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affection, and proved to be a happy one to both parties.

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The death of his wife in 1755 led to the breaking up of the home at Stoke
Newington, and left him free to gratify his roving disposition by going on an
expedition to Portugal In the first section of his work on " The State of
Prisons," he describes his experiences on the voyage, and tells the story
of his capture by a French privateer and his imprisonment in the castle
at Brest, where he had an opportunity of observing how cruelly his
countrymen were used. When he returned home he interceded on their
behalf, and caused a remonstrance to be made to the French court which
had a most favourable result. This was the first effort which he put forth
for the good of others, and it gave the first indication of those feelings of
unselfish philanthropy and benevolence which actuated him during the-
whole of his subsequent career. In the same year he was elected a .
member of the Ko3ral Society, and two years after he married a second
time, and settled down at Cardington, where, aided by his wife, he ^
occupied himself for some time with forming and carrying out schemes
for the material and moral improvement of the villagers. From Carding-
ton he removed to Watcombe, where he stayed two years, and then,
returned to Gardington, where he experienced the greatest soirow of his
life in the death of his wife, to whom he was devotedly attached. Time
only partially healed the woimd which this desolating bereavement caused
him, and in the few years which followed it we find him seeking change
and diversion in foreign travel While he was in Italy he inspected!
the Pope's galleys and the prison at Civita Vecohia, of which he gives &
horrible accoimt. On his return home his attention was drawn to eccle-
siastical matters in connection with his church at Bedford, where he had
been in the habit of worshipping when he lived at Gardington. The
church was composed of Baptists and Paedobaptists, who worshipped
peaceably together till the minister, Mr. Symonds, changing his views,
refused to baptize infants — a circumstance which led to a rupture, ending
in a secession of the Pjedobaptists, in which Howard took a leading:
part. He did not confine his sympathies within narrow boundaries,,
however, but cultivated friendly relations with other bodies besides his.
own, especially the Quakers and the Moravians.

It would take too long to recount the story of Howard's political rela- -
tions and of his philanthropic labours for the amelioration of the condition
of prisoners. His prison researches at home and abroad occupy, as might
have been expected, the greater part of the volume. As an instance or
Howard's extreme disinterestedness we may quote the following incident i

" A daughter of a gentleman holding a high position at the Porte suffered
from a disease which baflSed Turkish physicians. The English visitor was
called in ; he prescribed for the young lady with success. The overjoyed
fifcfcher sent him a purse of two thousand sequins (worth about ^6900),
which he, of course, dechned, saying, *He never took money, but a plate
of grapes would be acceptable.' So long as he remained in the city grapes
were never wanting on his table.'*

Dr. Stoughton does full justice to the thoroughly practical character of
Howard's philanthropy when he says : "Howard did not soar into lofty
regions, but kept his footing firm upon the ground, going about knocking
at prison doors, and talking to gaolers, turnkeys, and prisoners to find out
the real condition of things and the best methods of mending them. He

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not only saw, bnt loohed; not only heard, but lUiened. His object was
^oroughly practical ; maxims of reform he suggested and enforced. The
situation, construction, and furnishing of buildings; the separation of
criminals according to their offences ; the provision of baths and venti-
lators for the promotion of health, and of infirmaries for recovery from
sickness ; the classification of debtors and felons apart from one another ;
the employment of criminals in various kinds of useful labour ; the ap-
pointment of honest, active, and humane gaolers; the suppression of
taps and Hquor bars within prison precincts; care in the selection of
4}haplains, and in the orderly conduct of Divine service — these were expo-
nents for improvement at that time most urgently needed, and these he
commended with all the force derived from extensive observation and
.eminent personal authority. He would not have criminals tormented, he
. said ; nor would he have them indulged. Starvation and extravagance
.he alike opposed; and misrepresentations as to these points sometimes
involved him in controversial argument. He was not qualified to enter
into the philosophy of the subject; he had no genius akin to that of
Bomilly or Bentham ; but, as a plain, practical man, he opened the way
for reforms which have now become established, more or less, throughout
the civilized world.*'

