On Wednesday, the 17th, additional intelligence vvas communi-
cated from the superintendent's office, by circular as follows.

No. 25.

Captain Elliot has received letters from Mr. Johnston to the 15tK
instant at ^ p. m., and from these accounts it may be computed that
there v^ill have been defivered about 7000 chests to last evening (fhe
16th). The ships at C^aanpee, when Mr. Johnston wrote, wefe the
Hercules, Aiisten, Jane, and ArieF. The Mithras, Mermaid, Rujpa^'
rell.'and Lady Waht vvere; however, expected irmnedrately, and c^apt.
Elliot hopes that, weafiter pierrmtting, the moiety will be delivered by
to-morrow eveningi No other intelligence of interest.

(Signed) Edward ^lmslie.

Secretary and treasurer to the superintendents.



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48

tt was early known in GaDton, that an order from the commissioD*
er was sent up to the local aiilhoritiesy fpr the return of servants ami
compradors. On the 19th, the following was published. .

No. 26.

Ghoo, the Kwangchow fi>o, Lew, the Nanhae heen, and Ghang,
the Pwi^nyu hei^n, proclaim this offioially to compradors. (Here the
name to whom it is addressed is given.) It q>ppears proper that fo*
reigners who come to Ganton to trade should employ compradors
who obtain their licenses from the magistrate at Macao, whose spe*
cial business it is to superintend that affair. Now, when the imperial
commands were received to annihilate the traffic in opium, the fo-
reigners not being willing to surrender the opium held by them, the
high commissioner, conjointly with the governor, ordered jthat the com-"
pradors and others in their employ should for the present scatter and
go away from their service. But now, as the foreigners have all in
succession surrendered many chests of opium, though not one fourth
of the whole quantity has been received, yet the barbarians having
aU become obedient and submissive, of which evidence is possessed,
orders have been received to return their compradors and servants tp
their service. It is relied upon that the hong merchants select these
people, and cause them to be produced at the public offices for strict
investigation, besides which passports are granted to them, and an-
nexed to this is a list of those articles which they are permitted to
buy for the foreigners. No contraband goods are to be bought,
neither is knavery or deceit to be practiced in the management of all
the business — not a hair's breadth of incorrectness must there be,
or of opposition to the laws. Finally, you must be governed by the
old regulations laid dowq clearly by the Macao magistrate. Do not
oppose. A special edict.

Up to this time, all remained quiet in Macao, so far as actual re-
straint upon the inhabitants of the settlement was concerned. In the
early part of his arrival at Ganton, the commissioner sent a requisi-
tion by the hands of an officer to the governor to deliver up all the
opium in Macao, but it had been previously sent on board ship, and
(he ifirther landing of it at, the ciKtom-house prohibited; and a reply
was therefore returned to his excellency stating these things. Gon-
siderable anxiety was felt by some concerning the movements of the
Ghinese authorities, and several persons began to lay by a store of
provisions ; but nothing was done which at all inconvenienced the
residents except taking away the chair-bearers, during the whole pe-
riod of the detention here.



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49

H«re aippears to be the atoet ap|kt>priatft place to introduce a re*
iBarkable paper ikat ippeared «t tfaii time, it porports to be a letter
from the iraperitl coikiiiniflBioner and his coadjatora to the qtteen of
Engknd, and was pennkted to obtaia cireulalioa among the people,
in the same manner as many official documents commonly do, about
^e middle of March, when the commimoner and governor were about
to toive Canton to receive the opium surrendered in the naikie of the
Bntish crown. PreanrnptiveeviilekiGe of its authenticity is afforded by
live expression on t!he part 6f the commissioner of an anxious desire
to kbow how he 'should convey sach a communication to the £nglish
soverb^.

No. ^2*7.

