Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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Figure 1. — Dendrcnotua robustus Verrill; o^ tentacle sheath, natural aise; ft,
tentacle, enlarged ; c, oml disk and anterior part of the foot, natural size ; fVom
]iTing specimen bj A. B. Y eniU.



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A. K Verrill on New England NudibranchtatcL 407

deeply frilled, much subdivided, bipinnate, the subdivisions fine
and slender. Foot very broad, in extension projecting back be-
yond the mantle about a quarter of an inch, slightly tapering,
rounded and slightly notched at the end. Oral disk or veil cres-
cent-shaped, the front a little prominent, the sides extended
backwam and forming a curve continuous with that of the foot

Color dark purplish brown, sprinkled with white specks ; ten-
tacles deep brown, specked with white, tips yellowish; gills
purplish at base, the edges and tips yellow ; foot similar in color
to mantle, but lighter.

Eastport, Me., at low-water mark, under stones, Aug. 19, 1868.

Onchidoris tenella.

Doris tendla Ag., in Gould, Invert, of Mass., Ed. 2, p. 229, PL zx, figures 289,
290, 293. 1870.

Specimens of this rare and imperfectly known species were
obtained under stones in a large pool at low-water mark, near
Eastport, Ma

The largest one was -85 of an inch long, and -20 to "25
broad, according to the position. The outline is oval, elliptical,
or obloaig, in dmerent states of extension, and the edges of the
mantle are often rotted inward. The back is strongly convex,
the surface thickly covered with small conical papinsB, which
are strengthened by numerous minute white spicula. The
tentacles are rather long, oblong, scarcely tapering, with nume-
rous transverse lanunsB, which cover nearly the whole length,
the tip with a small obtuse papilla ; the base is surrounded by a
short sheath, with the edge divided into five small corneal
papillae or teeth, the two anterior ones largest BranchisB nine,
seven principal ones with two very small ones posteriorly ; the
larger ones are short, thick, lanceolate, with short lateral lobes.
In the center of the branchial circle there is a small brownish
papilla. The foot is long-oval, tapering behind and rounded in
front, about half as wide as the mantle, and very much shorter.
The oral disk is short and broad, subtriangular, with a very
obtuse ande in front

Color of the upper surface yellowish white, the papillse mostly
tipped with yellow, but some with flake- white ; tentacles lemon-
yellow with lighter tips ; branchiae yellowish white, edged and
tipped with lemon-yeuow, the yellow tint conspicuous in partial
contraction ; foot yellowish white ; mouth and edge of oral disk
bright yellow.

Onchidoris grisea.
Doris grissa Stimpaon MS., in Gould, op. dt, p. 232, PL zx, figures 292, 296.

This species occurred under the same circumstances as the
preceding, and more commonly. The color was generally
clear white, sometimes tinged with pale sulphur-yellow, in some
parts.



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408 S. A. HurUyut—JSarihqiuxke at Bogota,

Onchidoris pallida,
DoriBpaUida Ag., in Gould, op. dt, p. 229, PL xx, flga 284, 287, 288, 291.

This species was dredged in 20 fathoms in Eastport harbor.
It has much larger tubercles than either of the preceding.

Doridella, gen. nov.
Body covered with an ample, smooth mantle, oval, convex.
Dorsal tentacles retractile, without sheatha Head prominent,
the lateral angles prolonged anteriorly as short oral palpi or
tentacles. Foot broad, cordate. Branchi» posterior, in the
groove between the mantle and foot

Doridella obscura, sp. nov. Figures 2 and 8.

Form broad oval, '8 of an inch long and "2 broad ; back con-
vex, smooth. Foot broad, cordate in front Oral disk broad,
emarginate or with concave outline in front ;
The angles somewhat produced, forming
short, tentacle-like organs, which in exten- ^^^^^^
sion project bevond the front edge of the ^^^^^^f^
mantle. Dorsal tentacles small, stout, re-
tractile. Color of body blackish, lighter
toward the edge, as if covered with nearly
confluent black spots, the whitish ground
color showing between them ; foot, oral disk, and dorsal tenta-
cles white ; the central part of body, beneath, bright yellow.

Savin Rock, near New Haven, Oct 28, 1868,— E. T. Nelson.

The eggs, laid in confinement, were very small, a

pale yellow, numerous, arranged in an open coil,
(figure 3).

This is the only Nudibranch hitherto discovered
in the vicinity of New Haven. It appears to be al-
lied to PhyUidia and Fryetia^ which are usually re-
ferred to the Tectibranchs.



Art. XLVIL — On a recent Earthquake at Bogota ; by the Hoa
S. A. HUBLBUT, U. S. Minister to Columbia.

