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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.



Chap; Copyright No,

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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



THE STORY OF THE NATIONS



I2MO, ILLUSTRATED, PER VOL., $1.50 \ Yz LEATHER, GILT TOP, $1.75
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For prospectus of the series see end of this volume

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BRITISH INDIA



BY



R. W. FRAZER, LL.B., I.C.S. (retired)

LECTURER IN TELUGU AND TAMIL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AND IMPERIAL
INSTITUTE, ETC.



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NEW YORK

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDON : T. FISHER UNWTN

1897



Copyright, 1897, by

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

By T. FISHER UNWIN






£be Iftnicfeerbocfeer (press, 1Rew Jgorfe




PREFACE.



I HAVE considered it best not to include in foot-notes

or in the body of this short Story of Indian History

references to the many authorities I have consulted.

To have done so would have broken the narrative

and been of no service to the reader for whom the

Story is intended. As far as possible original sources

of information have been relied on, while all recent

works of any importance on Indian History have

been read or consulted. To the numerous works

of Sir W. Wilson Hunter — including the " Rulers

of India" Series he has. edited — I would especially

acknowledge indebtedness, and this with particular

gratitude as it was his writings which first, over

twenty-five years ago, inspired me with a love for

India and its people.

Sir George Birdwood's exhaustive and learned

" Report on the Old Records of the India Office,"

Captain Mahan's " Influence of Sea-Power upon

History," Professor G. W. Forrest's " Selections

from the State Papers of the Foreign Department

of India," and " The History of the Portuguese in

vii



VI 11 PREFACE.

India," by Mr. F. C. Danvers, have all been most
valuable and suggestive.

Throughout the Story attention has been centred
more on the main factors which led to the foundation
and expansion of British Empire in India than to mere
details of military operations or of administration.

The early history of commerce between the East
and the West, the gradual passing of the course
of that commerce from the Mediterranean to the
route round the Cape of Good Hope, the long
struggle between the Dutch, French, and English
for predominance which ultimately left England
at the close of the seventeenth century in com-
plete possession of the seas and absolute command
over the Eastern trade, are traced for the purpose
of enabling the reader to gain a clear insight into
the primary factors underlying British Dominion in
India. The gradual decay of the Mughal Empire
and loosening of all controlling authority over
outlying principalities are shown to have been the
secondary elements which left India as a field for
the statesmancraft of Hastings, who extended the
British influence from its secure basis in the delta
of the Ganges — where it had been established by
Give — across India to Bombay in the west and down
to Madras in the south.

After a careful consideration of the State Papers,
edited by Professor Forrest, Sir John Strachey's
" Hastings and the Rohilla War," Sir James Stephen's
" Nuncomar and Impey," Sir Alfred Lyall's " Warren
Hastings," Mr. Beveridge's " The Trial of Maharaja
Nanda Kumar," and contemporary papers, I have



PREFACE. IX

endeavoured to give an unbiassed account of the
career and policy of Warren Hastings.

The further conquests and acquisitions by a long
series of Governors-General, from those of the Mar-
quess Wellesley down to the annexation of Upper
Burma, in the present day, by Lord Dufferin, have
been but the inevitable results of the policy inaugu-
rated by Clive and Hastings.

The important article, by Sir W. Wilson Hunter
in the May number of the Fortnightly Review for
1896, detailing the discovery by him of evidence that
as early as 1681 a movement was started by Fell,
Bishop of Oxford, for the purpose of the "Conversion
of the Natives" to Christianity, was unfortunately
received too late for reference in the account of
Education and early efforts made for the spread of
Christianity in India.

Miss E. J. Beck has kindly placed at my disposal
two photographs taken by her, and reproduced on
pages 55 and 338 ; while to the kindness of the
publishers of Mr. James Samuelson's "India Past
and Present," I am indebted for permission to re-
produce the photograph on page 293.

The spelling of Indian words is that adopted by

the Government of India in Sir W. Wilson Hunter's

Gazetteer of India : — a as in women ; a as in father ;

i as in polzce ; i as in intngue ; as in c<?ld ; u as in

b«ll ; it as in s&re ; e as in grey. The popular mode

of spelling is used in the case of well-known places,

and in extracts the mode of spelling used therein

is retained.

R. W. FRAZER.

London Institution.



CLASSIFIED CONTENTS.



I.



Early History of Indian Commerce



PAGE
1-26



Ancient Trade, 1-4— Invasions of Alexander the Great, 4-6
—Intercourse between East and West, 6-8— Muhammad,
8-10— Cities of the Mediterranean, 11-12— Portuguese Dis-
coveries and Trade, 12-20— Dutch and English, 21-22—
Early Travellers, 22-24— Early Voyages, 24-26.