Letter to the Queen of England from the imperial commissioner j ^c.

tin, high iH^>erid commissioner, a dhrector of the Boahl of Wiir,
and governor of the two Hoo, — Tang, a director of the Board of
WtB:, land governor of the two Kwakig, — and £, a vice-director of
the Board of War, afad Heut.-^ovemor of Kwangtung, — conjointly
jaddress this obmintoiclition to the sov«rei^ of the English nation,
for the pur|>06e of r!eqairing the ihterdicti^ii of opium.

That in ihe ways of heaven iio partiality exists, and no sanctitm is
allowed to this iojimng of others for the advantage of one^s self, — that
in men's natural deskes there is not any great diversity (for where
is he who does not abhor death and seek life?) — these are universiELUy
ackn<ywledged principles. And your honorable nation, though 'be-
yoKkd the wide ooe£an, at a distance of twenty thousand miles, ac*
knowledges the same ways of heaven, the same human nature, and
has the Hke perception of tlMs distinctions between life and deatli,
l>enelit and injury.

Om- li^veAly court has for its family all that is within the four
s^ts; the great emperor's heaven-like beni<evolence — there is none
whom it does not ovetshaddw : even regicms remote, desert, and
lihsconnected, have a part in the ge nerd care of life and of weHbemg.
i In Kw^ngtung, sinoe the removal of the interdicts upon mantinie
commiufication, there has been a constantly ilowing stream of com-
mefrcial mi^contse. The people ^f the land, and those who come
from raibifoad in foreign ships, have reposed together in the enjoymeht
of its advantages, for tens of years past, even until this time. And
as regjirds the rhubarb, teas, r<iw silk, and similar rich and valu-
able -[troducts of China, shofOld tbreigu nations be d^eprived of the5if,
they would be without the means of continuing life. • So that lift;



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052

gain being no longer acquirable., and hurt having assun\ed a visible
form, such as desire the injury of others will find that they themselves
are the first to be injured. *

The powerful instrumentality whereby the celesU^l court holds in
subjection all nations is truly divine and a^we-inspiring beyond t^e
power of computation. Let it not be said that ei^rly warning of this
bas not been given.

When your majesty receiver this document, let us have ^ speedy
communication in reply, advertizing us of the measures yen a4Qpl
for the entire cutting oiT of the opium in every seaport. Do not, by
any means, by false embellishments evaide or procrastinate. IQari^e^tly
reflect hereon. Earnestly observe these things.

Taoukwang, 19th year, 2d month, day. Comir^uuici^tiw

sent to the sovereign of the English nation.

The intentions of the government concerning the mode of stopping
the further ingress of opium were communicated in a^n edict receiv-
ed from the commissioner, the governor and the lieutenant-gpvernor,
addressed to the superintendents, consuls, and all the foreigners, i^
the following terms. It was received on th$ 2(Hh of April.

Nn. -28. ^

Edict requiring the voluntary/ bond.

Lin, high imperial commissioner and governor of Hookwang^
Tang, a president of the Board of War, and governor of the two
provinces Kwangtung and Kwangse, and E, vice-president of the
Baard of War and lieutenant-governor of Kwangtung, issue this, edict
to the English superintendent Glliot and the deputy superintendent
Johnston, the American consul Snow, the Dutch consul Van Ba;^!,
aiid the foreigners of every country; let them fully acquaint them-
selves herewith.

Whereas we, the high imperial coinmissioner, the governor, and
the lieutenant-governor, did receive the great and august emperor's^
mandatory will, to interdict opium, and to cut off the source? whence
it comes, accordingly w^ gave commands to the said superintendents
and consuls, by them to be enjoined on 9II the foreigners, to take
the opium, aecucnul^ted in the sto^e-ships, and make an entire sur-
reucjler of it ; now it appeiars that, in obedience to those commands,
the surrender is being made, evincing respectful submission, wor-
thy of praise. And hereafter, for ever, foreigners will never more be



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53

^iUovved to bring opium in^o this, cpuntry. Tho dficree i« alreatly
pi^se(), and if they do so, they shall be capit«illy pnnished, and their
cargoes confiscated-