Speaking of his later private life Dr. Stoughton tells the following
.anecdote :

** One day an elderly gentleman on horseback, attended by his servant,
stopped at an inn in Gardington, and began to catechize the landlord about
ihe merits of this much-talked-of man. ' Characters,' he said, ' often ap-
pear very well at a distance which would not bear close inspection,' and
he had therefore come to Howard's home to ascertain his real character.
He went into the garden, saw the dwelling, questioned the household,
examined the tenantry, noticed everything he could on the premises, and
narrowly examined the interior of the cottages which were bmlt for the
tenantry. The stranger departed satisfied that Howard at home was the
. same as Howard abroad. The careful inquisitor turned out to be the
eccentric Lord Monboddo."

In the matter of diet and dress he was extremely abstemious, and some
would say ascetic. '* Moreover, he had a great distaste for luxuries. ' No
parade of equipage or outward appearance,' to quote the words of his
^attendant, *no superfluities nor indulgences in eating or drinking; but
J;he strictest abstinence from everything that could in the least be a let or
Jhindrance to him in performing what he well knew was his incumbent
^uty as a rational and immortal being, who would be called to a strict
find impartial account of the talents with which a good and gracious
Creator had endowed him.' I may add that he was entitled to be called
a teetotaler and vegetarian. Animal foods and fermented and spirituous
drinks he utterly discarded from his diet. Water and the plainest vege-
tables sufficed him. Milk, tea, butter, and firuit were his luxuries ; and
he was equally sparing in the quantity of food, tind indifferent as to the
stated times of taking it. Thus he found his wants supplied in almost
every place where man existed, and was as well provided in the posadas
of Spain and caravanseries of Turkey as in the inns and hotels of England
and France. Water was one of his principal necessaries, for he was a

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-very Mnssiilman in his ablutions; and if nicety or delicacy had place
with him in any respect, it was in the perfect cleanliness of his whole

We have*dwelt at some length on the private life of Howard because
it is less generally known than his pubUo career, and also because of the
light which it sheds on his character. The glimpses of his inner life as
they are given to us in this book help us more to an understanding of the
man himself than whole volumes of matter having to do solely with his
prison reforms. Altogether, we have in the volume before us a worthy
and fitting memorial of a noble and beautiful life.



In the Slums, Pages from the Notebook of a London Diocesan Home
Missionary. By the Bev. D. Bice-Jonbs, MA. (J. Nisbet and Co.)
This book makes its appearance just at the right time. Now that so
much attention is being given to the condition of the outcast poor in our
^reat cities, anything which relates to the slums is sure to be read with a
considerable degree of interest, especially when, as is the case in the work
before us, it contains an account of personal experiences in connection
with them. The writer here tells us what he himself has seen and heard
^' as a clergjrman working and living amongst the poor in one of the
worst districts of Central London, if not the worst in the whole of this
vast metropolis." His revelations consequently have all the value which
must belong to a narrative of facts, and cannot fail to throw much light
on a dark and difficult problem ; while, at the same time, they may serve
io encourage those who are labouring for the good of the London poor,
by showing what has been done, and what is still being done, to promote
their spiritual, moral, and temporal welfare. Mr. Jones confines himself
to a statement of facts, leaving his readers to form their own conclusions.
His object is not only to encourage those who are at present labouring
in the field of home missions, but also to stir up others to enter it
also ; and if this double object be accomplished, his book will not have
been written in vain, especially if some should be induced to follow the
writer*s own example by going and living amongst the people whom they
wish to benefit

As a fair sample of the kind of men who are to be found in large
numbers amongst the slum populations, we may quote the following
typical descriptioii of a working man, known to the author by personal

** The shoemaker whose room we are visiting is not a professed infideL
On the contrary, he claims the right of calling himself a Churchman,
although he never goes to church, and has never been inside any place of
worship since the day of his marriage. Therefore in bringing him
iorward as the representative of a large class of working men, I have
(by no means selected an extreme or exceptional case, either as regards