II.

Rise of the Honourable East India Company 27-47

The First Voyage, 27-30— Subsequent Voyages and Hostility
of Portuguese and Dutch, 31-36— Profits of Eastern Trade,
36-38— Early Settlements, 39-40 — Wars with Holland and
France, 41-45 — England remains supreme maritime power,
4^-46 — The United Company or Honourable East India
Company, 46-47.



III.



India on the Eve of Conquest



48-67



Early Invasions of India, 48-56— The Aryans, 51-55— Mu-
hammadan Invasions, 55-57— The Mughal Emperors, 57-67
—The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, 59-62— Break-up of
the Empire, 62-66 — Anarchy and Weakness of Oriental
Troops, 65-67.



xii CLASSIFIED CONTENTS.



IV.

PAGE

French Efforts to Establish an Empire

in India 68-77

French in South India, 68-69 — The Marat has and Native
Princes of South India, 69-70 — Dupleix and French Suc-
cesses, 70-75 — Capture of Madras and Siege of Trichino-
poli, 71-75 — Clive to the rescue, 77.

V.

Robert Clive 78-118

Early Life, 78-80 — Defence of Arcot, 83-84 — At Kaveripak,
85-86— At Trichinopoli, 86-88— Returns to England, 89—
Arrival at Madras, 90 — Black Hole of Calcutta. 91-93 —
Defeat of Siraj-ud-Daula, 95-96 — French surrender Chan-
dranagar, 97 — Aminchand deceived, 97-98 — Plassey, 99-102
— French driven from Northern Circars, 103 — Dutch
defeated at Biderra, 104 — French Reverses in South India,
105-106 — Return to England, 107 — Misrule in Bengal,
107-111 — Clive sent out to restore order, 111-112 — Reforms
and Discontent, 113-115 — Famine and Parliamentary
Inquiry, 117 — Death ; Lord North's Regulating Act of
1773 ; The New Governor-General and Council, 118.

VI.

Warren Hastings 1 19-150

Early Service, 120-122 — Rise of the Marathas, 122-123 —
The Rohilla War, 125-127 — Story of Nanda Kumar, 129-133
— Hastings First Governor-General, 13c — His Council and
Philip Francis, 130-135 — "Declaration of Independence"
and War with France, 134-135— Hastings calls on Raja of
Benares, and Nawab of Oudh for contributions, 137-139 —
The Begams of Oudh, 139 — Maratha War, 140-143 — War
with Haidar Ali, 144-147 — Sea fights with French, 147-
148 — Peace of Versailles, 148 — Pitt's New India Bill, 149—
Impeachment of Hastings, 150 — Character, 150.

VII.

Lord Cornwallis and Sir John Shore . 151-160

War with Tipu, 152-154 — Permanent Settlement, 154-158 —
Judicial Reforms, 158-159 — Private Trade allowed, 159.



CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. Xlll



VIII.

PAGE

Establishment of British Supremacy —

Marquess Wellesley. . . . 161-185

War with Tipu and Capture of Seringapatam, 163-168 —
Death of Tipu, 167-168 — Treaty of Lucknow, 169-171 — The
Maratha Armies, 171-174 — Treaty of Bassein, 174 — Maratha
War, 175-180 — Monson's Retreat before Holkar, 178-180—
Siege of Bhartpur, 180 — Recall of Weilesley and " Admira-
tion and Gratitude " of the Company, 181 — Second Adminis-
tration of Lord Cornwallis, 181 — Mutiny at Vellore, 181-
183 — Lord Minto, 183 — Conference of Tilsit, 183 — Capture
of Java, 184 — Conversion of Debt, 185.



IX.

Marquess of Hastings — Extension of Influ-
ence over Native States . . . 186-200

Ghurki War, 188-190 — The Pindarf War, 190-191 — Ma-
ratha War, 192-197 — Banking Firm of Palmer and Co., 198
— Resignation, 198 — Indian Trade thrown open, 198-199 —
Revenue Settlement of Madras, 199 — Christianity in India
and a Bishop appointed, 199-200.



X.

Lord Amherst — First Burmese War . 201-204

War Proclaimed, 202— Bengal Sepoys refuse to cross the
Sea, 202 — Peace, 203 — Siege and Capture of Bhartpur, 203-
204.



XI.