[The following communication respecting an earthquake recently
felt at Bogota, observed by the Hon. S. A. Hurlbut, U. S. Minis-
ter to Columbia, has been kindly furnished to us by the Secretary
of the Smithsonian Institution, to whom it was addressed.]

We have had rather an unusual phenomenon at this place in
a remarkably well developed earthquake. At about 10 minutes
before 10 P. M. of the evening of the 4th of April (Saturday),
and without any previous warning that we had noticed, there

Figure 2. — DarideUa ohacwra Yerrill, enlarged two diametera ; a, upper aur&oe ; 6,

lower surface.
Figure 3. — ^Egga of D, o^Mmro, enlarged two diameters.




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C, H. F. Peters — Discovery of a new Planet 409

occurred first, a moderate shock not of any peculiar force and
consisting of a single vibration ; this was momentary. In about
two minutes afterward a very sharp movement toot place, giv-
ing the impression of a lateral motion from north to soutL
The table on which I had my elbow at the time seemed to recede
about li to 2 inches, quiver an instaut and return to its place:
the beams of the houses creaked like the timbers of a ship in
heavy weather. Doors and windows flew open. Those who
were* in bed at the time seemed to feel it much more, and the
effect of the vibrations was to make many *'sea sick" This
shock, they tell me, was the sharpest known here since 1826. I
cannot learn of any damage done to buildings in the city.

The unquietness of the earth continued from the time men-
tioned until nearly 11 P. M., with a species of shuddering mo-
tion scarcely perceptible unless one were lying down. There
was heard with each shock, a peculiar muflBiea rushing sound, not
as clear and distinct as the mo\ ement of wind, but something
like it At the moment of the principal shock I looked at my
watch and found the time to be ten minutes of ten — Bogota
time. Time however, here, is not well regulated, as the observ-
atory possesses no instruments and is neglected. The direction
of the movement was very distinct from the north to the south.
As earthquakes rarely have their centers in Columbia and are
generally the result of action in Ecuador, it may be advisable
to connect this observation with notices from that country. I
believe there is but one volcano in action in Colombia-Purac^.

Some nights since we noticed for two hours after sunset in
the west, and nearlv in the range of Tolima, a well defined
column or line of light, on the Cordillera. This bore about due
west The character of the light I could not determine.

Legation of the Uniied States, Bogota, June 6, 1870.



Art. XLVHL — Discovery of anew Planet y the 112fA, named Iphi-
genia; by Dr. C. H. F. Peters, of the Litchfield Observatory of
Hamilton College. Letter to the Editors, dated Clinton, Oneida
Co., K Y., Sept. 22, 1870.

I HAVE the pleasure to communicate the following observations
upon an asteroid discovered on the night of the 19tn inst.

App. Deol.



1910


H»m. Coll. m.t.


APP.A.R.




h m


b m B


Sept 19.


16 30 —


1 2 36


" 20.


14 67 28


1 I 61-64


•' 21.


10 48 22


1 I 12-24



+ 10 16 — (approx. by estimation).
+ 10 13 30-8 10 comp. W. 0»» 1079.
+ 10 10 68-9 10 oomp. Sq^j. 374.

The planet is about 11th magnitude, receives the number (112),
and I nave already given a name to it, Iphigenia, while that
found on Aug. 14, (111), has been called Ate^ with regard to the
simultaneous events in Europe.

Am. Joub. Sol— Siooin> Sbbibs, Vol. L, No. 160.— Nov., 1870.
26



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410 Von Eichtho/en — Geological Mcploraiions in China,



Abt. XLIX. — Qeologiccd ExploroHons in China; by Baron
von RiCHTHOFBN. In a letter to Pro£ J. D. Whitnet, dated
Peking, Aug. 20tb, 1869, and oommonicated by bim for tbis
Journal

I PBOMiSED you, a few days ago, a more detailed account of
tbe geological results of my travels in Mancburia and tbe pro-
vince of Cni-li tban I wisbea to give before baving visited at least
some of tbe localities near Peking examined before by Pumj>elly.
I bave done tbis and am now acquainted witb tbe most important
formations occurring in tbe neighborbood of tbis capital

Tbe soutbem province of Mancburia bas tbe name Sbing-Kng
and is divided Dy tbe Liao river into Liao-tung and Liao-bsi

fceaning East and West of tbe Liao). Tbe course of mv travels
m May to July was as follows : from Cbifu by sea to Nm-cbaiig,
at tbe moutb of tbe Liao ; tbence by land down tbe western and
up tbe soutbeastem coast of Liao-tung, to tbe frontier of Corea,
tben to tbe nortbeast, along this frontier, and to Mukden; from
Mukden I went to Peking by Kin-cban and Yung-ping.