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the man himself or his sarroondings. The man himself would pasB
muster as a rather respectable specimen of the London artisan; and
as for his surroundings, had as they are, they present a picture of
comfort and afiQuence in comparison with some of the dens in my district.
But as it may be not uninteresting to know what this man himself thinks
of his surroundmgs, I will give a short resume of my first conversation
with him, using his own words as nearly as I can remember them.
It must be imderstood that I have already gone through the somewhat
delicate task of introducing myself^ and that I have succeeded in gaining^
a sufficiently friendly footing in the room to be invited to take a seat.
Then, when I think there is a good opportunity for putting the question^
I say, * May I ask what religious denomination you belong to ? * The-
wife is the first to reply, and she says — * Oh, I don't know ; nothing-
partic'ler.' But her husband then intervenes and says ; ' I belong to the
Church of England — leastways, I was brought up to the Church of
England.* * Then don*t you attend any church now ? ' * No, I never go*
anywhere now ; I don't approve of the bishops and many other things in
the Church. I don't think it right that the men who do adl the hard work
should be worse paid than journeymen shoemakers, and that others who
do nothing should get all the fat livings.' ' But bishops work very hard^
indeed there are few men in the country who work as hard as our
bishops ; and then their pay is not at all extravagant in comparison with
their necessary expenses.' * Bishops work hard ? I should like to know
what they do ? ' I try to give the good man some notion of a bishop'a
work by telling him how a bishop has to go about his diocese for some
months every year to hold confirmations, confirming perhaps hundreds
of candidates in one church, and frequently taking two distant churches
the same day; and what incessant demands are made upon his time and
strength. But although the shoemaker seems to be considerably sur-
prised by what I tell him concerning our present bishops and their work,
he refuses to acknowledge that the office of a bishop is anything but
a sinecure. 'Well,* he says, *but it is not only the bishops that I
disapprove of. How is it that all the fat livings are given to a few
favoured ones, and that them as does the work gets next to nothing ?
and then I'm told that they buy their sermons all ready wrote out
for them. Do you think I'm going to church to hear a parson read
another man's sermon? No I I could do that for myself at home.''
' But, my good friend, supposing all that you say to be true, I don't
see what it has to do with the question of your going to church. I am
your clergyman ; my little mission is your district church ; and I neither
hold a fiEtt Uving, nor do I preach other men's sermons.' * I don't approve
of reading sermons at all. I could not listen to a preacher who read
a sermon whether his own or not. / like to hear a man spit the truth
out from his heart, and I don't think he ought to even know what he is
going to preach before he starts.' 'Well, I feel much encouraged by
hearing you say that, for I am so overwhelmed with other work from.
Monday morning to Saturday night, and then all day on Sunday, that I
can find no time to prepare my sermons, and am often obliged to choose
my text at the last moment while the congregation are singing a hymn*
But I have always felt this to be a great disadvantage both to myself and

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my hearers. I should much prefer being able to devote a few hours
beforehand to tlie preparation of my sermons, in order that I might
properly arrange and digest my thoughts.' *No, you are wrong there,
dr. Depend upon it, the people like your preaching much better when
yon only talk to them on the spur of the moment. I know I should if I
went to church. But how can people living in a hole like this be
expected ever to go to church 7 I for one should feel so out of place that
I should expect the church to fall down upon me.* ' Well, now you have
mentioned the very thing that I wished to talk to you about, so let
VLB change the subject.* ** The remainder of the conversation is not less
racy, turning as it does upon such important practical subjects as work-
men's dwellings, emigration, and temperance, on all of which points the
views of the shoemaker are folly and clearly expressed. The book as a
whole is full of suggestiveness, and cannot fail to do good.