Lord William Bentinck — Commencement

of Modern History of British India 205-215

Financial Reforms, 205-206 — Revenue Settlement of North-
West Provinces, 206 — Abolition of Sati or Widow-Burning,
206-211 — Suppression of the Thags, 211-214 — Renewal
of the Charter ; trade to China thrown open, 214 — Lord
Macaulay and Education, 214-215.



xiv CLASSIFIED CONTENTS.



XII.



PAGE



Lord Auckland — Lord Ellenborough —

Afghanistan 216-239

Afghanistan and the Punjab, 216-217 — Treaty of Turk-
manchi, 217 — Siege of Herat, 218 — Russian Embassy
received at Kabul, 218-219 — War Declared, 219 — The Cam-
paign, 219-224 — Occupation of Afghanistan, 223-226 — Out-
break at Kabul, 227 — British Position Untenable, 229 —
Macnaghten makes terms, 229 — Secret Negotiations, 230 —
Assassination of Macnaghten, 230 — The Retreat, 231-233
— Dr. Brydon reaches Jalalabad, 233-234 — The Avenging
Army, 235-236 — Lord Ellenborough and Withdrawal Trom
Afghanistan, 235-237 — Conquest of Sind, 237-238 — Final
Maratha War, 238-239.

XIII.

Lord Hardinge — The Sikhs and Annexa-
tion of the Punjab .... 240-259

Ranjit Singh, Character and Conquests, 240-244 — The
Sikhs and their Gurus, 245-246 — The Army or Khalsa, 247-
249 — First Sikh War, 250-255 — Lord Dalhousie and the
Second Sikh War, 255-258 — Annexation of the Punjab, 258-
259-

XIV.

The Mutiny 260-317

Annexations of Lord Dalhousie, 262-268 — Oudh, 262-264 —
Doctrine of Lapse, 265 — Rani of Jhansi and Nana Sahib,
266-267 — Railway Minute and Despatch of Sir C. Wood,
268 — The People of India, 268-270 — The Sepoys and
Previous Mutinies, 270-272 — Conversions to Christianity,
273-274 — Unrest and Intrigues, 274-276 — The Greased
Cartridges, 276-277 — Manghal Pandi, 278 — Mutiny at
Meerut, 280-282— The Rebels at Delhi, 283-285— The
English before Delhi, 285-286 — Measures of Lord Canning,
286-288 — Defence of Arrah, 288-289 — Neill at Benares and
Allahabad, 289-290 — Wheeler's Defence of Cawnpur, 290-
291 — Massacre of the Garrison, 291-294 — Henry Lawrence
secures Lucknow, 294 — Havelock's March to Cawnpur, 294-
298 — Attempts to reach Lucknow, 299-300 — John Lawrence
holds the Punjab, 301 — Fall of Delhi, 302-303— Havelock
and Outram reach Lucknow, 303-305 — Sir Colin Campbell's
Relief of Lucknow, 305-309 — Retreat, 309 — Final Capture



CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. XV

PAGE

of Lucknow, 310 — Sir Hugh Rose in Central India, 311-314
— India passes from the Company to the Queen, 314 — The
Proclamation, 315 — Changes in the Sepoy Army, 315 — The
Debt from the Mutiny, 315-316 — Financial Reforms, 316 —
Death of Lord Canning, 316-317.



XV.

India under the Crown . . . 318-352

Lord Elgin and Sir William Denison, 318 — The Wahab.'s,
318-319 — The Bhutan War, 319-320 — Sir John Lawrence,
Governor-General (Viceroy) 319 — Famine in Orissa, 321-
322— Irrigation and Railways, 323-324 — Financial Crisis in
Bombay, 324 — Afghanistan and " Non-intervention," 325-
327 — Lord Mayo and Russia, 327-328 — Financial Reforms,
328-329 — Assassination of Lord Mayo, 329-330 — Lord
Northbrook and Afghanistan, 331-332 — Famine, Gaekwar
of Baroda, 333-334 — Lord Lytton, 334— Queen proclaimed
Empress of India, 334 — Famine in South India, 334 —
License Tax, 334 — Embassy forced on Afghanistan, 334-
336 — Assassination of Sir Louis Cavagnari, 337 — War, 337—
341— Disaster at Maiwand, 341 — March of Sir Frederick
Roberts, 341-342 — Reforms of Lord Ripon, 342 — Lord
Dufferin and Annexation of Upper Burma, 342 — The Claim
to Panjdeh, 343-344 — Lord Lansdowne and the National
Congress, 344-345— Manipur, 345-346— Chitral, 346-351—
Limits of British Territory, 351-352.