Tbere are certain circumstances wbicb render tbe geology of
nortbem Cbina difficult. In tbe first place tbe extent of tbe
country is very great, and tbe cbaracter of tbe formations cbanges
no less in tbe different provinces of it tban it does in otber regions
of tbe globe. One is easily inclined, on a bastj tour of reconnoia-
sance, to compare tbe strata in various regions on litbological
grounds. But if I bear in mind tbe erroneous conclusions arrived
at in tbe European Alps, by geolonsts wbo endeavored to deter-
mine tbe age of tbe sedimentary donations on tbe strengtb of
tbeir litbological resemblance to tbe formations of otber parts of
Europe, I tbmk I cannot be cautious enougb in tbis new country.
Litbological analogy can bere be used as a safe guide only wben
carefully traced from province to province and so on to remote
regions. Tben tbere is tbe apparent absence of any great geologi-
cal events creating disturbances simultaneously over tbe wbole
region. Ancient deposition continued in one place wbile it was
interrupted in anotber by tbe dislocation of tbose strata previously
deposited. Anotber difficulty is tbe scarcity of fossils. I dare
say tbat, witb the exception of a few plants of tbe Coal-measurea,
I nave discovered all localities of fossils now known to exist Yet,
if it is considered tbat I never received any knowledge of tbeir
existence (excepting Lake Tai-bu) not even tbe slightest bint, from
either native or foreigner, but tbat I had to discover every fossil
myself in hurrying uirough tbe country, it will still be found sur-
prising, tbat tbe number of known fossiliferous localities is so
great. I believe tbat Cbina will, on a closer examination, contri-
bute largely to tbe knowledge of tbe most ancient animal life on
tbe globe. Tbere is anotber difficulty caused by tbe recurrence,
at diffisrent levels, of strata which bear a close similarity to each
other. This relates chiefly to certain quartzose sandstones of a



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Von Jtitchtho/en — Oeological JExploraHons in China. 411

reddish or yellow color when converted into quartzite. They have
often a thickness of thousands of feet, and, as they are less anected
by denudation than many other stratified rocks, they frequently
compose mountain ranges for themselves, without offering any
clue for determining their stratigraphical position. This b also
true, though in a far less degree, of the limestones. In regard to
these, as also to the knowledge of the occurrence of fossils, the
analogy with the history of the exploration of the European Alps
is striking. One cannot be astonished that the first explorer of
Chinese geology, though a most admirable observer, should have
distinguished oxilv one great limestone formation in China, and
referred it all to that age (namely, the Devonian) to which all the
fossils then known (namel3r, those which are sold in drug stores)
were believed to belong ; just as '' the Alpine limestone " was un-
til not very long ago a comprehensive term used to designate all
the limestones occurring at different geological levels in the Alps.
Tou may recollect that already my observations on the Yang-tse
induced me to distinguish there at least three limestone iorma^
tions. Since then I have come to the conclusion that it will not
be difficult, on detailed examination, to establish in other regions
a greater number at distinct levels.

It is for the various reasons mentioned, that I examined every
mountainous country independently from what I had seen before,
applying new terms for the different formations observed, and
tried to establish the analogy between different regions only after
having completed the exploration of each. The series of forma-
tions, as established on tne Yane-tse, has found thereby a great
deal of additional support and, I think, will prove to be a near
approxiuiation to the true order of succession.

In my two previous letters (March Ist and May 8th) I mentioned
my having found Carboniferous fossils on the Yang-tse and in
Shantung, m certain limestones and shales which occur there in
close connection with the Coal-measures, or indeed form part of
them. They mark there a veiy distinct and remarkable horizoa
I did not find any corresponding fossils in Manchuria or ChilL
There, however, I was fortunate enough to collect sufficient mate-
rial for determining the age of a formation which corresponds,
stratigraphically and Utholo^cally, with the lowest ("Matsu")
limestone on the Yang-tse and the formation mentioned as No. 2
of Shantung in my letter of May 8th. It has a thickness of many
thousand feet, and is, lithologieally, exceedingly varied. It con-
sists of endless alternations of red micaceous argyllite and brown
sandstone, with strata of limestone, the former two prevailing in
the lower half^ the latter in the upper portioa The limestone it-
self presents a large number of varieties, and one can distinguish,
on purely lithological grounds, several horizons, the order of suc-
cession of which 18 simiLtr in wide regions. One of these horizons
is marked by black o&litic limestone, which, together with some
other conspicuous varieties of limestone, extends aom the Yang-tse
to Liao-tung and to Peking (twelve degrees of latitude and ten
of longitude).