Yqu, the English superintendent Elliot, have desired that warning
may be given before eixecution, and now again declare that you will
^ct in obedience to the law, the period beipg indulgently extended.
Tbis your statement seems reasonable ; but as to the request that a
period of five niton^hs be allowed for the Indi^ ships, and ten months
for those direct from England, theae periods are indeed too long.
. Further it appears that the American consul Snow also has declar-
ed that while residing here he always feels obligated to conform to the
laws of the empire, and that hereafter the merchants of his country,
acting in obedience to the new regulations, will not presume to traffic
in opium. This likewise seems perfectly proper. But he adds, * if
they bring any opium to Canton, I will communicate to them the
prohibitory regulations, requiring them to return to their country,'
which does not at all agree with what is said about acting in conform-
ity to the law; for if he announces to them the prohibitory regulations,
how can he stop with merely ordering them to return to their own
country ?

The Dutch consul Van Basel, also states, that he has received the
commands to give the bond, in terms like these : — After the autumq
of this year, if any ships come to Canton, and on examination are
found to have opium on bo^rd, both ship and cargo shall b^ confis-
cated, and the parties Icift to suffer death, by the l^w of the country.
On this occasion he is ready to obligate himself that hereafter he will
n^ver trade in opium, and that according to the tenor of the edict he
will report to the great officers of his government, that they may sub-
mit the case to their sovereign ; this is nearly in accordance with
what is required in the bond ; but, then, in his address h^ speaks abput
the lives of his countrymen being involved, which is still inconsistent
with what is reasonable. It should be known that this severity of the
celestial empire's laws, extending even to capital punishment, is onli/
tn referenu to the traffic in opium. If therefore all the foreigners, in
compliance with Ihis, never bring any more opium, then there c^Q
be no more violations of the law, and how, in that case, can there bo
any involviqg oflife?

. With reference to Elliot's request, the period o.tififht to be chg^pged
and fixed at four months for the Indian ship, and at eight for the
direct ships, at the expiration of whiph periods they mu9t cqnfQrpn U}
the new regulations. If within these periods, they presume to bring



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56

with the Kwaiigchovv hee to givfe previous order's to the hong n^r-
chaiits, that they enjoin it on the foreigners, to give them prior notice
of the time of any boat leaving Canton, that they may report to the
officers aforesaid. These are then to proceed in person to the place
where the boats are anchored, and to ascertain v^hfit niimber ^f per-
sons are on board, and what arte their names and sufrtianf^e^; an€ are
tx> direct the bong merchants to takfe cognisance 6f them Severalty.
If ther6 be not amdng them any of the sixteen named, they shall then
give to the boat a stamped passport to be shown for exarainatioh ki the
various custom-houses that it misty pass.

This sealed passport shall be printed according to t!re form !ifere-
with transmitted, and sealed with the seal of the Kwangclio# foo, xhe
blank«4^ikig filled up at the time. The officers aforesaid ihudt by ^1
metitis ^ithfully examine, and must permit no confusion or ^sca^,
wheireby they will render themselveis h^feivily tiulpable. ThfeKwang*-*
chow hee, too, mu^ give dkeblions t^ all th^ forts and othet places ol"
defense to pay obedience.

W^ therefor'^ pr6oeed to issae these coAimands, requiring the
Kwangchow fo6 immeditttely to take with him the magi^ftfCes 6f
Nanhae and Pwanyu, and to r^nire the <^igiftal inerchKhti, Hb^^a
senior, &c., to act in accordance here wkh, and immediately to re-
inbv^d ^11 thie ves^eiis surrounding the fo^e^gn factories.

t'hfe boats t-egistered under the designation * iobedient,* are t6 hki^
a measured permission to Yun to and iVo, stlFI being subjected to <^X'>
amii^aiion at the custom-house Nations.

The ship Esperance at Whatnpoa, which has already applied fbr
a jport clearance loretntn liomb, and the captain of which, Linstedt,
is now in the foreign fkctcries at Canton, may at once make appM-
6atibn to the hoppo, to give permission for hi*m to leave Canton and
take his departure.