The Way of the ' World. By D. Christie Murbat. Three Vols.
(Chatto and Windus.) Mr. Christie Murray has already won a high
reputation, and this new story will do not a little to enhance it. From
the beginning to the end there is not a dull page in it, and yet there
is nothing which would excite the condemnation of the most censorious.
The story is good, but it is in the portraiture of character that the chief
excellence of the book consists. Not that '*The Way of the Worl^ ** has
any resemblance to those ^e-spun American stories which are so much
in fashion at present, whose authors are so intensely subjective that the
unfortunate reader who has an interest in the movement of a plot towards
its denouement finds nothing to attract him. We have here at least two
portraits which have a distinct stamp of originality upon them ; but the
author does not so much undertake to paint them as he leaves them to
paint themselves. The first is a young clerk, endowed with an unusual
amount of shyness, who suddenly finds himself a millionaire, and courted,
as are all miUionaires, however profound their ignorance, and however
vulgar their manners. He finds himself, as might be expected, extremely
tmcomfortable because of his inability to adapt himself to the habits and
ways of the new and exalted circle into which he had been introduced.
Among his new acquaintances was a bankrupt earl, who had everything
that society values except money, as the young man had nothing but
money; and the writer shows his skill as an artist, and his insight as an
observer of human nature, by pointing the contrast between the two.
The development of true gentlemanly instinct in one who seeibed bom to
be a snob, and was sneered at as such, is very finely done, and is ex-
tremely effective. The other, and in some respects the most striking,
character in the book is a Mr. Amelia, who is a successfid pressman, and
seems intended to represent the weaknesses and sins of the class. We at
once grant to the newspaper critics that it would be unfair to regard this
remarkable individual as a typical character. He is mean even to base-
ness ; he is driven from the country paper on which he conmienced his
career in consequence of a shameless act of treachery and ingratitude ;
he scruples at no trick or device necessary in order to obtain information
for his paper ; he becomes even an eaves-dropper at a party of gentlemen's
servants in order to secure this. Journalists often offend us by their

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assumption of innocence, by their readiness to feed a low taste for gossip,
by the arrogance of their tone ; but they do not, we hope, often sink to
the level of Mr. Amelia. Still we venture to think they may find some-
thing to learn even from him. At all events, as a piece of skilful work-
manship the character deserves high commendation. We leave the stor^
to our readers, only adding that they will find in it a great deal of life,
freshness, and variety.

My Daughter and My Ducats, Three Vols. (C. Kegan Paul, Trench,
and Go.) Is it a sign of the growing power of the press that it begins to
fill so considerable a place in our fiction ? Here is another story in which
a London journalist plays a conspicuous part, and in which even the
journal itself, with its affairs, engages no little attention. But Mr. Mallory
is of a very dfferent stamp from Mr. Amelia of Mr. Murray's novel. He
has real ability and culture, has made himself notorious as an advocate of
opinions which, to the excellent Scotch Liberal in the small manufacturing
town at which the story opens, appear very dangerous, has raised hia
paper, the ** Forum,** to be a power. The account of Mr. Mallory and his
staff and their doings is not the least interesting portion of a book which
is brimful of abihty. The anonymous author has set himself to give us
a picture of several varieties of life, and everywhere he writes^ as one who
is fully acquainted with them. He seems as much at home in the quiet
and humdrum Scotch town as amid the excitement of journalists and
speculators in the metropolis. We should not be surprised to learn that
he was himself a journalist who had had a diversified experience, and
here gives us its results. Not only is he at home in scenes so different,
but he seems able to enter into the feelings and understand something
of the working of minds as far removed from each other. Not the least
striking character of the book is Mr. Ingleby, with a conscience severely
scrupulous, and yet strangely capable of making the worse appear the
• better reason. The author depicts here rare skill, and with an amount
of appreciative sympathy for which we were not prepared. The humours
of a Scotch election have never been better described, though there is the
cynical tendency to which novelists generally are so prone, which fails to
make allowance for the sincere convictions which imderlie the eccen-
tricities and weaknesses of electors, and in the issue determine the
event If this is the work of a new writer, he is certainly one of unusual

Settling Day. A Sketch from Life. By Sophib Abobnt. (T. Fisher
Unwin.) A charming story of real life, and one that is as true to human
nature as it is true to facts. The characters are aU natural and life-like,
and those of the heroine Dolly Northcote and her faithful and devoted
lover Jack are powerfully drawn. The chief interest of the tale turns ui>on
a misunderstanding between these two, which, after causing a temporary
separation and estrangement, ended, as might have been expected, in a
joyful re-union and a happy marriage.