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412 Von JRichthofen — Geological Mrphraitons in Qitncu

On the frontier of Corea, this oolitic limeBtone aboands in the
remains of Trilobites and small brachiopods, chiefly of the Orthis
and Linsula families. The sediments were there deposited in in-
lets of the ancient sea between ridges consisting chiefly of eneiss,
granite and quartzite. The accumulation of the shells of trilo-
bites which took place in these protected abodes is astonishing.
I collected quite a number of species, but nothing adequate to the
material which I saw, as several circumstances, chiefly the danger
of being cut off by torrents swelled by the copious rains of the
season, made it necessary to hurry over the most prolific localities.
Yet, I hope that it will now be possible to determine the age of
one of the most important formations of Northern China. It
predominates, in bult, over all other sedimentary formations of
Lio-tung and extends thence into Corea. In Liao-tsi, it appears
to have been removed by denudation to a great extent, it ap-
pears only in places, and even in these it is often covered by
porphyries. Again it takes a dominent part in the structure
of the country in the province of Chi-li, chiefly between Yung-
ping-pu and Peking, becoming, however, more and more met-
amorphosed with the approach to the latter city. Its lime-
stones (that is, its upper portion) form the narrows which lead to
the Nankan pass. Tney are intensely altered, and traversed by
innumerable dykes of intrusive rocks. What Pumpelly describes
as the Ilwaingan beds, are probably the lower strata of this same
great formation.

In Liao-tung, as in Shan-tung, the oolitic limestones carrying
the trilobites, are overlain by a great thickness of limestone, which
is immediately followed by the Coal-measures. In Liao-tun^, I
found no fossils in this limestone, excepting numerous Ammomtes
and Orthoceratites, which cannot be determined. They occur im-
mediately below the coal-bearing strata, the conformable superpo-
sition of which on the limestone I observed in a number of places.
There are localities, such as northwestern Shan-tung and south-
em Liao-tung, where there is an apparently uninterrupted series of
sedimentary deposits, commencing with sandstones and shales
thousands of feet lower than the oolitic limestone and ending with
the Coal-measures. Every layer appears to be conformable to that
which it overlies, but no such parallelism exists between the
lower and upper portions of the series, a gradual change of inclin-
ation marking the former gradual changes of level It is not
improbable that in these localities the entire series of formations,
from the Silurian to the Coal-measures, is represented. It is in
these regions that the order of succession wUl have to be studied.
There are, however, more numerous instances where the outbreaks
first of granitic and then of porphyric rocks, which extended
evidently over long periods, have created repeated disturbances.
The vicinity of Peking has been among the theaters of the most
intense eruptive action. But even here the Coal-measures are con-
formable to the underlying limestones, in all instances which came
under my observation.



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Chemistry and Physics, 418

I am unable to pronounce at present an opinion on the relation
of the northern Coal-measures to those of Shan-tung and the lower
Yang-tse. The remains of plants which 1 collected in nearly
every one of the northern coal-fields will probably help to elucidate
this question* But, judging on mere stratigraphical grounds, I
cannot help thinking, that the Coal-measures of Liao-tung and
Liao-hsi, and the lower portion of those in the neighborhood of
Peking, will not differ much in age, either among themselves, or
as compared with the Coal-measures of Middle CMna, It is, how-
ever, a noteworthy fact, that the coal formation of Peking has an
extraordinary development. I had only occasion to see those
coal-bearing strata which lie immediately on the limestone. West
of Peking, these strata, together with the limestone and a few
thousand feet of superincumbent deposits, have undergone an in-
tense metamorphbm, the coal being converted into anthracite. It
appears, from Mr. Pumpelly's description, that the Chaitung Coal-
measures (which I did not visit) occupy a, geologically, much
higher level Altogether it may be safe to conclude, mat in China,
as in other countries, the deposition of coal and intervening sedi-
ments continued during a considerable period, in which it shitted
to different regions. Yet, I must confess, that comparison on
stratigraphical grounds makes it difficult to believe that any por-
tion of the Coal-measures of Northern China should be of so re-
cent age as Dr. Newberry was inclined to conclude on the strength
of the vegetable remains which he determined.



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

I. CHEMISTBY AND PHYSICS.

1. On the influence of electricity on air and oxyaen as a means
of producing ozone. — Houzbau has drawn the foUowing conclu-
sions from a great number of estimations of ozone obtained by
means of Ruhmkorff's apparatus.