XVI.

Moral and Material Progress under

British Rule 353-39°

Extent, Religions, and Languages of India, 353-355 — Army
and Defences, 356-361 — Financial Alarm, 362-364 — Agri-
cultural Population, 364-366 — Land Tax and Revenue, 366-
368 — Administration, 368-370 — Employment of Natives,
370-574 — Railways, Roads, and Sanitation, 374-375 — The
Tajisa Reservoir and Periyar Project, 375-377 — Coal,
Petroleum, Iron, 377-378— Suez Canal, 379-380— Cotton
and Cotton Duties, 380-382— Imports and Exports, 382-384
— Education and Christianity, 384-387 — English and
Universities, 387-388 — Ultimate Tendencies, 389-390.



Index 391



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



THE NORTH GATE — OLD DELHI (Front

by W. Daniels, R.A.) .

MAP OF INDIA

MAP OF ANCIENT CARAVAN ROUTES

INDIAN SHIPS

KING OF KOCHIN .

OLD EAST INDIA HOUSE

MUHAMMADANS PRAYING

AKBAR

FORT ST. GEORGE .

ROBERT, LORD CLIVE .

FORT OF ARCOT

WARREN HASTINGS

TIPU SULTAN

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, CALCUTTA

DE BOIGNE ....

WIDOW-BURNING .

OUTRAM ....

KABUL . . .

RANJIT SINGH

SEAT OF MUTINY .

HENRY LAWRENCE



a Painting

Frontispiece
facing



PAGE
I

9

13

18

27
55

59

72

79
82

136

153
162

i73

207

221

228
242
261

279



XV111



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



MEMORIAL WELL AT CAWNPUR

SIR COLIN CAMPBELL, LORD CLYDE

FAMINE GROUP FROM MADRAS

v v »

KABULIS

MAP OF AFGHANISTAN .

MEKONG RIVER

MAP OF STEAM NAVIGATION

RIVER SCENE



PAGE

2 93
306

334
334
338

343
361

379
39°




THE STORY OF BRITISH INDIA.



i.



EARLY HISTORY OF INDIAN COMMERCE.



THE strange story of the rise and fall of once
mighty nations is one to which we dare not close
our eyes, firm though our belief may be in the
abiding strength of the material resources of our
own civilisation. The story tells how other civilisa-
tions crumbled to pieces amid all the pride and glory
of their manhood ; it tells how nation after nation,
city after city, rose to opulence and power as each
in turn became the centre of commerce between the
East and the West, only to sink into insignificance
and decay as if they had been struck by magic, when
the course of that commerce drifted elsewhere.

On the banks of the Nile an ancient civilisation
was evolved and nurtured, the secrets of which now
lie half-buried amid its tombs and monuments
beneath the desert sand that sweeps ceaselessly over
the land. Yet in the days of Joseph " all countries
came into Egypt ... for to buy corn." Fifteen hun-
dred years before the advent of Christ its merchants



2 EARLY HISTORY OF INDIAN COMMERCE.

brought indigo and muslins from India, and porcelain
wares from far-off China, and the fame of its mariners
was great, the memory of their going to and fro living
long in fable. The great King Sesostris (Ramses II.),
as narrated by the historian Diodorus the Sicilian,
sent forth, even before the days of Moses, " a navy of
four hundred sail into the Red Sea . . . conquered all
Asia . . . passed over the river Ganges, and likewise
pierced through all India to the main Ocean."

Again in the rich alluvial tracts lying between the
Tigris and Euphrates the Babylonians and Assyrians
once held sway, surrounded by all the pomp and
splendour of wealth and luxury. Their ships went
forth to bring from India the teak wood wherewith
the people of the city of Ur builded their palaces ;
the gold of the East, with which they gilded their
temples ; the Indian muslins, silks, pearls, and spices,
of more value than fine gold. Diodorus tells us how,
two thousand years before Christ, the famed Queen
Semiramis carried overland a fleet of two thou-
sand boats to the Indus, which she crossed at the
head of three million foot-soldiers and two hundred
thousand horsemen, and then fought the Emperor
Stabrobates only to fall back defeated, wounded
herself in many places.

Now the palaces and temples of Babylon and
Assyria lie prone, and in our museums the fine work
of her cunning men is an empty show to the passing
crowd. -

Tyre, the city of the Phoenicians, grew in the days
of Hiram to be the mistress of the seas and the
" merchant of the people for many isles." Westward



TYRE MISTRESS OF THE SEAS. 3

to Carthage, to Tarshish in Spain, round Libya, till,
as we are told by Herodotus, the sun was on their
right, the Phoenician ships sailed, some going East
down the Red Sea to Arabia and Ophir.