When ye Pray; or^ Lessons on Prayer. By 0. H. Wallbb. (J. F.
Shaw and Co.) A series of plain, practical expositions of the various
petitions contained in the Lord's Prayer.

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The Congregationalist, July, 1884.

Roblnaon. Phoio., Tuobndge Wells ITu.Tiu Brothers, Loodon, E C

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LoudOD StereoMorlc Co.

Permanent ProoeM.

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Ci^t C0n0rt0ati0ndii5t.

JULY, 1884.


Mb. Oliveb Jones, though comparatively little known outside
his own county, or indeed district, has for many years been
the life and soul of the work of Congregational extension in
Liverpool. His native modesty keeps his name and himself
in the background; but those who are familiar with our
denominational movements in the city and its neighbourhood
know well how largely they have been advanced by his wise
counsel, his untiring energy, his large-hearted enterprise,
and his generous liberality. Liverpool is generally assumed
to be a Tory city, and it is certain that a strong Church
influence was long predominant there. Whether it is so
powerful to-day as it once was is open to question ; but this
at least may be said, that there are few places where Congre-
gationalism has made such solid and substantial progress
during the last thirty years as it has done in Liverpool.
This has been owing largely to the efforts of a few men, and
timong them Mr. Oliver Jones is entitled to a very high place.
He has been the inspiration and strength of much that has
been done, and he himself would be the first to confess that
for the influence which has ruled his life, and has made him
a leader in all the good works of Congregationalism, he is
indebted to the teaching and guidance of the late Bev. John
Kelly. It may be doubted whether full justice has ever been
done to the rare merits of that devoted servant of Christ. He
could hardly be called a popular preacher, for, if truth be told,
he proceeded on the assumption that his hearers had brains,
and he addressed himself to them, not indeed forgetting to
VOL. xm. 87

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appeal to their hearts, but endeavouring to reach even them
through the understanding. Some of the most powerful
appeals to heart and conscience to which we ourselves ever lis-
tened were from Mr, Kelly, Very vividly can we recall now
the impression on our youthful heart of one of his forceful
addresses to the unconverted, based on the text ^' That every
mouth may be silenced, and the whole world become guilty be-
fore God." But it is not to be denied that these sermons re-
quired attention and thought on the part of the hearers, and there
are so many hearers who do not like trouble, that it is hardly
surprising that the preacher could not be said to be popular.
He gathered round himself, however, a large congregation, in
which the presence of a considerable proportion of young men
was a conspicuous feature. To them Mr. Kelly devoted much
thought and care, and he certainly succeeded not only in
attaching them to himself, but in training many of them to a
robustness of principle and an earnestness in Christian ser-
vice which are not common. Of all the men we have known
we never met one who more completely embodied our con-
ception of a Christian pastor in this respect than Mr. Kelly.
He was emphatically a trainer of men, over many of whom he
acquired extraordinary influence. This was due to his quali-
ties of heart as well as of mind. His granite-like strength of
mind was evident to all, but the deep vein of tenderness which
lay underneath was little suspected until it was touched. But
he imbued his people with a love of their principles even more
than with a love of himself. Hence it was that the influence
of the Crescent Chapel extended far beyond the limits of the
congregation, and that Liverpool owes some of her most
earnest workers in Congregationalism to the teachings of

Online LibraryRobert Williams DaleThe Congregationalist → online text (page 56 of 110)