( I .) The production ot ozone is greater in air renewed from time
to time than in confined air.

(2.) It is greater at the negative than at the positive pole.

(3.) The production of ozone increases only up to a certain point
with the duration of the electric action.

(4.^ The ozone increases with the electric intensity.

(5.^ The ozone diminishes when the distance which separates
the electrodes increases.

(6.) The production of ozone varies with the length or surface
of the electrodes.

(7.) Other conditions being equal, the production of ozone is
greater by utilizing the effect of tne two electrodes.

(8.) The production of ozone is equally manifested, out of direct
contact with the air, with metallic electrodes, when these last are
surrounded for their whole lengths with tubes of thin glass play-



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414 Scleniific Intelligence.

ing the part of insulating sheaths, whether the extremities of
these tubes are closed or not.

(9.) Still the production of ozone resulting from the passage of
air over the naked metallic electrodes (direct contact with the pla-
tinum wires) is greater than that which arises from the passage of
the air round the same electrodes, when sheathed and closed, (no
direct contact of the air with the naked metallic electrodes).

(10.) With closed sheathed electrodes the production of ozone
varies equally with the length or surface gf the metallic electrodes.

(11.) The production of ozone increases considerably with a dim-
inution of the temperature at which the electrification of the air is
effected.

(12.^ All conditions being equal, the quantity of ozone produ-
ced with a definite volume of oxygen, is always much more con-
siderable (about eight or ten times) than that furnished by the
same volume of air.

(13.) The ozone produced by the obscure electrification of air,
is accompanied by small quantities of nitrous compounds, while
that which is furnished by pure oxygen under the same circum-
stances, contains only traces. By attention to the conditions above
described, the author has been able to construct a new apparatus,
which he calls an ozonizer, and with which, according to nis state-
ment, quantities of ozone hitherto unknown, may be prepared.
The apparatus is not described in the paper from which our ex-
tract IS takea — Commtes Hendus^ Ixx, 1 286. w. g.

2. JResearches on Platinum. — ScHtJrzBNBEROER has communica-
ted to the Academy of Sciences further investigations of the re-
markable compounds of platinum with carbonic oxyd, already
noticed in this Journal, and has in addition described some new
series of great interest and theoretical importanca Setting out
with the view that the two compounds already described,

CO
COi=PtCljj, and i/>PtClg,* may be regarded as the chlorids

of two diatomic radicals, the author found that ammonia unites
with each compound, forming the two new chlorids represented
respectively by the formulas,

NaHj.CO.PtClg, and N^He . (CO)^^ . PtClg.
When heated these compounds fuse, yielding metallic platinum,
nitrogen, hydrogen and sal-ammoniac, together with a volatile
liquid having a penetrating odor which appears to be chlorid of
formyl, COHCl. The compound CO . PtClj absorbs dry ethylene
and forms a yellow crystalline body, which has probably the for-
mula CjH^ . CO . PtClj, and may be regarded as corresponding to
the dicarboxyl compound (CO)^ . PtClj, C^H^ replacing CO.
When heated above 96° C. this body gives off chlorhydric acid,
while a dark colored body remains insoluble in water and having
the formula C2H3CI . CO . PtCl^, so that it contains monochlorin-
ated ethylene in place of ethylene.

Phosphorous chlorid, PCI3, like carbonic oxyd, unites readily

♦ Pt=l9t 0=12 0=16.



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Chemistry and Physics. 415

with platinous chlorid, forming a solid reddish-yellow substance,
Toiatne with difScnlty, fdsing at about 200°, and soluble in phos-
phorous chlorid, from which it crystallizes in cooling. The com-
position of this body is represented by the formula PCI3 . PtClg.
The same substance is formed by heating one atom of platinum
with one molecule of phosphoric chlorid, PCL-j-Pt=PCl3 . PtClg,
and also by the action of rCU upon CO. PtCl^, CO being given
off The compound PCI3 . PtCl, dissolves in water with a yellow
color, forming a new complex acid, P(H0)3PtCl2, and differs
essentially from the body described by Baudrimont, which accor-
ding to that chemist, has the formula PCI5 . PtClg, (Pt=98-5).
In a later communication to the Academy, Schtltzenberger gives
the formulas and names of a series of very remarkable substances
which he has obtained from the primitive, PCI 3 . PtCl^ ; these are
as follows :

PCI3 . PtClg chlorid of trichloro-phosphoplatinum.

P(H0)5i . PtClj phospho chloro-piatinous acid.

P(A90)3 . PtCljj silver salt of the same.

P(CgHjO)3 . PtClj, chlorid of trioxethyl-phospho platinum.



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 100 of 109)