AH the cargo shipi at Whanipoa are perhiitted to open thehr holds
for tr^dte. Those thai being alt^dy fully laden, have made appi Ida-'
Hbn through the security ifnetchinfe fo»- their port clearances, arfc
(>6rmitted to obtain the sartie oti representation to the hO|)po', thut
they may be enabled to set sail. and return home.

As to all the foi'eign merchant-ships arrived in thfe outer wat«rs,
they must wait till this matter is brought to d bonehi^ioii, \\Wi\ m
examinatk>n they will be directed to lenter their names, and |^*ot^ii
to Whampoa.

The registered boats, proceed in ;r from Whampoa to Caiiicrn, rthist
stilt be subjected to careful exatninatron by the military guard at the



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posts at the new and Macao passage forts, ob the way up. And if
tkey have contraband articles, or weapons, or guopowder on board,
tbejf must be iminediately driven back, and instant report thereof
rendered, in order that examination may be made and measures
taken.

Let the tenor of these commands be also declared to Elliot, that he
knowing may act accordingly, fie urgent and speedy. (Promulgat-
ed May 4th, 1839.)

No. 30.
Public Notice.
In the present state of circumstances, the chief SupeHntendent is not
in a situation to do more than refer her majesty's subjects for general
guidance to his public notice dated at Macao, 6n the 23d March last.
He need hardly observe, however, that it is his purpose to remain
in Canton till his public obligations to this government are futfiUed,
amd he will aflbrd the best information in his power of the probable
period of his departure from time to time. Parties will therefore be
pleased carefully to regulate their proceedings accordingly. There is
a part of the public paper promulgated this everting (not desirable to
advert to particularly,) which need give no aneasinc^ds. He hopes it
will be felt that the circumstances shall be suitably arranged at the
proper moment. May 4th. (Signed) Edward Elmslig,

Secretary and treasurer to the superintendents.

No. 31.
From the hong merchants.
To Mr. Wetmore. We beg to inform you that we have received
permission from government for the licensed passage-boats to run to
and from Canton us usual. The names and number of passengers
and crew of each boat must be entered in her license, before she will
be permitted to start. The small unlicensed boats of Canton and
Whampoa cannot for the present be allowed to come and go; but
when the opium deliveries are completed we will apply to government
for the requisite commands, and inform all the foreign merchants there-
of for their obedience.

It is for this ^e writei, atld trusting you enjoy good health, we
remain, The Hong Merchants. May 4th, 1839.

No. 32.
From the hong merchants.
To Ml. Wetmore. We beg to infurui you that wc have received
orders from gfivenuneiit to allow the liceiiscH p;iss i«T«'-boats to come

8



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ind go [as usual]. The followiog oew regufaiions lufcrst be obaenred
by all foreigners leaving Chilton in these boats, viz^ an. o6icer wilt
be deputed to examine them ,befi)tei they will be permitted to starts
and on arrival at the several forts and custom-house etationsith^yniusl
also report themselves to be examined. A weiyuen will come out
every day to ascertain the number of . boats about to- leave, and the
hour of their dispatch, so' that when he shall come to superintend
their examination, there may be no delay. The names and number
of the passengers and crew of &tch boat must be inserted in the li-
cense, and a list thereof must be previously handed in, that the re-
quisite entries may be made. Hereafter no boat will be allowed to
carry guns or ammunition, or leaden ballast, as stones will fully answer
the purpose. It is for this we write and with compliments remain.

May 4th, 1839. (Sigrted) The Hong Merchants.

P. S. A list of the sixteen foreign merchants who for the present
are not allowed by government to leave Canton by the pa3sage-boatB
is subjoined. . .

No. aa

From the hong merchants.

To Mr. Wetmofe. A respectful communication. We have just
received instructions from government to forbid foreigners, for the
present going outside of Old China Street : when the opium is all


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