When Solomon received a mandate from his
father David to build the Temple to Jehovah, it
was from Tyre that he summoned wise men to
bring back spices and frankincense from the land of
the Queen of Sheba, gold and silver, sandal-wood,
ivory, apes, and peacocks from the land of Ophir,
so that the Temple might be adorned and Solomon
exceed " all the kings of the earth for riches and for
wisdom." He founded " Tadmor in the Wilderness "
as a resting-place for the caravans travelling across
the desert towards Babylon, the " city of merchants,"
where were gathered together embroidered vestments
and woven carpets, shawls of many colours, gems and
pearls and brazen vessels brought from the Indies,
from Malabar, Ceylon, and the further East by the
Arabian mariners.

Tyre resisted all the continued efforts of the
Assyrians to destroy her commercial prosperity : she
remained the mistress of the seas only to fall before
the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar, in 585 B.C., as
of her it had been foretold by the Prophet Ezekiel,
"they shall make spoil of thy riches and make a
prey of thy merchandise, and they shall break down
thy walls and destroy thy pleasant houses, and they
shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in
the midst of the water."

When in 558 B.C. the Babylonian Empire fell to
Cyrus, the wealth' from the East no longer' passed to



4 EARLY HISTORY OF INDIAN COMMERCE.

Phoenicia and Syria through Tadmor, but stayed with
the Persians. Under Darius Hystaspes the Persian
Empire advanced its conquests as far as the Punjab,
whence it drew a yearly tribute of three hundred
talents of gold, employing in its armies the Indian
soldiers, who, clothed in white cotton and armed
with bows and arrows, marched with Xerxes towards
Greece and fought under Mardonius at Plataea.

It was not until the time of Alexander the Great
that the trade from India once more resumed its
ancient route down the Persian Gulf, along the Tigris
through Palmyra, the Tadmor of old, to enrich the
cities of the Mediterranean.

Alexander the Great, born in 356 B.C., succeeded
his father, Philip of Macedon, at the age of twenty.
Having first curbed the northern barbarians who,
under Attalos, came swarming down on his kingdom
from the Danube, he razed Tyre to the ground,
reduced Syria and Egypt to submission, and founded
the city of Alexandria. He then passed on towards
the East, where he broke in pieces the empire of Cyrus,
swept up the wealth of Babylon and Susa and slew
Darius, thus avenging the insults that Xerxes and
Mardonius had offered to the altars and temples of
Greece, leaving nought to tell of the wealth and
power of the Persian nation save the burned ruins of
Persepolis and the rifled tomb of Cyrus. Marching
into Bactria, he founded another Alexandria, now
known to us as Herat, there pausing for three years
before he set out, in 327 B.C., for his invasion of India.

Crossing the river Indus, near Attock, on a bridge
of boats, he defeated Porus, the Indian ruler of the



ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 5

Punjab, in a pitched battle near the well-known
modern battlefield of Chilianwala, where, in memory
of his victory, he established a city which he called
Bucephala, after his charger Bucephalus, slain during
the conflict.

Many are the stories told of the marvels seen by
Alexander and his soldiers in their marches through
the sacred land of the Five Rivers. With awe-
stricken wonder they had seen elephants seize armed
soldiers in battle and hand them to their drivers for
slaughter ; they had seen in the dense forests serpents,
glittering like gold, whose sting was death, and
pythons of huge girth capable of swallowing a deer ;
they had heard of ants, the colour of cats and the size
of Egyptian wolves, that dug up the gold hid in the
sands of the deserts of Afghanistan, and mangled the
Indians who came on camels to carry off the pre-
cious metal ; they had seen fierce dogs seize lions and
allow their limbs to be cut off one by one before they
relinquished their hold ; they had razed the cities of
the Kathians, of whom it was told that their custom
was to burn widows along with their deceased hus-
bands ; they had listened when Alexander was
rebuked by the Indian sages, who told him that of
all his conquests nothing would remain to him but
just as much earth as would suffice to make a grave
to cover his bones, and they had seen with astonish-
ment the ascetic sage Kalanos, wearied of life, give
his begging bowl and rug to the Conqueror of the
World and ascend the funeral pyre without emotion,
moving not as the flames slowly carried his soul to
rest. Ere they left India one more wonder, stranger



6 EARLY HISTORY OF INDIAN COMMERCE.



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